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    1. Meaning.

    The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It lays down the

    framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the

    structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions, and

    sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens. Itis the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world,

    containing 448 articles in 22 parts, 12 schedules and

    97 amendments. Besides the English version, there is an officialHindi translation.

    The Constitution was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November

    1949, and came into effect on 26 January 1950. The date 26 January was

    chosen to commemorate the Purna Swaraj declaration of independence of

    1930. With its adoption, the Union of India officially became the modern

    and contemporary Republic of India and it replaced the Government of India

    Act 1935 as the country's fundamental governing document. The

    Constitution declares India to be a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic

    republic, assuring its citizens ofjustice, equality, and liberty, and endeavors

    to promote fraternity among them. The words "socialist" and "secular" were

    added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment. India

    celebrates the adoption of the constitution on 26 January each year as

    Republic Day .
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    Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar is hailed as the prime architect ofIndian Constitution

    The first temporary 2-day president of the Constituent Assembly was

    Dr Sachidanand Sinha. Later, Rajendra Prasad was elected presidentof the Constituent Assembly.[8] The members of the Constituent

    Assembly met for the first time on 9 December 1946.[8]

    ===Drafting=== On the 14 August 1947 meeting of the Assembly, aproposal for forming various committees was presented. Suchcommittees included a Committee on Fundamental Rights, the UnionPowers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. On 29 August1947, the Drafting Committee was appointed, with Dr B. R. Ambedkar

    as the Chairman along with six other members assisted by aconstitutional advisor. These members were Kanaiyalal ManeklalMunshi (K M Munshi, Ex- Home Minister, Bombay), AlladiKrishnaswamy Iyer (Ex- Advocate General, Madras State), NGopalaswami Ayengar(Ex-Prime Minister, J&K and later member ofNehru Cabinet), B L Mitter (Ex-Advocate General, India), Md.Saadullah (Ex- Chief Minister of Assam, Muslim League member)
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    and D P Khaitan (Scion of Khaitan Business family and a renownedlawyer). The constitutional advisor was Sir Benegal Narsing Rau(who became First Indian Judge in International Court of Justice,195054). Later B L Mitter resigned and was replaced by MadhavRao (Legal Advisor of Maharaja of Vadodara). Owing to death of D PKhaitan, T T Krishnamachari was chosen to be included in thedrafting committee. A Draft Constitution was prepared by thecommittee and submitted to the Assembly on 4 November 1947.Draft constitution was debated and over 2000 amendments weremoved over a period of two years. Finally on 26 Nov. 1949, theprocess was completed and Constituent assembly adopted theconstitution. 284 members signed the document and the process ofconstitution making was complete. The architects of Indianconstitution were most heavily influenced by the British model of

    parliamentary democracy. In addition, a number of principles wereadopted from the Constitution of the United States of America,including the separation of powers among the major branches ofgovernment, the establishment of a supreme court. The principlesadopted from Canada were Unitary government with strong centerand also distribution of powers between central government andprovinces along with placing residuary powers with centralgovernment. From Ireland, directive principle of state policy wasadopted. From Germany the principle of suspension of fundamentalrights during emergency was adopted. From Australia the principle ofConcurrent list and Language of preamble was adopted. The

    Assembly met in sessions open to the public, for 166 days, spreadover a period of 2 years, 11 months and 18 days before adopting theConstitution, the 308 members of the Assembly signed two copies ofthe document (one each in Hindi and English) on 24 January 1950.The original Constitution of India is hand-written with beautifulcalligraphy, each page beautified and decorated by artists fromShantiniketan including Beohar Rammanohar Sinha and NandalalBose. Two days later, on 26 January 1950, the Constitution of India

    became the law of all the States and territories of India. Rs.1,00,00,000 was official estimate of expenditure on constituentassembly. The Constitution has undergone many amendments sinceits enactment.
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    Features of Indian Constitution

    Features of Indian Constitution includes most of the aspects ofthe Western legal systems and runs on the system of the liberal

    democracy. The most important aspect of the features of IndianConstitution is the tendency to eradicate inequality that the traditionalsocial relations have given birth to. The prime feature of the IndianConstitution is to look after the social welfare of the people of the

    nation. There are elaborate explanations that are given to enhancethe social relationships and this is one of the prime reasons thatmany famous scholars have regarded the features of IndianConstitution as the motivating factors behind the ever changing andrebuilding society of India.

    One of the special features of the Indian Constitution is the steadyconcentration of power in the hands of the Prime Minister and hisoffice. Although there is a wide range of ethnic groups and caste

    races that are distributed all over the land, the ultimate power residesin the hands of the Prime Minister.

    Unique Features of the Indian Constitution

    There are some unique features of the Indian Constitution. Thesefeatures are mentioned below:

    The Indian Constitution is said to be framed by the People of India.The Constituent Assembly formed for drafting the constitution ofassembly was framed by the people belonging to all parts of the

    society. This Constituent Assembly is considered to be arepresentative body of people living in the country.

    The draft of the Indian Constitution has been derived fromconstitutions of other countries. The constitution has also taken manyparts from the Government of India Act, 1935. The different parts of

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    Indian Constitution adopted from other countries constitution arementioned below:

    1. British Constitution: Parliamentary form of government,introduction of Speaker and his role, the concept of singlecitizenship, the Rule of law, procedure of lawmaking, procedureestablished by Law u/a 13.

    2. Irish Constitution: Directive principles of state policy.3. United States Constitution: Federal structure of government,

    due process of law u/a 13, power of Judicial Review andindependence of the judiciary, documentation of FundamentalRights (similar to the United States Bill of Rights), President assupreme commander of armed forces u/a 52,

    4. Canadian Constitution: A quasi-federal form of government,where the central government plays prime role in governing the

    country, the idea of Residual Powers5. Australian Constitution: Freedom of trade and commerce

    between different states of the country, Power of the nationallegislature to make laws for implementing treaties

    6. French Constitution: Ideals of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity7. Japan Constitution: Fundamental Duties u/a 51-A8. Weimar Constitution: Emergency Provision u/a 3569. Malaysian Constitution: The concept of the Concurrent list

    Sovereignty of the people is another unique feature of the IndianConstitution. According to the Constitution, people of the country arethe supreme authority. Earlier, the supreme power was in the hand ofthe British Parliament. The term Sovereignty connotes that thepeople of India are not subordinate to any other external authority.

    The Constitution of India renders the republican form of polity in thecountry. During British era, the king was the Head of the State.

    The Indian Constitution also provides for a secular polity in India. The

    term Secular implies that in the country, there would be nodiscrimination on grounds of religion. There should be equal respectfor all religions.

    Fundamentals Rights and Duties of the citizens of India is anotherunique feature of the Indian Constitution, which was absent in theprevious constitutions. Fundamental Rights were mentioned in the

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    constitution at the time of its adoption in 1949. The provision forFundamental Duties was included through the Constitution (FortySecond Amendment) Act, 1976.

    The Indian Constitution has provision for the Directive Principles ofState Policy. These principles and policies are included in theChapter IV of the constitution. These rights cannot be enforced by thecourts of law, but these are fundamental principles, awareness ofwhich should be there among people and the government.

    The Indian Constitution has provision for judicial review of the Acts ofboth the State Legislatures and the Union Legislature and the

    activities of the Union and State executives, so that authority of thelegislative and executive branches is not misused.

    Provision for the universal adult franchise is another unique feature ofIndian Constitution. In this provision, all adult citizens of the countryhas right to vote.

    The Indian Constitution has given recognition of Hindi as the officiallanguage of the country. Earlier, English was the only officiallanguage of India. Apart from Hindi, the Constitution has alsorecognized 17 other Indian languages as regional languages.

    Unique Blend of Rigidity and Flexibility is another feature of the IndianConstitution. The Constitution can be amended for revising the lawsmentioned in it. Amendments to Constitution can be made throughvarious procedures.

    Other Features of the Indian Constitution

    The other features of the Indian Constitution are mentioned below:

    1. Indian Constitution is a comprehensive document including 395Articles and twelve Schedules.

    2. The Indian Constitution has a provision of a full-fledgedParliamentary Democracy.

    3. There is the provision for federal form of polity in India in theConstitution of India.

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    4. The Constitution of India encourages affirmative action to betaken by the State to improve the conditions of the weakersections of society.

    5. There are emergency provisions made in the IndianConstitution. There are provisions for national emergency,financial emergency and failure of constitutional machinery.

    6. The constitution has also made provision for some IndependentAgencies to perform various functions assigned to them. TheElection Commission, the Comptroller and Auditor General andthe Union and State Public Service Commissions are threesuch agencies.


    The Constitution, in its current form (March 2011), consists of apreamble, 22 parts containing 450 [Note 1] articles, 12 schedules, 2appendices[9] and 97 amendments to date (latest being related to co-operative societies in 2012).[10] Although it is federal in nature it alsohas a strong unitary bias.


    WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constituteIndia


    to secure to all its citizens:

    JUSTICE, social, economic and political;

    LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;

    EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;
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    and to promote among them all

    FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and

    integrity of the Nation;

    IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of

    November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO


    ArticlesIn this section of India Facts we discuss about Constitution of India -

    Articles. You get all the articles i.e. Part I to Part XXII, in details. Inthese Part I to Part XXII you will learn about 395 articles. Article 123explains about the legislative powers of the President and article 213is for the legislative powers of the Governor. Article 300A is importantfor everyone because it explains about Right to Property.

    Part I - consists of Articles 1 - 4 on the Union and its TerritoryPart II - consists of Articles 5 - 11 on Citizenship.Part III - consists of Articles 12 - 35 on Fundamental Rights.

    Articles 14 - 18 on Right to Equality, Articles 19 - 22 on Right to Freedom, Articles 23 - 24 on Right against Exploitation, Articles 25 - 28 on Right to Freedom of Religion, Articles 29 - 31 on Cultural and Educational Rights, Articles 32 - 35 on Right to Constitutional Remedies.

    Part IV - consists of Articles 36 - 51 on Directive Principles of StatePolicy.Part IV (A) consists of Article 51A - Fundamental Duties of eachcitizen of India.

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    Part V - consists of Articles on the Union.Chapter I - Articles 52 to 78 on The Executive.

    Articles 52 - 73 on the President and Vice-President, Articles 74 - 75 on Council of Ministers, Articles 76 - Attorney General of India, Articles 77 - 78 on the Conduct of Government Business

    Chapter II - Articles 79 - 122 on Parliament. Articles 79 - 88 on Constitution of Parliament, Articles 89 - 98 on Officers of Parliament, Articles 99 - 100 on Conduct of Business, Articles 101 - 104 on Disqualification of members, Articles 105 - 106 on Powers, privileges and Immunities of

    Parliament and its Members,

    Articles 107 - 111 on Legislative Procedure, Articles 112 - 117 on Procedure in Financial Matters, Articles 118 - 122 on Procedure Generally.

    Chapter III - Article 123 on the Legislative Powers of the President. Article 123 on Power of president to promulgate Ordinances

    during recess of Parliament

    Chapter IV - Articles 124 - 147 on The Union Judiciary. Articles 124 - 147 Establishment and Constitution of Supreme


    Chapter V - Articles 148 - 151 on the Controller and Auditor-Generalof India.

    Articles 148 - 151 on Duties and powers of Comptroller andAuditor-General.

    Part VI - Articles on the States.

    Chapter I - Article 152 on the General definition of a State of theUnion of India

    Article 152 - Exclusion of the state of Jammu and Kashmir fromthe general definition of a state of the Union of India.

    Chapter II - Articles 153 - 167 on The Executive Articles 153 - 162 on The Governor, Articles 163 - 164 on The Council of Ministers,

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    Article 165 on the Advocate-General for the State. Articles 166 - 167 on the Conduct of Government Business.

    Chapter III - Articles 168 - 212 on The State Legislature. Articles 168 - 177 General Articles 178 - 187 on the Officers of the State Legislature, Articles 188 - 189 on Conduct of Business, Articles 190 - 193 on Disqualification of members, Articles 194 - 195 on Powers, Privileges and Immunities

    Parliament and its Members, Articles 196 - 201 on Legislative Procedure, Articles 202 - 207 on Procedure in Financial Matters, Articles 208 - 212 on Procedure Generally.

    Chapter IV - Article 213 on the Legislative Powers of the Governor Article 213 - Power of president to promulgate Ordinances

    during recess of Parliament

    Chapter V - Articles 214 - 231 on The High Courts in the States. Articles 214 - 231 on High Courts in the States,

    Chapter VI - Articles 233 - 237 on the Subordinate Courts Articles 232 - 237 on Subordinate Courts

    Part VII - consists of Articles on States in the B part of the Firstschedule.

    Article 238 Repealed, Replaced by the Constitution (SeventhAmendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch.

    Part VIII - consists of Articles on The Union Territories Articles 239 - 242 Administration, creation of Council of

    Ministers and High Courts

    Part IX - consists of Articles on the Panchayat system. Articles 243 - 243O on the Gram Sabha and Panchayat system

    Part IXA - consists of Articles on Municipalities. Articles 243P - 243ZG on Municipalities

    Part X - consists of Articles on the scheduled and Tribal Areas

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    Articles 244 - 244A on Administration, creation of Council ofMinisters, and legislatures.

    Part XI - consists of Articles on Relations between the Union andthe States.

    Chapter I - Articles 245 - 255 on the Distribution of Legislative Powers Articles 245 - 255 on Distribution of Legislative Relations

    Chapter II - Articles 256 - 263 on Administrative Relations Articles 256 - 261 - General Article 262 - on Disputes relating to waters. Article 263 - on Co-ordination between States

    Part XII - consists of Articles on Finance, Property, Contractsand Suits

    Chapter I - Articles 264 - 291 on Finance Articles 264 - 267 General Articles 268 - 281 on Distribution Revenues between the Union

    and the States Articles 282 - 291 on Miscellaneous Financial Provisions

    Chapter II - Articles 292 - 293 on Borrowing

    Articles 292 - 293 on Borrowing by States

    Chapter III - Articles 294 - 300 on Property, Contracts, Right,Liabilities, Obligations and Suits

    Articles 294 - 300 on Succession to property assets, liabilities,and obligations.

    Chapter IV - Article 300A on the Right to Property Article 300A - on Persons not to be deprived of property save

    by authority of law

    Part XIII - consists of Articles on Trade and Commerce within theterritory of India

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    Articles 301 - 305 on Freedom of Trade and Commerce, andthe power of Parliament and States to impose restrictions on thesame

    Article 306 - Repealed - Replaced by the Constitution (SeventhAmendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch.

    Article 307 - Appointment of authority for carrying out thepurposes of articles 301 to 304.

    Part XIV - consists of Articles on Services Under the Union andthe States

    Chapter I - Articles 308 - 314 on Services Articles 308 - 313 on Services Article 314 - Repealed - Replaced by the Constitution (Twenty-

    eighth Amendment) Act, 1972, s. 3 (w.e.f. 29-8-1972).

    Chapter II - Articles 315 - 323 on the Public Service Commissions Articles 315 - 323 on Public Service Commissions

    Part XIVA - consists of Articles on Tribunals Articles 323 A - 323 B

    Part XV - consists of Articles on Elections Articles 324 - 329 on Elections

    Article 329A - Repealed - Replaced by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 36 (w.e.f. 20-6-1979).

    Part XVI - consists of Articles on Special Provisions Relating tocertain Classes.

    Articles 330 - 342 on Reservations

    Part XVII - consists of Articles on Official LanguageChapter I - Articles 343 - 344 on Language of the Union

    Articles 343 - 344 Official Language of the Union

    Chapter II - Articles 345 - 347 on Regional Languages Articles 345 - 347 on Language of the State

    Chapter III - Articles 348 - 349 on Language of the Supreme Court,High courts, Etc

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    Articles 348 - 349 on Language used in Supreme Court, Highcourts Etc

    Chapter IV - Articles 350 - 351 on Special Directives Article 350 - on Language to be used in representations

    forredress of grievances. Article 350A - on Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at

    primary stage. Article 350B - on provision for Special Officer for linguistic

    minorities. Article 351 - on Directive for development of the Hindi


    Part XVIII - consists of Articles on Emergency Provisions

    Articles 352 - 359 on Emergency Provisions Article 359A - Repealed - Replaced by the Constitution (Sixty-

    third Amendment) Act, 1989, s. 3 (w.e.f. 6-1-1990) Article 360 - on Provisions as to financial emergency.

    Part XIX - Miscellaneous Articles 361 - 361A - Miscellaneous Article 362 - Repealed - Replaced by the Constitution (Twenty-

    sixth Amendment) Act, 1971, s. 2. Articles 363 - 367 - Miscellaneous .

    Part XX - consists of Articles on Amendment of the Constitution Articles 368 on the Power of parliament to amend the

    constitution and procedure therefor

    Part XXI - consists of Articles on Temporary, Transitional andSpecial Provisions

    Articles 369 - 378A on Temporary, Transitional and SpecialProvisions

    Article 379 - 391 - Repealed - Replaced by the Constitution(Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956,s. 29 and Sch.

    Article 392 - on the Power of the President to removedifficulties.

    Part XXII consists of Articles on short title, date ofcommencement, Authoritative text in Hindi and Repeals.

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    Articles 393 - 395 Commencement, authoritative text in Hindiand repeals.

    List of amendments of theConstitution of India

    As of January 2012, there have been 97 amendments to the

    Constitution of India since it was first enacted in 1950.

    No. AmendmentsEnforced



    Amend articles 15, 19, 85,

    87, 174, 176, 341, 342, 372and 376.

    Insert articles 31A and


    Insert schedule 9.[2]

    18 June


    To fully secure the

    constitutional validity of

    zamindari abolition laws and to

    place reasonable restriction on

    freedom of speech. A new

    constitutional device, calledSchedule 9 introduced to

    protect laws that are contrary

    to the Constitutionally

    guaranteed fundamental rights.

    These laws encroach upon

    property rights, freedom of

    speech and equality before law

    2 Amend article 81.[3] 1 May 1953

    A technical amendment to fix

    the size of each parliamentary

    constituency between 650,000

    and 850,000 voters.
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    No. AmendmentsEnforced


    3 Amend schedule 7.[4]22 February


    Limits maximum no of seats inlok sabha up to 500.States

    would be divided into

    constituencies such that one

    member of a constituency will

    represent not less than every

    750000 people but not more

    than every 500000 people.


    Amend articles 31, 35 band


    Amend schedule 9.[5]

    27 April


    Restrictions on property rights

    and inclusion of related bills in

    Schedule 9 of the constitution

    5 Amend article 3.[6]24



    Provide for a consultation

    mechanism with concerned

    states in matters relating to the

    amendments to the territorial

    matters and in the renaming ofthe state


    Amend articles 269 and


    Amend schedule 7.[7]




    Amend the Union and State

    Lists with respect to raising of



    Amend articles 1, 49, 80,

    81, 82, 131, 153, 158, 168,170, 171, 216, 217, 220,

    222, 224, 230, 231 and


    Insert articles 258A, 290A,

    298, 350A, 350B, 371,

    1 November


    Reorganization of states onlinguistic lines, abolition of

    Class A, B, C, D states and

    introduction of Union

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    No. AmendmentsEnforced


    Election procedure fromchallenge on grounds of

    existence of any vacancies in

    the electoral college

    12Amend article 240.

    Amend schedule 1.[13]




    Incorporation of Goa, Daman

    and Diu as a Union Territory,

    consequent to acquisition from


    13 Amend part 21.[14]1 December


    Formation of State of

    Nagaland, with special

    protection under Article 371A


    Amend articles 81 and 240.

    Insert article 239A.Amend schedules 1 and 4.[15]



    Incorporation of Pondicherry

    into the Union of India and

    creation of LegislativeAssemblies for Himachal

    Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur and



    Amend articles 124, 128,

    217, 222, 224, 226, 297,

    311 and 316.

    Insert article 224A.

    Amend schedule 7.[16]

    5 October


    Raise retirement age of judges

    from 60 to 62 and other minor

    amendments for rationalizing

    interpretation of rules

    regarding judges etc.


    Amend articles 19, 84 and


    Amend schedule 3.[17]

    5 October


    Make it obligatory for seekers

    of public office to swear their

    allegiance to the Indian

    Republic and prescribe the
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    No. AmendmentsEnforced


    various obligtory templates

    17Amend article 31A.

    Amend schedule 9.[18]20 June


    To secure the constitutional

    validity of acquisition of

    Estates and place land

    acquisition laws in Schedule 9

    of the constitution

    18 Amend article 3.[19]27 August


    Technical Amendment to

    include Union Territories in

    Article 3 and hence permit

    reorganisation of Union


    19 Amend article 324.[20]11



    Abolish Election Tribunals and

    enable trial of election petitions

    by regular High Courts

    20 Insert article 233A.[21]22



    Indemnify & validate

    judgments, decrees, orders and

    sentences passed by judges and

    to validate the appointment,

    posting, promotion and transfer

    of judges barring a few who

    were not eligible for

    appointment under article 233.Amendment needed to

    overcome the effect of

    judgement invalidating

    appointments of certain judges

    in the state of Uttar Pradesh
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    No. AmendmentsEnforced


    21 Amend schedule 8.[22]10 April1967

    Include Sindhi as an OfficialLanguage


    Amend article 275.

    Insert articles 244A and





    Provision to form Autonomous

    states within the State of


    23Amend articles 330, 332,

    333 and 334.[24]23 January


    Extend reservation for SC / ST

    and nomination of Anglo

    Indian members in Parliament

    and State Assemblies for

    another ten years i.e. up to


    24Amend articles 13 and 368.[25]

    5 November


    Enable parliament to dilute

    fundamental rights through

    amendments to the constitution

    25Amend article 31.

    Insert article 31C.[26]20 April


    Restrict property rights and

    compensation in case the state

    takes over private property


    Amend article 366.

    Insert article 363A.

    Remove articles 291 and362.[27]




    Abolition ofprivy purse paid

    to former rulers of princely

    states which were incorporatedinto the Indian Republic

    27Amend articles 239A and


    Insert articles 239B and

    15 February


    Reorganization of Mizoram

    into a Union Territory with a

    legislature and council of
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    No. AmendmentsEnforced


    371C.[28] ministers

    28Insert article 312A.

    Remove article 314.[29]29 August


    Rationalize Civil Service rules

    to make it uniform across those

    appointed prior to

    Independence and post


    29 Amend schedule 9.[30] 9 June 1972

    Place land reform acts and

    amendments to these act under

    Schedule 9 of the constitution

    30 Amend article 133.[31]27 February


    Change the basis for appeals in

    Supreme Court of India in case

    of Civil Suits from value

    criteria to one involving

    substantial question of law

    31Amend articles 81, 330 and

    332.[32]17 October


    Increase size of Parliament

    from 525 to 545 seats.

    Increased seats going to the

    new states formed in North

    East India and minor

    adjustment consequent to 1971

    Delimitation exercise


    Amend article 371.

    Insert articles 371D and


    Amend schedule 7.[33]

    1 July 1974

    Protection of regional rights in

    Telengana and Andhra regions

    of State of Andhra Pradesh
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    No. AmendmentsEnforced


    33Amend articles 101 and

    190.[34]19 May


    Prescribes procedure forresignation by members of

    parliament and state

    legislatures and the procedure

    for verification and acceptance

    of resignation by house speaker

    34 Amend schedule 9.

    [35] 7 September


    Place land reform acts and

    amendments to these act underSchedule 9 of the constitution


    Amend articles 80 and 81.

    Insert article 2A.

    Insert schedule 10.[36]

    1 March


    Terms and Conditions for the

    Incorporation of Sikkim into

    the Union of India


    Amend articles 80 and 81.

    Insert article 371F.Remove article 2A.

    Amend schedules 1 and 4.

    Remove schedule 10.[37]

    26 April1975

    Formation of Sikkim as a Statewithin the Indian Union

    37Amend articles 239A and

    240.[38]3 May 1975

    Formation of Arunachal

    Pradesh legislative assembly

    38Amend articles 123, 213,239B, 352, 356, 359 and


    1 August


    Enhances the powers ofPresident and Governors to

    pass ordinances

    39 Amend articles 71 and 329.

    Insert article 329A.10 August

    Amendment designed to negate

    the judgement of Allahabad
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    No. AmendmentsEnforced


    139A, 144A, 226A, 228Aand 257A.

    Insert parts 4A and 14A.

    Amend schedule 7.[43]


    Amend articles 145, 226,

    228 and 366.

    Remove articles 31D, 32A,

    131A, 144A, 226A and


    13 April


    Amendment passed after

    revocation of internal

    emergency in the Country.

    Repeals some of the more

    'Anti-Freedom' amendments

    enacted through Amendment

    Bill 42


    Amend articles 19, 22, 30,

    31A, 31C, 38, 71, 74, 77,

    83, 103, 105, 123, 132,

    133, 134, 139A, 150, 166,

    172, 192, 194, 213, 217,

    225, 226, 227, 239B, 329,

    352, 356, 358, 359, 360

    and 371F.

    Insert articles 134A and361A.

    Remove articles 31, 257A

    and 329A.

    Amend part 12.

    Amend schedule 9.[45]

    6 September


    Amendment passed after

    revocation of internal

    emergency in the Country.

    Provides for human rights

    safeguards and mechanisms to

    prevent abuse of executive andlegislative authority. Annuls

    some Amendments enacted in

    Amendment Bill 42

    45 Amend article 334.

    [46] 25 January


    Extend reservation for SC / ST

    and nomination of Anglo

    Indian members in Parliament

    and State Assemblies foranother ten years i.e. up to



    Amend articles 269, 286

    and 366.

    Amend schedule 7.[47]

    2 February


    Amendment to negate judicial

    pronouncements on scope and

    applicability on Sales Tax
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    No. AmendmentsEnforced


    47 Amend schedule 9.[48] 26 August1984

    Place land reform acts andamendments to these act under

    Schedule 9 of the constitution

    48 Amend article 356.[49] 1 April 1985

    Article 356 amended to permit

    President's rule up to two years

    in the state of Punjab


    Amend article 244.

    Amend schedules 5 and 6.[50]




    Recognize Tripura as a Tribal

    State and enable the creation of

    a Tripura Tribal Areas

    Autonomous District Council

    50 Amend article 33.[51]11



    Technical Amendment to

    curtailment of Fundamental

    Rights as per Part III as

    prescribed in Article 33 to

    cover Security Personnel

    protecting property and

    communication infrastructure

    51Amend articles 330 and

    332.[52]16 June


    Provide reservation to

    Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland,Meghalaya, Mizoram and

    Arunachal Pradesh Legislative



    Amend articles 101, 102,

    190 and 191.

    Insert schedule 10.[53]

    1 March


    Anti Defection Law - Provide

    disqualification of members

    from parliament and assembly

    in case of defection from one

    party to other

    53 Insert article 371G.[54] 20 February1987

    Special provision with respectto the State of Mizoram.


    Amend articles 125 and


    Amend schedule 2.[55]1 April 1986

    Increase the salary of Chief

    Justice of India & other Judges

    and to provide for determining

    future increases without the
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    No. AmendmentsEnforced


    need for constitutionalamendment

    55 Insert article 371H.[56]20 February


    Special powers to Governor

    consequent to formation of

    state of Arunachal Pradesh

    56 Insert article 371I.[57]30 May


    Transition provision to enable

    formation of state of Goa

    57 Amend article 332.[58]21


    Provide reservation to

    Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland,

    Meghalaya, Mizoram andArunachal Pradesh Legislative


    58Insert article 394A.

    Amend part 22.[59]9 December


    Provision to publish authentic

    Hindi translation of

    constitution as on date and

    provision to publish authentic

    Hindi translation of future


    59Amend article 356.

    Insert article 359A.[60]30 March


    Article 356 amended to permitPresident's rule up to three

    years in the state of Punjab,

    Articles 352 and Article 359A

    amended to permit imposing

    emergency in state of Punjab

    or in specific districts of the

    state of Punjab

    60 Amend article 276.[61]20


    Profession Tax increased from

    a maximum of Rs. 250/- to amaximum of Rs. 2500/-

    61 Amend article 326.[62]28 March


    Reduce age for voting rights

    from 21 to 18

    62 Amend article 334.[63]20


    Extend reservation for SC / ST

    and nomination of Anglo
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    No. AmendmentsEnforced


    1989Indian members in Parliamentand State Assemblies for

    another ten years i.e. up to


    63Amend article 356.

    Remove article 359A.[64]6 January


    Emergency powers applicable

    to State of Punjab, accorded in

    Article 359A as per

    amendment 59 repealed

    64 Amend article 356.[65] 16 April1990

    Article 356 amended to permit

    President's rule up to threeyears and six months in the

    state of Punjab

    65 Amend article 338.[66]12 March


    National Commission for

    Scheduled Castes and

    Scheduled Tribes formed and

    its stututory powers specifed in

    The Constitution.

    66 Amend schedule 9.[67]

    7 June 1990

    Place land reform acts and

    amendments to these act underSchedule 9 of the constitution

    67 Amend article 356.[68]4 October


    Article 356 amended to permit

    President's rule up to four years

    in the state of Punjab

    68 Amend article 356.[69]12 March


    Article 356 amended to permit

    President's rule up to five years

    in the state of Punjab

    69Insert articles 239AA and

    239AB.[70]1 February


    To provide for a legislative

    assembly and council of

    ministers for Federal National

    Capital of Delhi. Delhi

    continues to be a Union


    70 Amend articles 54 and 21 Include National Capital of
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    No. AmendmentsEnforced




    Delhi and Union Territory ofPondicherry in electoral

    college for Presidential


    71 Amend schedule 8.[72]31 August


    Include Konkani, Manipuri and

    Nepali as Official Languages

    72 Amend article 332.[73]5 December


    Provide reservation to

    Scheduled Tribes in Tripura

    State Legislative Assembly

    73 Insert part 9.[74]24 April


    Statutory provisions forPanchyat Raj as third level of

    administration in villages

    74 Insert part 9A.[75] 1 June 1993

    Statutory provisions for Local

    Administrative bodies as third

    level of administration in urban

    areas such as towns and cities

    75 Amend article 323B.[76]15 May


    Provisions for setting up Rent

    Control Tribunals

    76 Amend schedule 9.[77]31 August


    Enable continuance of 69%

    reservation in Tamil Nadu by

    including the relevant Tamil

    Nadu Act under 9th Schedule

    of the constitution

    77 Amend article 16.[78]17 June


    A technical amendment to

    protect reservation to SC/ST

    Employees in promotions

    78 Amend schedule 9.[79]30 August


    Place land reform acts andamendments to these act under

    Schedule 9 of the constitution

    79 Amend article 334.[80]25 January


    Extend reservation for SC / ST

    and nomination of Anglo

    Indian members in Parliament
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    No. AmendmentsEnforced


    and State Assemblies foranother ten years i.e. up to



    Amend articles 269 and


    Remove article 272.[81]9 June 2000

    Implement Tenth Finance

    Commission recommendation

    to simplify the tax structures

    by pooling and sharing all

    taxes between states and The


    81 Amend article 16.[82] 9 June 2000 Protect SC / ST reservation infilling backlog of vacancies

    82 Amend article 335.[83]8 September


    Permit relaxation of qualifying

    marks and other criteria in

    reservation in promotion for

    SC / ST candidates

    83 Amend article 243M.[84]8 September


    Exempt Arunachal Pradesh

    from reservation for Scheduled

    Castes in Panchayati Raj


    84Amend articles 55, 81, 82,

    170, 330 and 332.[85]21 February


    Extend the usage of 1991

    national census population

    figures for statewise

    distribution of parliamentary


    85 Amend article 16.[86]4 January


    A technical amendment to

    protect seniority in case of

    promotions of SC/ST



    Amend articles 45 and


    Insert article 21A.[87]




    Provides Right to Education

    until the age of fourteen and

    Early childhood care until the

    age of six

    87 Amend articles 81, 82, 170 22 June Extend the usage of 2001
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    No. AmendmentsEnforced


    and 330.[88] 2003national census populationfigures for statewise

    distribution of parliamentary



    Amend article 270.

    Insert article 268A.

    Amend schedule 7.[89]

    15 January


    To extend statutory cover for

    levy and utilization of Service


    89Amend article 338.

    Insert article 338A.[90]



    The National Commission for

    Scheduled Castes and

    Scheduled Tribes wasbifurcated into The National

    Commission for Scheduled

    Castes and The National

    Commission for Scheduled


    90 Amend article 332.[91]28



    Reservation in Assam

    Assembly relating to Bodoland

    Territory Area


    Amend articles 75 and 164.

    Insert article 361B.

    Amend schedule 10.[92]

    1 January


    Restrict the size of council ofministers to 15% of legislative

    members & to strengthen Anti

    Defection laws


    Amend article 270.

    Insert article 268A.

    Amend schedules 7 and 8.[93]

    7 January


    Enable Levy of Service Tax &

    Include Bodo, Dogri, Santali

    and Maithali as Official


    93 Amend article 15.[94]20 January


    To enable provision of

    reservation for other backwardclasses (O.B.C.) in government

    as well as private educational


    94 Amend article 164.[95]12 June


    To provide for a Minister of

    Tribal Welfare in newly
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    No. AmendmentsEnforced


    created Jharkand andChattisgarh States

    95 Amend article 334.[96]25 January


    To extend the reservation of

    seats for SCs and STs in the

    Lok Sabha and states

    assemblies from Sixty years to

    Seventy years

    96 Amend schedule 8.[97]23



    Substituted "Odia" for "Oriya"

    97Amend Art 19 and added

    Part IXB.[98]12 January


    Added the words "or co-

    operative societies" after the

    word "or unions" in Article

    19(l)(c) and insertion of article

    43B i.e., Promotion of Co-

    operative Societies and added

    Part-IXB i.e., THE CO-


    The amendment objective is toencourage economic activities

    of cooperatives which in turn

    help progress of rural India. It

    is expected to not only ensure

    autonomous and democratic

    functioning of cooperatives,

    but also the accountability of

    the management to the

    members and other

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    PartsThe individual Articles of the Constitution are grouped together into the

    following Parts:


    Part I[11] Union and itsTerritory

    Part II[12] Citizenship.

    Part IIIFundamental


    Part IV[13] Directive

    Principles of State Policy.

    Part IVA Fundamental


    Part V[14]

    The Union. Part VI[15] The States.

    Part VII[16] States in the B

    part of the First


    Part VIII[17] The Union


    Part IX[18] The Panchayats.

    Part IXA The


    Part IXB The CooperativeSocieties

    Part X The scheduled and

    Tribal Areas

    Part XI Relations between

    the Union and the States.

    Part XII Finance, Property,

    Contracts and Suits Part XIII Trade and Commerce

    within the territory of India

    Part XIV Services Under the

    Union, the States.

    Part XIVA Tribunals.

    Part XV Elections

    Part XVI Special Provisions

    Relating to certain Classes.

    Part XVII Languages Part XVIII Emergency


    Part XIX Miscellaneous

    Part XX Amendment of the


    Part XXI Temporary,

    Transitional and Special


    Part XXII Short title, date ofcommencement, Authoritative

    text in Hindi and Repeals,_Directive_Principles_and_Fundamental_Duties_of_India#Fundamental_Rights,_Directive_Principles_and_Fundamental_Duties_of_India#Fundamental_Rights,_Directive_Principles_and_Fundamental_Duties_of_India#Directive_Principles_of_State_Policy,_Directive_Principles_and_Fundamental_Duties_of_India#Directive_Principles_of_State_Policy,_Directive_Principles_and_Fundamental_Duties_of_India#Fundamental_Duties,_Directive_Principles_and_Fundamental_Duties_of_India#Fundamental_Duties,_Directive_Principles_and_Fundamental_Duties_of_India#Fundamental_Rights,_Directive_Principles_and_Fundamental_Duties_of_India#Fundamental_Rights,_Directive_Principles_and_Fundamental_Duties_of_India#Directive_Principles_of_State_Policy,_Directive_Principles_and_Fundamental_Duties_of_India#Directive_Principles_of_State_Policy,_Directive_Principles_and_Fundamental_Duties_of_India#Fundamental_Duties,_Directive_Principles_and_Fundamental_Duties_of_India#Fundamental_Duties
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    SchedulesSchedules are lists in the Constitution that categorize and tabulate

    bureaucratic activity and policy of the Government.

    First Schedule (Articles 1 and 4)- This lists the states and territories

    of India, lists any changes to their borders and the laws used to make

    that change.

    Second Schedule (Articles 59, 65, 75, 97, 125, 148, 158, 164, 186

    and 221)- This lists the salaries of officials holding public office,

    judges, and Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.

    Third Schedule (Articles 75, 99, 124, 148, 164, 188 and 219)

    Forms of Oaths This lists the oaths of offices for elected officials

    and judges.

    Fourth Schedule (Articles 4 and 80) This details the allocation of

    seats in theRajya Sabha (the upper house of Parliament) per State or

    Union Territory.

    Fifth Schedule (Article 244) This provides for the administrationand control of Scheduled Areas[Note 2] and Scheduled Tribes[Note 3] (areas

    and tribes needing special protection due to disadvantageous


    Sixth Schedule (Articles 244 and 275) Provisions for the

    administration of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and


    Seventh Schedule (Article 246)The union (central government),

    state, and concurrent lists of responsibilities.

    Eighth Schedule(Articles 344 and 351)The official languages.

    Ninth Schedule (Article 31-B) Originally Articles mentioned here

    were immune from judicial review on the ground that they violated

    fundamental rights. but in a landmark judgment in 2007, the Supreme

    Court of India held in I.R. Coelho v. State of Tamil Nadu and others

    that laws included in the 9th schedule can be subject to judicial review
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    if they violated the fundamental rights guaranteed under Article 14,

    15, 19, 21 or the basic structure of the Constitution.

    Tenth Schedule (Articles 102 and 191)"Anti-defection" provisions

    for Members of Parliament and Members of the State Legislatures.

    Eleventh Schedule (Article 243-G)Panchayat Raj (rural local


    Twelfth Schedule (Article 243-W)Municipalities (urban local



    Appendix 1 The Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir)

    order 1954.

    Appendix 2 Re-statement with reference to the present text of theconstitution, of the exceptions and modifications subject to which theconstitution applies to the Jammu and Kashmir.

    Appendix 3 Extracts for the constitution (Forty-fourth amendment) act1978.

    Appendix 4 The constitution (Eighty-sixth amendment) act 2002