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Electronic Toll Collection Systems. Insert photo: 9.64 mm high x 25.4 mm wide. Agenda. 01 Approach for Introducing Tolling 02 Objectives of Toll Collection 03 Tolling Schemes 04 ETC Technologies 05 Value Added Applications 06 Success Factors - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


ETC-based ITS Applications

Insert photo:9.64 mm high x 25.4 mm wideElectronic Toll Collection Systems

Kapsch TrafficCom||Titel der PrsentationUntertitel der Prsentation02.12.2009Nr.Kapsch TrafficCom||Electronic Toll CollectionNr.Agenda01 Approach for Introducing Tolling02 Objectives of Toll Collection03 Tolling Schemes04 ETC Technologies05 Value Added Applications06 Success Factors 07 Facts & Figures: A and CZ 16.06.2010Kapsch TrafficCom||Electronic Toll CollectionNr.Kapsch TrafficCom||Electronic Toll CollectionNr.Kapsch TrafficCom SnapshotScope of business:Turn-key solutions, component sales and operations of road infrastructure related ITS solutions (focus: electronic toll collection systems)16 years of experience in electronic tolling (218 references in 35 countries)Offering:Research & development of core technologies, systems & products (own manufacturing); system planning, implementation, integration & roll-out; technical & commercial operations of systemsSelected references:Truck tolling system ATruck tolling system CZAll vehicle tolling (Melbourne, AUS)Number of employees:1000+ worldwideLocations:Headquarters in Vienna (Austria)Development centers in Austria, Argentina, Sweden and USASales offices in 23 countries16/06/2010Kapsch TrafficCom||Electronic Toll CollectionNr.Approach when Introducing Tolling 1) Definition of the transport policy objectives and the legal basisWork out of a toll master plan defining the policy (What are the objectives of the toll?) Work out of a toll legislation (toll act) defining the necessary rules, principles and administrative procedures (How is the toll defined fee vs. tax? Who is entitled to collect toll? Who is in charge of compliance checking and enforcement (e.g. police, customs, etc.)?)

2) Definition of the tolling schemeDepending on the objectives defined by the toll master plan an appropriate scheme has to be selected which best reflects the aims of the toll collection system (Who has to pay toll? Which roads/zones/objects will be tolled? Distance-/Time-based? Tariffs? etc.)

3) Selection of the technologyThe selection of the base technology has to be in line with the scheme to be implemented and should reflect the specific requirements of a given country for the entire life-time of the system

16.06.2010Kapsch TrafficCom||Electronic Toll CollectionNr.Objectives of Toll CollectionI. Financing of traffic Typically a mixture of financial tools is being applied (tolling is one of them) Fair pay per use principle Provides a maximum in flexibility in pursuing specific transport policy aims (traffic management, environmental protection)

II. Traffic management Making users more aware of the costs of road use Regulating traffic demand Static, variable, and dynamic pricing

III. Environmental protectionMore and more tolling plays an essential role in the greening of transportAllows to cut down emissions by reducing trafficAllows to promote low emission engines through low tariffs


Kapsch TrafficCom||Electronic Toll CollectionNr.Tolling Schemes - Overview16/06/2010City centersFinancing, traffic management, environmental protectionTolling, access restriction, low emission zonesStatic or variable pricing or driving bans/restricted accessAll vehiclesShort range/ANPRExamples: London, Stockholm, Bergamo, MunichUrban Tolling & Access Restriction

Highways / federal roads (/rural roads) Financing, traffic management, environmental protectionDistance-based or time-basedTruck-tolling /all vehicle tollingShort range communication, GNSS, or HybridExample: CZ, D, AUS, CH, I, FNetworkTolling

ObjectTollingTunnels, bridges, or highway concessionsFinancingPassage based pricing Conventional tolling (manual / ETC single lanes)All vehiclesExamples: resund bridge (S-DK), Tauerntunnel (A)

Kapsch TrafficCom||Electronic Toll CollectionNr.16.06.2010Men "Kopf- und Fuzeile" gewnschten Text eingeben6 |Hier knnen Notizen eingefgt werden.Network Tolling Schemes16.06.2010HighwayTolling

Tolling of highways and main roadsDistance-basedTolling of trucks and passenger carsMulti-lane free-flowShort range communication (e.g. DSRC), GNSS, or HybridExamples: A, CZ, D, AUS, I, F, Area-wideTollingTolling of federal / rural roads (large networks)Distance-basedTolling of trucks (passenger cars?)GNSS, Hybrid, TachographExample: CH

VignetteTolling of highways and main roadsTime-basedTolling of passenger cars (trucks also possible)Sticker tag or e-Vignette (e.g. DSRC)Examples: A, CZ, CH,

HOT-laneTollingTolling of high occupancy tolling lanesCurrently US onlyGuaranteed level of serviceDynamic pricing (maximize throughput)Short range communicationExample: I394 (Minneapolis)

Kapsch TrafficCom||Electronic Toll CollectionNr.Urban Tolling & Access Restriction Schemes

CityTollingCongestion zone or cordon Reduction of traffic (general and/or peak hours)Static, variable, dynamic pricingANPR/Short range Examples: London, Stockholm

Low Emission ZoneLow emission zonesEU directive on PM10 limits (50 g/m3)In EU 60+ cities General driving ban or pricing schemePollution sensitive and/or vehicle sensitive ANPR/Short rangeExamples: Milan, London, Munich

Open Zone Parking On-street parking in zones Time-based pricing scheme Can be user sensitive ANPR/Short range

16/06/2010AccessRestrictionResidential areas, historical centresAccess permission for selected users (residents, taxis, delivery trucks) ANPR/Short range Examples: Bergamo, Turin

Kapsch TrafficCom||Electronic Toll CollectionNr.

ETC MLFF TechnologiesShort-range communication ETC systems:EU: 5.8 GHz CEN DSRC (US: 915 MHz/5.9 GHz WAVE)Standardized (e.g. 5.8 CEN DSRC) > InteroperabilityLow cost onboard unitsLow operational costs (no over-the-air data transfer)Highest accuracyRoadside stations neededInfrastructure can be shared with other applications

Satellite positioning ETC systems:GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems)GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO Thin client vs. thick client More expensive onboard unit Higher operational costs (over-the-air data transfer)No roadside equipment (flexibility)

Video ETC systems:ANPR (Automated Number Plate Recognition)Vehicles dont have to be equipped with an onboard unitIdeal for city environmentsManual verification needed (no 100% capturing rate) 16.06.2010

Hybrid DSRC/GNSS ETC systems

Hybrid DSRC/ANPR ETC systemsKapsch TrafficCom||Electronic Toll CollectionNr.Choosing the right ETC Technology (ETC Technology Matrix)

Tolled roads, zone, object

Tolled vehiclesCommercial vehicles > 12t+ Commercial vehicles > 3.5t+ Passenger carsNation-wide tollingHighwaysShort range communication (GNSS)Short range communication (GNSS)Short range communication+ Federal roadsGNSS(Short range communication)GNSS(Short range communication)Short range communication / GNSS+ Rural roadsGNSSGNSSEconomical efficiency?Urban tolling/ accessCity zone(s)Short range communication /ANPRShort range communication /ANPR Short range communication /ANPRObject tollingBridge, tunnel, highway sectionShort range communication /ANPR Short range communication /ANPRShort range communication /ANPR16.06.2010

Tolled roads, zone, object

Tolled vehiclesCommercial vehicles > 12t+ Commercial vehicles > 3.5t+ Passenger carsNation-wide tollingHighwaysShort range communication (GNSS)Short range communication (GNSS)Short range communication+ Federal roadsGNSS(Short range communication)GNSS(Short range communication)Short range communication / GNSS+ Rural roadsGNSSGNSSEconomical efficiency?Urban tolling/ accessCity zone(s)Short range communication /ANPRShort range communication /ANPR Short range communication /ANPRObject tollingBridge, tunnel, highway sectionShort range communication /ANPR Short range communication /ANPRShort range communication /ANPRHybrid sample: DSRC GNSSKapsch TrafficCom||Electronic Toll CollectionNr.Sidestep: Economical Efficiency of Nation-wide Toll Systems16.06.2010Highways Federal roads (Bundestraen)Ratio (highways/federal roads)Network size (km)

12,59440,41631%Annual traffic performance (billion km)

225,3106,8211%Average daily traffic1 (vehicles/24h)

56,18812,658444%Average daily HGV traffic1 (heavy goods vehicles/24h)

8,0021,033775%Heavy goods vehicles / all vehicles ratio (%)

14,24%8,16%175%1 Mean over all available automated counting points

Source: BASt Bundesanstalt fr Straenwesen, GermanyAn important aspect of a toll collection system is its economical meaningfulness. Economical efficiency is given if revenues which can be gained on different road networks and by different user classes as well as the decreasing external costs (e.g. less congestion) outweigh the costs related to the collection of the toll considerably. Characteristics of highways and other main roads are high traffic volume, long distances driven by users, and a high percentage of truck traffic resulting in a maximum of achievable toll incomes with relatively low costs. ( high economical efficiency)The lower road networks are characterized by low traffic volume, rather short distances driven by vehicles, and a higher percentage of passenger cars compared to highway traffic. ( low to medium economical efficiency)

HGV Passenger cars Ratio (HGV/PC)Average toll/km

0,26 EUR (A)0,16 EUR (CZ)0,03-0,05 EUR 500%(0,20/0,04)Road network length and uitilization (HGV/PC)Average toll / km (HGV/PC)Truck tolling on highways provides the highest economical efficiencyKapsch TrafficCom||Electronic Toll CollectionNr.Sample System: Kapsch Highway (5.8 GHz CEN DSRC)Overview:Kapsch Highway is a DSRC-based system for multi-lane free-flow tolling and e-Vignettes of all kind of vehicles (HGV, LGV, busses, cars) on highways, expressways and even secondary main roads

How it works:Users are equipped with am easy-to-install low-cost OBURoadside stations capture all passages of vehicle with an OBUTransactions are send via WAN to a central system for further processing

Characteristics:Matured and reliable technology Highest accuracyLow operational costsOptimal choice for systems with high number of users DSRC = Proven, standardized and interoperable base technology (CEN TC278; EU Directive 2004/52/CE) Infrastructure can be shared with other applicationsToll SectionToll Station

16/06/2010Kapsch TrafficCom||Electronic Toll CollectionNr.

Sample System: Kapsch Area (Hybrid DSRC/GNSS)Overview:Kapsch Area is a hybrid system based on GNSS/GPRS and DSRC technologies; it allows a combination of DSRC tolling on highways and other main roads and GNSS tolling where roadside infrastructure possibilities are limited

How it works:Vehicles are equipped with a hybrid DSRC/GNSS OBUOBU works in short-range mode on DSRC routesOBU automatically switches to GNSS/GSM on other roadsPure GNSS operation is possible too

Characteristics:Hybrid systemThin client system (cost effective OBU, central tariff & map updates) High flexibility (easy adding of new toll objects)High accuracy (optimized map matching)High security (encryption of all data)16/06/2010Kapsch TrafficCom||Electronic Toll CollectionNr.Sample System: Kapsch City (DSRC/ANPR)Overview:Kapsch City is a multi-lane free-flow system for urban areas based on ANPR only or combined DSRC+ANPR technology allowing to implement city charging, low emission zones, as well as access & parking schemes

How it works:Vehicle passages are captured by ANPR/DSRC poles at zone entries/exitsOccasional users are captured using ANPRFrequent users can be equipped with DSRC OBUs

Characteristics:Support of various schemes like tolling, LEZ (if needed in parallel)Support of various technologies (DSRC+ANPR, ANPR only) Interoperability (CEN DSRC) e.g. with nation-wide highway system Roadside stations can be used for other ITS applications Tags can be used for value added services (access & payment)

KAPSCH CITYUrban TollingAccessRegulationParkingManagementLow EmissionZonesLaw EnforcementAdditional ServicesZone 1Zone 216/06/2010Kapsch TrafficCom||Electronic Toll CollectionNr.EnforcementOverview:Enforcement has to be an integral part of each tolling concept ensuring that fraud is being reduced to a minimum, securing the income of the road operator and ensuring fairness to all road users

How it works:Automated enforcement equipment detects potential violatorsManual verification of incidents in the enforcement centerMobile enforcement is able to catch violators on street and do sporadic on-site checks

Available enforcement systems:Fixed enforcement stations (for permanent compliance checking at strategically important locations)Portable enforcement equipment (> surprise effect)Mobile enforcement vehicles for on-site checks of flowing trafficHandheld devices for manual checks at rest areas etc.Enforcement center (as part of the back office system)

16/06/2010Kapsch TrafficCom||Electronic Toll CollectionNr.Back Office SystemOverview:ETC back office systems provide the entire back office infrastructure needed for toll collection and enforcement

Back office system parts:Operational back officeCommercial back officeMap matching centerData storageSystem operations centerExternal interfacesTelematics applications16/06/2010

Kapsch TrafficCom||Electronic Toll CollectionNr.

AccessPaymentEnd-user Mobility Services

Fleet trackingPay-as-you-drive insuranceIndustry SolutionsPossible ETC-based Value-Adding ITS ApplicationsTraffic monitoringTraffic statisticsTraffic flow analysisTraffic Information, Management & Planning

Electronic Toll Collection SystemSpeed monitoringHazMat trackingTraffic surveillanceSafety & Security

16.06.2010Kapsch TrafficCom||Electronic Toll CollectionNr.16.06.201017 |Success FactorsSystem should ensure a maximum in profitability ( optimize business case)High accuracy for ensuring maximum income (1 billion income p.a.: 0,1% less accuracy 1 million less income!)Low initial system costs (e.g. low cost OBUs)Cost-effective system operation (high automation rate, minimal communication costs etc.)

Future-oriented system concept ( ensure investment protection)Initial concept and technology decision should take future extensions into account (e.g. from HGV to AV tolling or from highway to all road tolling)Ensuring interoperability (e.g. with neighboring countries and local tolling schemes)

Working technology ( minimize project risk)Matured and proven technologyGuaranteeing maximal incomes through high tolling and enforcement quotas Providing scalability with respect to increasing user numbers (AV tolling 5-10 times more transactions than HGV!)Providing flexibility and openness with respect to future requirements (additional roads, traffic telematics)

Professional project management ( ensure in-time system start)Experienced project partner knowing how to implement nationwide charging systemsSingle provider (fully integrated solution rather than a patchwork approach)Professional handling of sub-contr...


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