INFO3315 HCI Human-Computer Interaction Introduction Part 2.

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul> <p>INFO3315 HCI Human-Computer Interaction Introduction Part 2 Slide 2 What is HCI? Why does it matter? What is it? What will you be doing this semester? Where is the technology? Slide 3 The user interface was once the last part of a system to be designed. Now it is the first. It is recognized as being primary because, to novices and professionals alike, what is presented to ones senses is ones computer. Kay, A. (1984). Computer software. Scientific American, 251(3), 41-47. Slide 4 Exercise What is the cost of a minor usability error in a large organisation? eg. 5000 employees, task done 10 times on average working day Mean time to complete is 1 minute, compared to ideal of 10 seconds About 10% of the time, people get stuck and take 10 minutes or more, have to ask for help, become frustrated, give poor service Slide 5 Introduction What is usability? What isnt it? What will you be aiming to achieve? How does the text present this? Hartson and Pyla: 1.3: From usability to user experience 1.3.1-5, pp 9-12, 1.3.9 pp 19-21 Slide 6 What is usability? Slide 7 7 What is Usability? ISO standards Learnability Efficiency Memorability Errors Satisfaction Performance Affect 2013 - Brad Myers Slide 8 What is usability? Learnability: How easy is it for users to accomplish basic tasks the first time they encounter the design? Efficiency: Once users have learned the design, how quickly can they perform tasks? Memorability: When users return to the design after a period of not using it, how easily can they reestablish proficiency? Errors: How many errors do users make, how severe are these errors, and how easily can they recover from the errors? Satisfaction: How pleasant is it to use the design? Usability 101: Introduction to Usability by Jakob Nielsen on January 4, 2012Jakob Nielsen Slide 9 Is there more than usability? Slide 10 Utility Usability and utility are equally important and together determine whether something is useful Easy but useless? Hard, but potentially valuable? Definition: Utility = whether it provides the features you need. Definition: Usability = how easy &amp; pleasant these features are to use. Definition: Useful = usability + utility. Usability 101: Introduction to Usability by Jakob Nielsen on January 4, 2012Jakob Nielsen Slide 11 User Experience (UX) Even more than usability Usability focuses on performance User Experience Emotion, Heritage Fun, Style, Art Branding, Reputation Political, social personal connections Beyond just the device itself Service Design Blends: usability engineering, software engineering, ergonomics, hardware engineering, marketing, graphic design 11 2013 - Brad Myers Slide 12 User experience goals Desirable aspects satisfyinghelpfulfun enjoyable motivatingprovocative engagingchallengingsurprising pleasurableenhancing sociabilityrewarding excitingsupporting creativityemotionally fulfilling entertainingcognitively stimulating Undesirable aspects boringunpleasant frustratingpatronizing making one feel guiltymaking one feel stupid annoyingcutesy childishgimmicky Slide 13 This is a visceral response Slide 14 What makes it hard to create usable interfaces that provide a delightful user experience? Slide 15 It is hard to think like the users May need to understand the domain And the context of use And what the user knows And what they have experienced And how they will interpret the interface elements, what they will see Slide 16 16 Specifications are always wrong "Only slightly more than 30% of the code developed in application software development ever gets used as intended by end-users. The reason for this statistic may be a result of developers not understanding what their users need." -- Hugh Beyer and Karen Holtzblatt, "Contextual Design: A Customer-Centric Approach to Systems Design, ACM Interactions, Sep+Oct, 1997, iv.5, p. 62. Need for prototyping and iteration 2013 - Brad Myers Slide 17 17 More reasons why it is difficult. Tasks and domains are complex Word 1 (100 commands) vs. Word 2013 (&gt;2000) MacDraw 1 vs. Illustrator BMW iDrive adjusts over 700 functions Existing theories and guidelines are not sufficient Too specific and/or too general Standard does not address all issues. Adding graphics can make worse Pretty Easy to use Can t just copy other designs Legal issues 2013 - Brad Myers Slide 18 18 More reasons why it is difficult. All UI design involves tradeoffs: Standards (style guides, related products) Graphic design (artistic) Technical writing (Documentation) Internationalization Performance Multiple platforms (hardware, browsers, etc.) High-level and low-level details External factors (social issues) Legal issues Time to develop and test (time to market) 2013 - Brad Myers Slide 19 Misconceptions about usability Doing usability sometimes thought of as equivalent to usability testing Diagnostic view Or sometimes usability is seen to be about dressing it up After the software is built, I want the usability people to make it look pretty 19 Copyright MKP. All rights reserved. Slide 20 Interaction design is not about software 20 Copyright MKP. All rights reserved. Interaction component: How a UI works, its look and feel and behavior UI software component: Code that implements the interaction component Slide 21 Two distinct roles Interaction designer and UI software designer Premise: Describing interaction from users view should result in more usable design than describing it from software or programmer view Inherent conflict of interest: Whats best for the user is seldom easiest for the software developer! 21 Copyright MKP. All rights reserved. Slide 22 Objectives of this course Applying a usability engineering life cycle Contextual inquiry and analysis Requirements extraction and design- informing models Conceptual and detailed design Iterative prototyping and evaluation Understanding and applying interaction design guidelines 22 Copyright MKP. All rights reserved. Slide 23 23 Why are User Interfaces Difficult to Implement? 2013 - Brad Myers Slide 24 24 Why Are User Interfaces Hard to Implement? They are hard to design, requiring iterative implementation Not the waterfall model: specify, design, implement, test, deliver They are reactive and are programmed from the "inside- out" Event based programming More difficult to modularize 2013 - Brad Myers Slide 25 25 Why Hard to Implement? cont. They generally require multi-processing To deal with user typing; aborts Window refresh Window system as a different process Multiple input devices There are real-time requirements for handling input events Output 60 times a second Keep up with mouse tracking Video, sound, multi-media 2013 - Brad Myers Slide 26 26 Why Hard to Implement? cont. Need for robustness No crashing, on any input Helpful error messages and recover gracefully Aborts Undo Lower testability Few tools for regression testing 2013 - Brad Myers Slide 27 27 Why Hard to Implement? cont. Little language support Primitives in computer languages make bad user interfaces Enormous, complex libraries Features like object-oriented, constraints, multi-processing Complexity of the tools Full bookshelf for documentation of user interface frameworks MFC, Java Swing, VB.Net, etc. Difficulty of Modularization 2013 - Brad Myers Slide 28 Overview of the approach H&amp;P Chapter 2: The Wheel 2.2,pp53-5 Slide 29 H&amp;P Chapter 2, p53 Slide 30 H&amp;P Chapter 2, p54 Slide 31 HCI matters and is hard to do well In general, interfaces are a very large part of effort of system Financial impact Make or break Creating good user experiences with systems is hard achieve Major lessons: 1: You cannot rely on intuition 2: HCI techniques can really help 3: Hard work, using established techniques, is the secret (not brilliant insight by the gifted lazy) 4: Iterative nature of creating interfaces </p>


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