Indian Bud IconographyEngl 536

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THE INDIAN BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY OSMANIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY Author Title This book should be returned on or before the date last marked below. THE INDIAN BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY Mainly Based on THE SADHANAMALA and Cognate Tantric Texts of Rituals BENOYTOSH BHATTACHARYYA, M.A.,Ph.o. Formerly Director of Oriental Institute and General Editor, Qaekwad's Oriental Series, Baroda FIRMA K. L. MUKHOPADHYAY CALCUTTA 1958 Published by K. L. MUKHOPADHYAY, 6/1A, Banchharam Akrur Lane, Calcutta- 12, India. SECOND EDITION Revised and Enlarged with 357 Illustrations JUNE 1958 Dr. B. Bhattacharyya Naihati, 24-Parganas Printed by A. C. Ghosh, GHOSH PRINTING HOUSE PRIVATE LIMITED, 17 A, British Indian Street, Calcutta- 1 Bound by NEW INDIA BINDERS, 5B, Patwar Bagan Lane, Cakutta-9 SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS Preface Abbreviations Acknowledgments Synopsis of Contents List of Illustrations Select Bibliography Errata Introduction ... ... 1 1. Materials for the study of Buddhist Iconography ; 2, Vajrayana Mysticism ; 3. The Psychic Process of Sadhana ; 4. Godhead in Buddhism ; 5. The Pantheon. CHAPTER I Dhyani and Mortal Buddhas ... ... 42

Vajradhara ; 1. Amitabha ; Pandara ; Padmapani ; 2. Aksobhya ; Mamaki ; Vajrapani ; 3. Vairocana ; Locana ; Samantabhadra ; 4* Amoghasiddhi ; Tara ; Visvapani ; 5. Ratnasambhava ; Vajradhatvlsvarl ; Ratna-pani ; 6. Vajrasattva ; Vajrasattvatmika ; Ghantapani ; Mortal Buddhas ; Vajrasana ; Durgatiparisodhana ; Mortal Buddhasaktis ; Mortal Bodhisattvas ; Maitreya. CHAPTER II. The Bodhisattvas ... ... ... 82 1. Samantabhadra ; 2. Aksayamati ; 3. Ksiti-garbha ; 4. Akasagarbha ; 5, Gaganaganja ; 6. Ratnapani ; 7. Sagaramati ; 8. Vajragarbha ; 9V?walokitesvara ;/x 10. Mahasthamaprapta ; 11. Candraprabha ; 12. Jaliniprabha ; 13. Amitaprabha ; 14. Pratibhanakuta ; 15. Sarvasokatamonirghatamati ; 16. Sarvanivaranaviskambhi ; 17. Maitreya ; 18. Manjusri ) 19. Gandhahasti ; 20. Jnanaketu ; 21. Bhadrapala ; 22, Sarvapayanjaha ; 23, Amoghadarsi ; 24- Surangama ; 25. Vajrapaanii ( General remarks. CHAPTER IIL Bodhisattva Manjusri ... ... 100 1. Vajraraga ; 2. Dharmadhatu-Vagisvara ; 3. Manju* ghosa ; 4. Siddhaikavlra ; 5. Vajrananga ; 6, Kama" sangiti Manjusri ; 7. Vagisvara ; 8. Manjuvara ; 9. Manjuvajra ; 10> Manjukumara ; 11. Arapacana ; 12. Sthiracakra ; 13. Vadirat, CHAPTER IV. Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara | ... ... 124 1. Sadaksari Lokesvara ; 2. Sirhhanada ; 3. Khasarpana; 4. Lokanatha ; 5. Halahala ; 6. Padmanarttesvara ; 7- Hari^ hariharivahana ; 8. Trailokyavasankara ; 9. Rakta-Lokes' vara ; 10. Mayajalakrama ; 11. Nilakantha ; 12. Sugatisandarsana ; 13. Pretasantarpita ; 14. Sukhavati Lokes* vara ; 15. Vajradharma ; General. CHAPTER V. Emanations of Amitabha - ... ... 145 I. Gods : 1. Mahabala ; 2. Saptasatika Hayagriva

II. Goddesses : 3. Kurukulla ; 4. Bhrkuti ; 5. Mahasitavatl CHAPTER VI. Emanations of Aksobhya ... ... 154 I. Gods : 1. Candarosana ; 2. Heruka ; 3. Hevajra ; 4. Buddhakapala ; 5. Sambara ; 6. Saptaksara ; 7. Mahamaya ; 8. Havamya ; 9 Raktayamah ; 10. Krsnayamari ; 11. Jambhala ; 12. Occhusma Jambhala ; 13. Vighnantaka ; 14. Vajrahuhkara ; 15. Bhutadamara ; 16. Vajrajjvalanalarka ; 17. Trailokyaviiava ; 18. Paramasva ; 19. Yogambara ; 20. Kalacakra. CHAPTER VII. Emanations of Aksobhya (continued) ... 189 II. Goddesses : 1. Mahaclnatara ; 2. Janguli ; 3* Ekajata ; 4. Vidyujjvalakarall ; 5. Parnasabarl ; 6Prajnaparamita ; 7. Vajracarcika ; 8. Mahamantranusarini ; 97^/TanSpratyahgira ; 10. Dhvajagrakeyura ; 11. Vasudhkra ; 12. Nairatma ; 13. Jnanadakini ; 14. VajravidaranL CHAPTER VIII. Emanations of Vairocana ... ... 206 I. Gods : 1. Namasahgiti II. Goddesses ; 2. M and ; 3. Usnisavijaya ; 4. Sitatapatra Aparajita ; 5. MahasahasrapramardanI ; 6. Vajravarahl ; 7. Cunda ; 8. Grahamatrka. CHAPTER IX. Emanations of Amoghasiddhi ... ... 226 I. Gods : 1 . Vajramrta II. Goddesses : 2. Khadiravam Tara ; 3. Mahasrl Tara ; 4. Vasyatara ; 5. Sadbhuja Sitatara ; 6. Dhanada Tara ; 7. Sitatara 8. Parnasabari ; 9. Mahamayun ; 10. Vajrasrnkhala ; 11. Vajragandhari. CHAPTER X. Emanations of Ratnasambhava ... ... 237 I. Gods : 1. Jambhala ; 2. Ucchusma Jambhala II. Goddesses : .s** 3. Vaipatara ; 4. Mahapratisara ; 5. Vasudhara ; 6. ApaJtfjita ; 7. Vajrayogim ; 8. Prasanna Tara CHAPTER XL Collective Deities ... ... ... 251 I. Ten Gods of Direction : ... ... ... 251 1. Yamantaka ; 2. Prajnantaka ; 3. Padmantaka ; 4. Vighnantaka ; 5. Takkiraja ; 6. Niladanda ; 7* Mahabala ; 8. Acala ; 9. Usmsa ; 10. Sumbharaja. II. Six Goddesses of Direction: ... ... 256 1. Vajrankusi ; 2. VajrapasI ; 3. Vajrasphota ; 4. Vajraghanta ; 5. Usmsavijaya ; 6. Sumbha. III. Eight Usmsa Gods ; ... ... ... 299 1. Vajrosmsa ; 2. Ratnosmsa ; 3. Padmosmsa ; 4. Visvosmsa ; 5. Tejosmsa ; 6. Dhvajosmsa ; 7. Tiksnosmsa ; 8. Chhatrosmsa. IV. Five Protectresses : ... ... ... 302

1. Mahapratisara ; 2. Mahasahasrapramardani ; 3. Mahamantranusarim ; 4. Maha$ItavatI ; 5. Maha* mayurL V. Taras of Five Colour : ... ... ... 306 1. Green Tara ; 2. White Tara ; 3. Yellow Tara ; 4. Blue Tara; 5. Red Tara. VI. Eight Gaurl Group : ... ... ... 309 1. Gaurl; 2. Cauri ; 3. Vetall ; 4. Ghasmarl ; 5. Pukkasi; 6. Saban ; 7. Candali ; 8. Dombi. VII. Four Dance Deities : ... ... ... 312 1. Lasya ; 2.. Mala; 3. Gita ; 4. Nrtya. VIIL Four Musical Instruments : ... .., 314 L Vaihsa ; 2. Vina; 3. Mukunda ; 4. Muraja. IX. Four Door Goddesses : ... ... ... 316 L Talika ; 2. KuncI ; 3. Kapata ; 4. Patadharinl X. Four Light Goddesses : ... ... ... 317 1. Suryahasta ; 2. Dlpa ; 3. Ratnolka ; 4. Taditkara. XL Four Animal-Faced Goddesses : ... ... 319 1. Hayasya ; 2. bukarasya ; 3. Svanasya ; 4. Simhasya. XIL Four Dakim Group : ... ... . 321 1. Dakim ; 2. Lama ; 3. Khandaroha ; 4. Rupim. CHAPTER XIL Philosophical Deities : ... 323 I. Twelve Paramitas : ... ... ... ... 323 1. Ratnaparamita ; 2. Danaparamita ; 3. cillaparamita ; 4. Ksantiparamita ; 5. Viryaparamita ; 6. DKyanaparamita ; 7. Prajnaparamita ; 8 Upayaparamita ; 9. Pranidhanaparamita ; 10. Balaparamita ; 11. Jnana* paramita ; 12. Vajrakarmaparamita. II. Twelve Vasita Goddesses : ... ... ... 328 1. Ayurvasita ; 2. Cittavasita ; 3. Pariskaravasita ; 4. Karma vasita ; 5. Upapattivasita ; 6. Rddhivasita ; 7. Adhimuktivasita ; 8. Pranidhana vasita ; 9. Jnanavasita ; 10. Dharmavasita ; 11. Tathatavasita ; 12, Buddhabodhiprabha-vasita. III. Twelve Bhumis : ... ... ... 333 1. Adhimukticarya ; 2. Pramudita ; 3. Vimala ; 4* Prabhakan ; 5. Arcismatl ; 6. Sudurjaya ; 7. Abhimukhl ; 8. Durangama ; 9. Acala ; 10. Sadhumat! ; 11. Dharmamegha ; 12* Samantaprabha.

IV. Twelve Dharinls : ... ... ... 337 1. Sumati ; 2. Ratnolka ; 3. Usrnsavijaya ; 4 Marl ; 5. Parnasabarl ; 6. Jahgull ; 7. Anantamukhl ; 8 Cunda ; 9. Prajnavardhanl ; 10. Sarvakarmavaranavisodhanl ; 11. Aksayajnanakaranda ; 12 Sarvabuddhadh armakosa vatL V. Four Pratisamvits : ... ... ... 342 L Dharma Pratisamvit ; 2. Artha Pratisamvit ; 3. Nirukti Pratisamvit ; 4. Pratibhana Pratisamvit.

XIX : CHAPTER XIII. Hindu Gods in Vajrayana : ... ... 344 1. Mahakala ; 2. Ganapatl ; 3. Ganapatihrdaya ; 4 Sarasvatl ; 5. The Eight Dikpalas : ... ... 352 I Indra ; II. Yama ; III. Varuna ; IV. Kubera ; V. Isana ; VI. Agni ; VII Nairrti ; VIII. Vayu 6. Ten Principal Hindu Deities : **r~ ... 363 ^IT Brahma ; II. Visnu ; III. "Stahesvara ; IV. Karttikeya ; V. Varahl ; VI. Camunda ; VII. BhrngI; VIII. Ganapati ; IX MahSkala ; X. Nandikesvara. 7. Nine Planets: ... ... ... 367 I. Aditya; II. Candra ; III. Mangala ; IV. Budha; V. Brhaspati ; VI. Sukra ; VII. 3ani; VIII. Rahu ; IX. Ketu. 8. Balabhadra Group : ... ... ... 378 I. Balabhadra ; II. Jayakara ; III. Madhukara ;

IV 7 , Vasanta. 9. Lords of the Yaksas, Kinnaras, Gandharvas and Vidyadharas : ... ... ... ... 379 I. Yaksa Kings ; II. Kinnara King ; III. Gandharva King; IV. Vidyadhara King. 10. Twenty-Eight Constellations ... ... 381 11. Time Deities: ... ... ... 382 I. Months ; II. Dates ; III. Zodiacal Signs ; IV. Seasons CHAPTER XIV. Conclusion ... ... ..." 334 Apppendix. 108 Forms of Avalokitesvara ... ... 394 Glossary ... ... ... ... ... 432 Index of Words ... ... . ... 443 Index of Illustrations ... ... ... ... 457 PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION The Mighty Gods and Goddesses of the Buddhist Pantheon wish to reveal themselves before the world once again through the pages of the Buddhist Iconography. Their Will is supreme. After overconv ing difficulties, delays and obstacles, the Buddhist Iconography at last is presented to the scholarly world in a second edition after a lapse of full thirty-four years. It is pleasant to live these long years to see my favourite book pass through a second edition. This is an occasion when I should remember with gratitude two of my illus* trious preceptors, Professor A. Foucher and my father Mm. Haraprasad Shastri both of whom are no longer in the land of the living. I believe in my heart of hearts that their invisible care and blessings are in a large measure responsible for this happy ending. It gives me immense .satisfaction. When the first edition of this book was published in 1924, my studies were much hampered owing to paucity of material. But since then such a great volume of information has been published that it appears almost overwhelming. I never could think that it would be possible for me to handle such vast material in a manner befitting this serious subject. Thus the second edition goes to the world with all its imperfections of which I am conscious more than my critics.

After 1924, the texts of the Sadhanamala and the Nispannayogavali were published. Both these texts proved to be veritable mines of information on Buddhist gods and goddesses. Between the two publications, the edition of the Advayavajrasangraha and the Quhyasamaja followed in rapid succession, and the information furnished in these two excellent texts not only added to my difficulties, but also changed materially the whole outlook underlying the classification and ar