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Innovation, Competitiveness and Regional Integration

ASSESSING REG IONAL INTEGRATION IN AFRICA VII

Innovation, Competitiveness and Regional Integration Assessing Regional Integration in Africa VII

9 789211 251241

ISBN 978-92112-51-24-1

African Development Bank GroupAfrican Union

Assessing Regional Integration in Africa (ARIA) VII examines how the three elements of regional integration, innovation and competitiveness are interlinked. It explores the prospects for harnessing them within the framework of Africas normative regional in-tegration development model oriented to foster structural change. The report aims to shed light on innovation and competitiveness in the broader context of development policy and strategy in Africa.

Printed in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia by the ECA Printing and Publishing Unit. ISO 14001:2004 certified Printed on CF (Chlorine Free Paper) 16-00170

Innovation, Competitiveness and Regional Integration

ASSESSING REG IONAL INTEGRATION IN AFRICA VII

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To order copies of Assessing Regional Integration in Africa (ARIA VII):Innovation, Competitiveness and Regional Integration by the Economic Commission for Africa, please contact:

PublicationsEconomic Commission for AfricaP.O. Box 3001Addis Ababa, EthiopiaTel: +251 11 544-9900Fax: +251 11 551-4416E-mail: ecainfo@uneca.orgWeb: www.uneca.org

2016 Economic Commission for Africa, African Union and African Development Bank Group Addis Ababa, EthiopiaAll rights reservedFirst printing March 2016Sales no.: E.16.II.K.1ISBN: 978-92-1-125124-1eISBN: 978-92-1-057903-2

Material in this publication may be freely quoted or reprinted.Acknowledgement is requested, together with a copy of the publication.

Designed and printed in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia by the ECA Printing and Publishing Unit. ISO 14001:2004 certified Printed on CF (Chlorine Free Paper)

The designations employed in this publication and the material presented in it do not imply the ex-pression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the African Development Bank, the African Union Commission or the Secretariat of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgements vii

Foreword ix

Summary, Key Messages and Policy Recommendations 1Report structure 2Key messages 2Policy recommendations 7

Chapter 1: Introduction 11

Chapter 2: Status of Regional Integration in Africa 13Trade integration 13Economic trends 25Financial integration 25Free movement of persons and the right of establishment 27Infrastructure integration 28Peace and security 40References 41

Chapter 3: Regional Integration, Innovation and Competitiveness: A Theoretical Framework and Empirical Highlights 45

Conceptually linking regional integration, innovation and competitiveness 45Revisiting innovation and competitiveness as concepts 48Africas innovation and competitiveness performance 51African countries need innovation-driven growth models 56References 58

Chapter 4: Innovation and the Global Regulatory Regime for Intellectual Property 61IP: Concepts and dilemmas 61Overview of the global intellectual property regime 62Preserving intellectual property policy space in key economic and social sectors 66African initiatives for intellectual property rule-making 69Conclusions and policy messages 77Annex 4.1. Status of subscription by African countries to multilateral intellectual property treaties 78References 80

Chapter 5: Africas Science, Technology and Innovation PoliciesNational, Regional and Continental 83Concept and rationale 83African experience of science, technology and innovation policies 85STI policy performancenot so impressive 93Science, technology and innovation key policy messages 96Annex 5.1. Objectives, priorities and M&E frameworks of African national science, technology

and innovation policies 98References 103

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Chapter 6: Lessons from India and Association of Southeast Asian Nations 105Indian case study 105Association of Southeast Asian Nations case study 113References 121

Notes 122

Boxes

Box 2.1: The Tripartite Free Trade Area Agreement 14Box 2.2. : Innovative approaches to financing infrastructure projects 30Box 2.3.: The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam 34Box 2.4.: Cooperation to reduce roaming charges 35Box 2.5.: The United States Power Africa Initiative 37Box 2.6.: Mining in EAC 38Box 2.7.: The Africa Mining Vision 39Box 2.8.: Minteks role in R&D 40Box 4.1.: The Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health 71Box 4.2.: Traditional knowledge 72Box 4.3.: African Regional Intellectual Property Organization and Organization Africaine de

la Proprit Intellectuelle 73Box 4.3.: African Regional Intellectual Property Organization and Organization Africaine de

la Proprit Intellectuelle (continued) 74Box 4.4.: REC policies: COMESA and SADC 75Box 4.5.: Mercantilist patent filing 76Box 5.1.: Industrial research institutes 88Box 5.2.: Pan African Rinderpest Campaign 90Box 6.1.: Some frugal Indian innovations 108Box 6.2.: Harnessing traditional knowledge in pharmaceutical innovation 111Box 6.3.: India diaspora contributions to science, technology and innovation 112

Figures

Figure 2.1. : Intra-African exports as a share of GDP, including re-exports, 2013 18Figure 2.2.: Intra-African imports as a share of GDP, including re-exports, 2013 18Figure 2.3. : Intra-regional imports as a share of regional GDP, 2013 19Figure 2.4. : Intra-African outward direct investment flows, latest year ($ million) 26Figure 3.1.: Global Innovation Index scores in 2014top 10 and bottom 10 52Figure 3.2.: Country scores on Competitive Industrial Performance Index, 2013 54Figure 3.3.: Country scores of Global Competitiveness Index, 20142015 55

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Figure 3.4.: Comparative growth rates of selected country groupings (at constant 2005 prices and exchange rates) 56

Figure 3.5.: Growth of Africas exports, 19972014 56Figure 5.1.: Science, technology, and innovation policies classified by coverage 84Figure 5.2.: STI policies classified by jurisdiction 85Figure 5.3.: STI policy adoption in 15 African countries since the Lagos Programme of Action 86Figure 5.4.: Science, technology and innovation administration system in most countries 88Figure 5.5.: Top 12 African countries by number of United States Patent and Trademark Office patents,

20012014 94Figure 5.6.: Africa in global intellectual property performanceFigure 5.7.: Indicative distribution of science, technology and innovation efforts to develop competitive

domestic innovative capacities 97Figure 6.1.: Growth in tertiary education enrolment ratio, 20002013 107Figure 6.2.: Distribution of postgraduate enrolment by field, 2012 107Figure6.3.: R&D expenditure as a share of GDP (per cent) 109Figure6.4.: Key measures of R&D in India 109Figure 6.6.: High-technology exports share of manufactured exports (per cent), 2012 119Figure 6.7.: Royalties and licence fees, 2003 to 2013 ($ million) 120

Tables

Table 2.1. : Transport facilitation measures undertaken by regional economic communities 22Table 2.2. : African banks in multiple African countries, 2013 26Table 2.3. : Measures on free movement of persons by regional economic community 27Table 2.4.: Growth rate of Africas road network 32Table 2.5.: Improvement in Africas road density 32Table 2.6.: Improvement in paved roads 32Table 2.7.: Top investors in Africas infrastructure, 2013 36Table 3.1.: Basic characterizations of innovation 49Table 3.2.: Key linkages between competitiveness, innovation and sustainable economic growth

four groups of theories 50Table 4.1.: The WIPO regime 65Table 4.2.: Overview of intellectual property proposals involving African countries 70Table 5.1.: Institutional arrangements and legal and regulatory frameworks of national science,

technology and innovation policies in 15 African countries 87Table 5.2.: STI financing arrangements and goals for 13 African countries96 90

Table 5.3.: Quacquarelli Symonds ranking of African universities in 20152016 94Table 5.4.: Change in total factor productivity, 19952010 (per cent) 96Table 6.1.: All-India growth of universities and colleges, 19472010 106Table 6.2.: Evolution of Indias science, technology and innovation policy frameworks 108Table 6.3.: Key measures of R&D in India 110Table 6.4.: Indias intellectual property applications, 20122013 110

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Table 6.6.: Overview of Association of Southeast Asian Nations main intellectual property cooperation initiatives 115

Table 6.7.: Association of Southeast Asian Nations countries global knowledge economy rankings, 2000 and 2012 116

Table 6.8.: Association of Southeast Asian Nations tertiary education enrolment, 20032013 117Table 6.9.: Selected intellectual property generation indicators in The Association of Southeast Asian

Nations, 2007 and 2013 119

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Acknowledgements

The seventh edition of Assessing Regional Integration in Africa is a joint publication of the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), the African Union Commission (AUC) and the African Development Bank (AfDB). The report was prepared under the overall leadership of Carlos Lopes, ECAs Executive Secretary, Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma, AUCs Chairperson, and Akinwumi Adesina, AfDBs President.

At ECA, the work was guided by Abdalla Hamdok, Dep-uty Executive Secretary and Chief Economist, Stephen Karingi, Director Regional Integration and Trade Divi-sion, and Fatima Denton, Director Special Initiatives Division.

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