Input Devices Output Devices Storage Devices Communication Devices Processing Unit.

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    13-Dec-2015

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Slide 2 Input Devices Output Devices Storage Devices Communication Devices Processing Unit Slide 3 The main part of a microcomputer is called the System Unit Most of the processing hardware is on the motherboard Slide 4 The motherboard is the main circuit board in a computer A circuit board is a sheet of fiberglass on which electronic components are soldered These components are connected with traces of copper printed on the surface Slide 5 1 The CPU2 The Chipset 3 Main Memory 4 The System Bus5 The System Clock Five Main Motherboard Components Slide 6 CPU Control Unit ALURegisters The Central Processing Unit has 3 parts Slide 7 The Control Unit Regulates the flow of information Monitors all operations performed by the system Runs Programs: Fetches program instructions from memory Increments the Program Counter Decodes the instruction Executes the instruction Writes results to memory Slide 8 The Arithmetic and Logic Unit Performs all calculations (+, -,*, /) Returns the result of simple logic decisions ( is x > y true or false ?) Calculations can be accelerated by a Floating Point Unit (FPU) Slide 9 Registers A small amount of high-speed memory on the CPU Registers hold the current program instruction and data Very fast but also expensive Slide 10 A chipset is a group of ICs (Integrated Circuits or computer chips) that are designed to support the CPU. On most PC motherboards the chipset has two microprocessors often called the Northbridge and the Southbridge. Slide 11 The Northbridge chip links the CPU to high-speed components like main memory and video controllers. Slide 12 The Southbridge chip then links to lower- speed peripheral devices through connections like PCI or PCI-Express. The Southbridge may also have built-in Ethernet (networking), USB or audio device support Slide 13 In computers, a bus is a set of connections (wires) that is shared by multiple hardware components in order to communicate. Bus A general term for the bus on a motherboard that connects the CPU to all the other components. Also called a local bus. System Bus Slide 14 The main bus between the CPU and main memory typically through the Northbridge. Frontside Bus A common type of local bus that is used to connect the Southbridge chip to peripheral devices such as network expansion cards. PCI Bus Slide 15 CPU Registers Inside the CPU is a small amount of high-speed, expensive computer memory called registers. The registers are used for storing data currently being processed in the CPU Slide 16 Main Memory RamRom CPU Registers Most data is stored in Main Memory. There are two types of Main Memory: RAM & ROM Slide 17 Main Memory RamRom Cache L1L2 CPU Registers Between Main Memory and the CPU is a buffer or temporary storage called cache (pronounced like cash) Cache memory stores data so that future requests for that data from the CPU can be served faster. Slide 18 Slide 19 On the motherboard is a component that generates a clock signal This is a timing signal that synchronizes all data transfer in a computer system. The CPU also executes instructions at a speed set by the clock signal Slide 20 Clock rates are measured in hertz (cycles per second) Household AC current alternates at 60 Hertz German physicist Heinrich Hertz made important scientific contributions to the study of electromagnetism. 1 megahertz (MHz) = 1 million hertz 1 gigahertz (GHz) = 1 billion hertz Slide 21 CPU RAM ROM (BIOS) Southbridge Expansion Slots Northbridge Ports Slide 22

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