Inside Bauhaus

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TABLE OF CONTENTSCOVERby wang phan

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INSIDE

CHRONOLOGY191920The Bauhaus, founded in Weimar 1919 by Walter Gropius. The Bauhaus experiences first public hostility. The attacks are ideological, but flare up in the context of artistic issues.

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TABLE OF CONTENTSby kimberlee osmun

21 22 2324 25

Gropius and Adolf Meyer build the Haus Sommerfeld in Berlin in an expressionist style. It is the first project involving the aspired unity of arts in architecture.

CHRONOLOGY .......................... 1by greg ciro tornincasa

HISTORY ..................................... 2by sandra bradley

Gropius restructures his ideas as to the aims of the Bauhaus. The major focus is directed towards reflecting on industrial methods of production and their consequences for design.

THE ARTISTS ............................... 6by wang phan & kimberlee osmun

Preparations start for the Bauhaus Exhibition, planned as a first comprehensive public account of the schools activities. Gropius coins his new concept in the slogan Art and technology - a new unity and thereby recognizes industry as a decisive power of the

BRADLEY MANIFESTO ............ 13by sandra bradley

The Circle of Friends of the Bauhaus is founded in order to offer moral and practical support for the school. Under political and financial pressure, the masters decide to close the school in April of 1925.

BAUHAUS CONCEPTS ............ 17by greg ciro tornincasa

Gropius proclaims a new program dominated by the importance of industry and science for design. In March, the municipal council of Dessau, on the initiative of the Lord Mayor Fritz Hesse, decides to take over the Bauhaus as a municipal school.

FEELING BAUHAUS ................. 23kimberlee osmun

2627 28 29 30 31 32

On December 4, over 1,000 guests attend the opening of the new school building in Dessau designed by Gropius and equipped by the Bauhaus workshops. The spectacular new buildings - as well as the school building the houses for the Bauhaus masters and the housing project in Dessau - achieve international fame. A department for architecture is set up under the guidance of Hannes Meyer. Klee and Kandinsky give courses in free painting; the first purely artistic courses to be available.

LOVE TRIANGLES .................... 27by wang phan

BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................ 31by greg ciro tornincasa

Gropius resigns from the Bauhaus in April to go to Berlin to work as an architect. Moholy-Nagy, Bayer, and Breuer also quit the school.

BACK COVER

A department for photography is created under Peterhans. Ludwig Hilberseimer is appointed to the building department.

by greg ciro tornincasaBauhaus wallpaper is put on the market and becomes the most successful commercial product of the school.

The elections for the municipal council of Dessau take place. The first point of their election campaign concerns cutting financial support to the Bauhaus and the demolition of its buildings. The school counts 14 students. Kandinsky, Albers, Hilberseimer, Reich, and Peterhans are still on the teaching staff. A bill was passed to close the Bauhaus school. Mies van der Rohe decides to continue the school as a private institute in Berlin. On April 11, at the start of the summer semester, the Bauhaus building undergoes a police search and is placed under seal. 32 students are temporarily arrested. On July 20, the final dissolution of the Bauhaus is decided upon at a staff conference. The most prominent Bauhaus teachers emigrated over to the United States and through parts of Europe.

1933

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HISTORYROOTS OF BAUHAUS:Bauhaus can be traced to the the Deutsches Werkbund movement in Germany which sought to elevate the production of everyday objects from utilitarian to art. Werkbund gathered architects, artists, factory owners and art patrons together in 1097 to provide impetus and financial support to experimental design, architecture, textile, furniture design, and fine art. It failed. Walter Gropius, a German architect, was a leader of the Werkbund movement. And he rekindled the Werkbund intentions and philosophy when he was invited to head a new school in Weimer, Germany. This new school resulted in the merger the Weimer Art Academy and the Weimer Arts and Crafts which, in 1919, became the Bauhaus school.

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GROPIUS MANIFESTO:Here is the excerpt from the manifesto: wThe ultimate aim of all creative activity is a building! The decoration of buildings was once the noblest function of fine arts, and fine arts were indispensable to great architecture. Today they exist in complacent isolation, and can only be rescued by the conscious co-operation and collaboration of all craftsmen. Architects, painters, and sculptors must once again come to know and comprehend the composite character of a building, both as an entity and in terms of its various parts. Then their work will be filled with that true architectonic spirit which, as salon art, it has lost. ... Architects, painters, sculptors, we must all return to crafts! For there is no such thing as professional art. There is no essential difference between the artist and the craftsman. The artist is an exalted craftsman. ... Let us therefore create a new guild of craftsmen without the class-distinctions that raise an arrogant barrier between craftsmen and artists! Let us desire, conceive, and create the new building of the future together. It will combine architecture, sculpture, and painting in a single form.

BAUHAUS, [ ger., lit. Architecture House, From Bau = Building

(Bauen=to Build) + Haus = house.

J O O S T S C H M I D T P O S T E R F O R T H E 19 2 3 B A U HAUS EXHIBITION IN WEIMAR

BAUHAUS GOALS:1) Encourge the individual artisan and craftmans to work cooperatively and combine their skills; 2) Elevate the status of crafts, chairs, lamps, teapots, etc., to the same level enjoyed by fine arts, painting, scultping, etc., 3) Eventually gain independence from government support by selling designs to industry. WALTER GROPIUS BAUHAUS MANIFESTO WOODCUT C O V E R L Y O N E L F E I N I N G E R 1919

POLITICAL CLIMATE:Germany was defeated in WWI, the economy collapsed and it seemed evident that a new order of thinking would be necessary in order to bring Germany, and the rest of Europe, back to stability. While some looked to Marxism, others to fascism, all seemed to turn against the bourgeois ideals of capitalism. The worker became the new Hero. Fulfilling his needs became the Mission of the intellectuals and planners of the new order.

BAUHAUS SCHOOL:The origins of Bauhaus were far from the earlier methods of education in industrial art, art proper and architecture. Its program was based on the newest knowledge in pedagogy. The idealistic basis of Bauhaus was a socially orientated program. An artist must be conscious of his social responsibility to the community, on the other hand, the community has to accept the artist and support him. The Bauhaus faculty came from all over Europe, and included Josef Albers, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Johannes Itten, Wassilly Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Marcel Breuer, Lyonel Feiniger, and Hannes Meyer. The basic idea of the Bauhaus teaching concept was the unity of artistic and practical tuition. Every student had to complete a compulsory preliminary course, after which he or she had to enter a workshop of his or her choice. There were several types of workshops available: metal, wood sculpture, glass painting, weaving, pottery, furniture, cabinet making, three-dimensional work, typography, wall painting, some others.

THE BAUHAUS BUILDING SEEN FROM THE SOUTH WEST B A C K C O V E R O F A B R O C H U R E F O R T H E C I T Y O F D E S S A U I N 19 3 1 B Y JOOST SCHMIDT

BAUHAUS CHARACTERISTICS IN GRAPHIC DESIGN:Geometric, functional and modern Order, asymmetry Rectangular grid structure Circles, squares, rectangles, triangles, bars, and rules to unify or separate elements versus being used for decoration Horizontals and verticals were dominant Extreme contrast in type size and weight to achieve various degrees of emphasis Type and pictures sized to the same column width Typography without capitals - San Serif Introduction of flush left - rag right typography Copy rotated 90 degrees Only structurally essential components used Elementary forms and the use of black plus one bright hue Color tints emphasize key words Open composition on an implied grid system of sizes for type, rules, and pictorial images brought unity to the designs

BAUHAUS EMBRACED:The industrial age and the workshops were the birthplaces of new industrial designs. For example, thousands of experiments with textiles were performed. Many of them were adopted by the factories for production, and they were also eagerly copied. Photography was taken more seriously as an art form. Innovation ran rampant through the Bauhaus resulting in a multitude of advances affecting the most basic aspects of life. If youve ever sat on a chair with a tubular steel frame, used an adjustable reading lamp, or lived in a house partly or entirely constructed from prefabricated elements, you have benefited from a revolution in design largely brought about by the Bauhaus.

A R I A N N E B R A N D T S M A L L T E A - E S S E N C E P O T 19 2 4

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HISTORYBAUHAUS DEMISE:Bauhaus in general was not embraced by the public, industry, nor government. The Nazis saw Bauhaus as haven for Jews, Bolsheviks, and cosmopolitan nonGerman viewpoints . In 1932, the Nazis gained control of city parliament, and forced the Bauhaus school to close. And by April 1933, Bauhaus was no more in Germany. L A S Z L O M O H O L Y - N A G Y, U N T I T L E D C O N S T R