Innovations in Cems

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    Process Analytic Division

    Revolutionary

    Innovations inContinuous Emissions Monitoring Systems CEMS)

    November 10, 2004

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    In t roduct ion

    Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems(CEMS) are vital in power plant and processindustries.

    These systems traditionally cause facilities to endure

    high installation and maintenance costs. However, revolutionary innovations now present

    significant cost-saving opportunities to CEMS users.

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    New Inno vat ive CEMS

    Recent CEMS advancements allow emissionmonitoring accuracy and data handling at asignificantly lower cost than with systems createdfrom discrete components through innovationslike:

    Direct stack/duct enclosure mounting

    Split systems

    Smaller enclosures

    Reduced enclosure power requirements

    Plug and Play Ethernet Web-browser interfaces

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    CEMS Designs

    Shelter Approach$150K

    CabinetApproach

    $95K

    Streamlined Field-Mount Approach

    $75K

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    Direct Enclosure Moun t ing

    The elimination of a heated sample line between a sample probe and

    a sample conditioning/analysis system can create significant costsavings and save considerable headaches and process downtime orviolations because:

    The installed cost of heated sample lines is about $100 per foot (theaverage 150-foot line costs about $15,000).

    Sample lines are delicate, require skilled installers and are oftendamaged during installation.

    Sample lines require diligent maintenance on the sample probe.

    Process upsets or process equipment failures can sometimes lead toplugging of the sample line, necessitating its replacement.

    Heated sample lines are long lead-time items, often taking weeks toprocure even in emergency situations.

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    Direct Enclosure Mounting (cont.) Real-time measurements are important for timely feedback on critical

    emission levels.

    With long sample lines the analysis process is delayed, causingpotentially harmful delays in emission level corrections.

    However, close-coupled or direct mounting of sample handling and

    analysis enclosures eliminates the need for a sample line andprovides the following advantages:

    Reduced transport time for sample reading, providing a near-real-timemeasurement signal

    Faster, continuous measurement for efficient pollution reduction system

    control, quicker adjustments, and reduced emission limits violations Elimination of heated sample lines, providing energy savings as they

    typically use 25-50% of energy consumed by the CEMS

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    Spl i t Systems

    Newer CEMS feature a split system architecture of:

    A sample handling system (probe and conditioning station)

    Analysis components

    With sample handling systems mounted on the stack or

    duct, analysis components can be mounted at: Stack

    Base of stack

    Ground level

    Remote buildings

    Other easy to access areas

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    All SampleHandling locatedat base of stack

    Probe Only

    Ground Level Ins tal lat ion Opt ional

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    Shelterless approach

    Analys is EnclosureIns tallat ion

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    Analys is EnclosureIns tallat ion

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    Smal ler Enclosu res

    Smaller, self-contained CEMS enclosures provide a

    compact, field-mountable combustion exhaust gasmeasurement system and offer:

    Installation in limited space locations

    Ratings for unprotected outdoor exposure, eliminating the need

    for concrete pad foundations and expensive shelters Compact, efficient cooling/heating control systems to maintain

    constant temperatures

    Reduce/eliminate building maintenance expenses

    Significant energy savings

    Easier, less expensive installation (cranes and other heavy liftingequipment no longer required)

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    New Ins tal lat ion Opt ion s

    Smaller system size makes Stainless Steelenclosures more affordable

    Great for EMI/RFI environments

    Meets spec requirements for petrochemical facilities

    Skip the box and HVAC

    2x2 Plate-mount for use in limited space situationson interior walls of existing shelters

    Sample handling enclosure can be mounted onoutside of existing shelters.

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    Sample handling directlylocated at the stack

    Unheated sample linesbetween probe andanalyzer/detectors

    Sample Condi t ion ing Enc losu reInstal lat ion

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    Sample Condi t ion ing Enc losu reInstal lat ion

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    Reduced Enclosu re PowerRequirements

    CEMS users now recognize lower powerrequirements through:

    Significant reduction of heating and cooling coststhrough elimination of shelter.

    Lower power magnitudes than traditional systems(500 Watts versus 30,000 Volt-Amps)

    Elimination of heated sample line power draw (18Watts/foot)

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    Use Proven Techno log ies

    New packaging of existing technology

    Benefits of using proven technology:

    Avoid situations where too many changes at one timelimits the diagnosis of root problem

    New packaging is already available using currentlypreferred methods for both sample handling andanalysis.

    Hassles and expenses related to variances or localEPA acceptance of unfamiliar methods are eliminated

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    Proven Sample Hand l ing Techno log ies

    Using proven sample handling techniques also eliminates

    costly troubleshooting and maintenance on new technologies,especially since some new packaging options use the sameproven techniques as conventionally packaged systems.

    Unproven techniques may result in higher costs and significant

    lost uptime due to: Learning curves

    Unavailability of trained and experienced service resources

    Limitation on spare parts

    Higher costs for exotic premium technologies

    Slow service response

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    Sample Cond i t ion ing Enclosu re w i thProven Techno log ies

    Cal/Purge ValveProbe Connection

    Sample Pump

    Filters

    Thermo Electric

    CoolerPermeation Tube

    AC

    I/O Switch Box

    Power Supply

    Peristaltic Pump

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    Proven Sensor Techno log ies

    Eliminate costly diagnostics and maintenance on new

    technologies New packaging options use the same proven techniques as

    conventionally packaged systems

    Use proven EPA Reference Methods

    Proven detectors now available:

    Chemiluminescent NOx

    Nondispersive Infrared (NDIR) CO

    Nondispersive Ultraviolet (NDUV) SO2

    Paramagnetic O2

    Electrochemical O2

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    Electronics Section on Bottom

    Physics Section on Top

    Customer I/O Access

    Gas Fitting Connections

    ConstantTemperature

    Control PeltierCooler/Heater

    NEMA 4X Enclosure

    Analys is Enclosu re Design

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    PC/104 Controller

    Pocket PC

    23 amp UniversalPower Supply

    Electronics

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    Embedded PC

    Choose a system utilizing an industrial computerstandard such as PC-104, as this controllerfeatures:

    Resistance to plant environmental factors such as

    radio frequency interference (RFI), heat and vibration Commercially available parts

    Smaller form factors

    Acceptance as an industrial standard

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    Embedded PC (contd)

    Built-in personal computers (PCs) with DASavailable on CEMS models that provide:

    Automatic function controls

    System limit and failure alarms

    Data averaging for regulatory requirements (40 CFR 60)

    Pollution calculations for diluent corrections, mass emissions

    Status flags for all values, calculations, averages.

    Calibration Logs, Alarm Logs, Emissions Logs

    Calibration correction factors for each analyzer output

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    Embedded PC (contd)

    Months of data can be stored in the embedded PCs and

    can be:

    256 MB flash drive (no moving parts) can hold 3 months data

    Downloaded via a handheld PC

    Accessed remotely through an Ethernet network Network drive access through Windows Explorer

    Windows drive mapping

    Downloaded in Microsoft Excel or Microsoft Word format forfurther analysis and storage

    Interfaced to DCS, Data Acquisition Systems, etc. through OPCSer