Infectious Diseases Bill Edstrom, Epidemiologist Spokane Regional Health District

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)

Text of Infectious Diseases Bill Edstrom, Epidemiologist Spokane Regional Health District

  • Infectious Diseases

    Bill Edstrom, EpidemiologistSpokane Regional Health District

  • OSHABloodborne Pathogen Standard

    Designed to eliminate or minimize employees exposure to human blood and other potentially infectious materials (OPIM) in the workplace

  • Who is Covered?All employees who may reasonably expect to be exposed to blood and OPIM that may contain pathogens Anyone whose job involves handling or possibly being exposed to blood or blood products, or OPIM

  • Germs transmitted from one person to another through contact with blood or OPIM

    What are pathogens?

  • Caution! You do NOT need to directly contact someone carrying a bloodborne pathogen to be at risk for exposure! Risks also come from:

    Clinical specimensBiohazardous trashBlood- or body fluid-soaked laundryNeedles or sharps

  • Annual Training Required: How diseases are transmitted and their symptoms Protective measures to prevent exposure Procedures to be followed if exposed

  • Exposure Control PlanOSHA requirementMust describe:Exposure preventionEngineering and work practice controlsUniversal precautionsPersonal protective equipment

  • Infectious Disease TransmissionStages of Disease Transmission:

    Someone has an infectionThe infectious pathogen leaves theInfected persons body

  • Infectious Disease Transmission:The infectious pathogenreaches another person andenters his or her body. Transmission: - Bloodborne - Airborne - Vector - Direct or indirect contact4.The second person develops the infection.

  • Serious Bloodborne Pathogens Hepatitis B virus (HBV) Hepatitis C virus (HCV) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

  • MeasuresMeasures you take to prevent HBV, HCV, and HIV also help prevent diseases caused by other bloodborne pathogens

  • Do Exposures Always Cause Infection?NO The risk of infectionafter an exposure dependson:

    Whether pathogens are present in the source blood or body fluid The number of pathogens present The type of injury or exposure

    Your current health and immunization status

  • HIV and AIDSAcquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) There are almost one million HIV-positive people in the U.S.

  • HIV and AIDSAIDS damages cells essential for immune function People with AIDS are more susceptible to opportunistic infections The disease is eventually fatal

  • HIV and AIDS

  • Prevention

  • OSHA StandardRequires employers to use strategies to reduce occupational exposures:

    Engineering controls Work practice controls Personal protective equipment Universal precautions

  • Engineering ControlsNeedleless systems Eye wash stations Handwashing facilities Biohazard labels

  • Work Practice ControlsUse of personal protective equipment (PPE) Handwashing Decontamination and sterilization of equipment and areas

  • Personal Protective Equipment

    Gloves Jumpsuits, aprons Eye shields, goggles Face masks, face shields Caps Booties

  • OSHA StandardRequires that your employer:

    Provide PPE at no cost Train you how to use equipment Must clean, repair, or replace it as needed

  • For Unexpected ExposureIf blood or OPIM splashes in your eyes or other mucous membranes, flush area with running water for 20 minutes Wash any exposed area well with soap, using an antibacterial soap Gently treat any scabs and sores

    Report the exposure to your supervisor Save any potentially contaminated object for testing purposes Seek medical care

  • Employer ResponsibilitiesIdentify and document source of blood or OPIM Obtain consent and arrange to test the source blood Inform you of the test results

    Arrange for you to have your blood tested

    Arrange counseling and medical care for you as needed

  • Airborne Pathogens

  • Three Types of Airborne PathogensViral Bacterial Fungal

  • Airborne PathogensPrecautions for tuberculosis also lower the risk for other airborne pathogensMeningitis Influenza Pneumonia Tuberculosis

  • Airborne PathogensSpread by inhaling the germ Coughing or sneezing tiny droplets of moisture into the air containing pathogens Pathogens can remain airborne for several hours

  • Airborne TransmissionDepends On:How contagious the infectious person is Where the exposure occurs How long the exposure lasts How healthy you are at the time of the exposure

  • Tuberculosis

  • H1N1 (Swine Flu)

  • H1N1 and EMSEMS personnel should stay more than 6 feet away from patients and bystanders with symptoms and exercise appropriate routine respiratory droplet precautions while assessing all patients for suspected cases of swine-origin influenza. Assess all patients for symptoms of acute febrile respiratory illness (fever plus one or more of the following: nasal congestion/ rhinorrhea, sore throat, or cough).

  • H1N1 and EMSIf no acute febrile respiratory illness, proceed with normal EMS care. If symptoms of acute febrile respiratory illness, then assess all patients for travel to a geographic area with confirmed cases of swine-origin influenza within the last 7 days or close contact with someone with travel to these areas.

  • H1N1 and EMSIf travel exposure, don appropriate PPE for suspected case of swine-origin influenza. If no travel exposure, place a standard surgical mask on the patient (if tolerated) and use appropriate PPE for cases of acute febrile respiratory illness without suspicion of swine-origin influenza (as described in PPE section).

  • Questions

  • Contact: Renee Anderson 509-232-8155 1-866-630-4033 Fax: 509-232-8168