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INDEX 01E7 Lok Devtas (Folk Deities) of Rajasthan 8 Prominent sects and saints of Rajasthan 9 Paintings of Rajasthan 10 Forts of Rajasthan 11 Major cenotaphs of Rajasthan 12 Tribes

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    INDEX – 01E

    Topic Page

    1 Rajasthan in the different periods of history 2 Rajasthan in the medieval period - Mewar History of Rathore’s of Marwar History of Chouhans History of Kachhawas of Amer History of Bhatis of Jaisalmer History of Jat rulers of Bharatpur 3 Rajasthan in the revolt of 1857 4 Peasant movements in Rajasthan 5 Prajamandal movements 6 Unification of Rajasthan 7 Lok Devtas (Folk Deities) of Rajasthan 8 Prominent sects and saints of Rajasthan 9 Paintings of Rajasthan 10 Forts of Rajasthan 11 Major cenotaphs of Rajasthan 12 Tribes of Rajasthan 13 Handicrafts of Rajasthan 14 Festivals of Rajasthan 15 Folk dances of Rajasthan 16 Important literary works of Rajasthan 17 Folk dramas of Rajasthan 18 Major temples of Rajasthan 19 Fairs of Rajasthan 20 Feudal system in Rajasthan 21 Extra notes

    1 7 23 38 48 57 60 62 67 72 78 82 95 104 112 126 130 136 142 154 159 170 175 182 185 191

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    RAJASTHAN IN THE DIFFERENT PERIODS OF HISTORY

    - In Rajasthan the first Human activity was observed near River Banas and its

    Tributaries. I. STONE AGE: 1. Bagore:-

    It is located in Bhilwara District .

    It is situated on the banks of River Kothari.

    The oldest evidences of Domestication of Animals found here.

    Hoards of Stone Age tools are found.

    It was initially excavated by ‘Virendra Nath Mishra”

    2. Tilwara:-

    It is located in Barmer district.

    It is situated on the banks of River Luni.

    As it was contemporary to the settlement of Bagore, evidence of animal rearing are also found here.

    Also, evidences of fire pit are found. Other sites:-

    3. Jayal Both located in Nagore District

    4. Deedwana

    5. Budha Pushkar – Ajmer district

    II. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION:-

    1. Kalibanga:- - It is located in Hanumangarh District. - It signifies black bangles. - It was discovered by Amlanand Ghosh in 1952 AD. - Excavation was done by B.K. Thapar & B.B. Lal (upto 5 levels) in 1961-1969

    AD. - Evidences of Pre-Harrappan and Post-Harappan civilization found. - Early evidences of cultivated fields are found in which two crops namely

    gram and mustard were produced. - Evidences of fire Pits are found.

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    - Drains were paved with wooden floorings. - Houses were built with unbaked bricks and decorated bricks. - Paired Cemetries are found. - Evidences of Earth-quake are found. - Kalibanga was located on the banks of ancient Saraswati or Ghaggar River

    and probably due to change of path by this River it was deserted. - The Government of India established a Museum in 1985-86 AD.

    2. Sothi:- - It is located in Bikaner District - Amlanand Ghosh described it as origination of Harappan Civilization. It is

    also known as Kalibanga-I - Two other centers – Sowaniya and Pugal.

    3. Aahar:- - It is located in Udaipur district. - Since settlement of this civilization was found near River Banas, it is also

    known as Banas Civilization. - Most of the sites are excavated near Aayar/Berach a tributary of River

    Banas. - Also known as civilization of Mounds of Deads. - Here, 6 to 8 fire places are found from a home which shows signs of joint

    family and collective feast. - A Greek seal is found with a picture of ‘Apollo’ (God of Sun). - Black and red pots are found which are called Gorey or Koth. - A Terracota figurine of a bull is found which is called ‘Bansasian Bull’. - Water vessels without handle are found, such water vessels are found in

    Iranian Civilization which correlate both. - The ancient name of Aahar is Aghatpur and in local language it is known as

    ‘Dhoolkot’. - Its excavation was started by ‘Akshay Kirti Vyas’. Later on Ratan Chand

    Aggarwal, Hansmukh Dheeraj Sankliya and Virendra Nath Mishra continued its excavation.

    - Other centers of Aahar civilization are a) Gilund (Rajsamand) b) Ojhiyana (Bhilwara) c) Balathal (Udaipur)

    - Copper furnances are found here, so it is also known as ‘Copper city’.

    III. MAHAJANAPADA PERIOD:- - It is also called second urban revolution of India.

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    - Janapadas in Rajasthan:- 1. Matsya

    - Present Alwar & Jaipur - Capital – Viratnagar - Information is also available in Rigveda.

    2. Shursen

    - Capital – Mathura - Spread over regions of Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur and Karoli.

    3. Kuru

    - Capital – Indraprasth - Norther Alwar

    Note- Alwar North South East West Kuru Matsya Sursen

    4. Rajanya Janapada

    - Some parts of Bharatpur 5. Shivi Janapada

    - Present Chittorgarh and Udaipur districts. - Capital – Madhymika (Present name is Nagri). - The first excavated site of Rajasthan is Nagri which was excavated in 1904

    AD by D.R Bhandarkar. 6. Malav Janapada

    - Present Jaipur and Tonk. - Capital – Nagar (Tonk). Also known as Khera Civilization. - Maximum coins found are of Malav Janapada.

    7. Shalvya (Shalva) Janapada

    - Territory spread over modern Alwar district 8. Yodhera Janapada

    - Present Ganganagar and Hanumangarh distict - From Girnar/Junagadh inscription of Rudradaman ( a shaka ruler)

    information is obtained that the power of Kushanas was checked by Yodheyas.

    -

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    9. Arjunayan Janapada

    - It is located in present Alwar and Bharatpur districts. *Note:- During Mahajanapada peiod the area around Bikaner and Jodhpur was known as Jangal region. Later on the rulers of Bikaner acquired the title of ‘Jangaldhar Badshah’.

    IV. MAURYAN PERIOD:-

    The most important center during Mauryan period was Bairath (Viratnagar).

    In 1837 AD ‘Captain Burt’ found the Bhabru rock edict of Ashoka from Bijak hills in which Ashoka expressed his faith towards Buddhism. A Buddhist Stupa and a spherical Buddhist temple excavated from here.

    Huen-tsang (a Chinese Traveler) also verified Buddhist monastaries here. His autobiography is Si-Yu-ki-.

    Later on Huna ruler Mihirkul destroyed those Buddhist monastaries.

    Bhabru rock edict of Ashoka is now available at Museum of Kolkatta.

    Sawai Ram Singh who was ruler of Jaipur excavated here and found a golden box in which probably there were remainings of Lord Buddha. At that time the commandant of Bairath was Kitaji Khangarot.

    According to a book named ‘Kumarpal Prabandh’ written by Jai Singh Suri the founder of Chittor Fort was Chitrang Maurya who constructed a pond at Chittor.

    According to Mansarovar inscription (Chittor) of 713 AD King Man Maurya ruled here. In this inscription names of four rulers are found – 1. Maheswar 2. Bhim 3. Bhoj 4. Man

    This inscription by mistake fell into sea when Col. James Todd was carrying it to London.

    In 734 AD Bappa Rawal Captured Chittor From king Man Maurya.

    In 738 AD from the inscription of Kansava Shivalaya (Kota) we obtain information about Maurya King Dhawal. After that we do not find any evidences of Mauryans in Rajasthan.

    *Note:- From Bairath maximum rock inscriptions are excavated. The script on these inscriptions is known as (shell) script. In 1936 AD Dayaram Sahani excavated here.

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    V. POST MAURYAN PERIOD:-

    Greek Ruler ‘Minander’ had occupied Madhyamika in 150 AD. It is mentioned in Patanjali’s Mahabhasya.

    A 5 meter high Sunga period idol of Yaksha is found from ‘Noh’ (Bharatpur). It is called as idol of Jakh Baba.

    Seals of Kushan period are obtained from Rang Mahal (Hanumangarh) also and idol of teacher-disciple is found from here. Rang Mahal was excavated by Dr. Hannarid (Swedish).

    VI. GUPTA PERIOD:-

    According to Prayag eulogy of Samudragupta his supremacy was established over all republics of Rajasthan.

    Chandragupta II defeated Shaka Ruler Rudra Singh III and occupied other remaining parts of Rajasthan.

    In Bayana (Bharatpur) maximum coins of Gupta period are found which are of reign of Kumargupta.

    An inscription of Gupta rulers is found from Barwa (Baran) which mention about Maukhari rulers.

    Huna ruler ‘Mihirkul’ constructed a Shiva Tempe in Badoli (Chittor).

    Shiva Temple of Charchauma (Kota) is also an example of Gupta period architecture.

    VII. POST GUPTA PERIOD:-

    Rajasthan during the Tripartite Struggle. - Capital of Gurjar Prathihars was Bhinmal. - Huen-tsang travelled to Bhinmal and he said it as Pi Lo Mo Lo. - Brahmgupta (Newton of India) belonged to Bhinmal.

    His books are Brahmsphut Siddhanth and Khand Khadhyak. - The birthplace of poet Magh was Bhinmal. His book is Shishupal Vadh

    which is written in Sanskrit. - Gurjar Prathihars stopped the Arabs to move forward from Sindh. - A branch of Rashtrakutas came to Rajasthan later on and known as

    Rathores. - Another contender of this conflict were Pals (from Bengal).

    VIII. SOME OTHER CHALCOLITHIC PERIOD SITES OF RAJASTHAN:-

    1. Ganeshwar - It is located on the banks of River Kantli in Sikar district.

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    - It is known as mother of Chalcolithic civilizations.

    2. Sunari - It is located on the banks of River Kantli in Jhunjhunu.

    3. Kurara - It is located in Nagore district and known as tool city.

    4. Ishwal - It is located in Udaipur district and known as industrial city because in

    ancient period iron was mined from here. 5. Raidh - It is located in Tonk district and known as Tata city of ancient India

    because coins in maximum quantity are found here.

    6. Jodhpura - It is located on the banks of River Sabi in Jaipur district.

    7. Naliyasar - It is located in Sambhar (Jaipur).

    8. Gardara - It is located in Bundi and known for rock paintings of ancient period.

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    RAJASTHAN IN THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD

    A. MEWAR:-

    Suryavanshi (claim their origin from Sun) rulers ruled in Mewar.

    It is World’s longest ruling dynasty.

    These rulers are called ‘Hindua Suraj’ i.e Sun of Hinduism.

    The kuldevi (family goddess) of rulers of Mewar is Banmata.

    The rulers of Mewar consider themselves as Deewan (Secretary) of Eklinga Nath Ji.

    1. GUHIL - Guhil established Guhil dynasty in Mewar in 566 AD. - His descendant came to be known as Guhil or Guhilot.

    2. Bappal Rawal - His original name was Kal Bhoj. - He used to graze the cows of Harit Rishi. - With the blessings of Harit Rishi he captured Chittor from King Man

    Maurya in 734 AD and made Nagda as his capital and constructed temple of Eklinga Ji at Nagda.

    - He started currency system and popularized coins of his name.

    3. Allat - His original name was Aaloo Rawal. - He made Ahar as his capital. He also constructed Varah temple in Ahar. - He married a Huna princess Haryadevi. - He laid foundation of bureaucracy in Mewar State.

    *Note:- - During the reign of Guhil ruler Shakti Kumar the ruler of Malwa named Munj occupied Chittor Fort. - King Bhoj who was descendant of Munj constructed Tribhuwan Narayan Shiva temple at Chittor which was later known as Sammidheswar temple of king Mokal of Chittor.

    4. Ran Singh His another name was Karan Singh-

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    Ran Singh Shem Singh Rahap (King – Rawal) (Sisoda – village) Samant Singh Kumar Singh *Note:- - Samant Singh became the ruler of Mewar in 1172 AD, but king Kitu (Kirtipal) who was ruler of Nadol captured Mewar from Samant Singh. Therefore, Samant Singh shifted his capital to Vagar. - Later on Kirtipal was defeated by Kumar Singh in 1179 AD (Kumar Singh was younger son of Shem Singh). Therefore, Kumar Singh re-occupied Mewar. His descendant was Jaitra Singh.

    5. Jaitra Singh (1213-1250 AD) - Battle of Bhutala (1234AD)

    It was fought between Sultan Iltutmish and Jaitra Singh in which Jaitra Singh was winner. But Iltutmish destroyed Nagda therefore Jaitra Singh made Chittor his new capital.

    - The reign of Jaitra Singh is known as golden period of medieval Mewar. - The information about the battle of Bhutata is obtained from the book ‘

    Hammir Madmardan” written by Jai Singh Suri.

    6. Tej Singh (1250-1273 AD). - During his reign Balban invaded Chittor. - In 1260 AD in Ahar a Jain text named ‘Shravak Pratikarman Sutrachurni’

    was picturized which is Rajasthan’s first illustration of textbook. - His wife ‘Jaital De constructed ‘Shyamparswanath’ temple at Chittor.

    7. Samar Singh (1273-1302 AD) - During his reign Hammir of Ranthambore invaded Chittor and collected a

    tax named Khairaj. - He collected tax from the army of Allauddin which was going for Gujarat

    invasion.

    8. Ratan Singh (1302-1303 AD) - Last ruler of Rawal branch.

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    - One of his brother named Kumbhkaran went to Nepal and he established “Ranashahi dynasty in Nepal.

    - Padmini was queen of Ratan singh and was daughter of king Gandharv Sen and Champawati of Sinhal country. A Brahmin named Raghav Chetan told Allauddin about the beauty of Padmini. Allauddin invaded Chittor. The reasons of his invasion were following:-

    i. Imperialist ambition of Allauddin. ii. Questions of Sultan’s prestige.

    iii. Strategic position of Chittor i.e strategic and trade importance of fort.

    After 8 months siege, Saka was done in the fort. Saka = Kesariya + Johar

    - Rani Padmini committed Johar alongwith 16000 queens on 25 August, 1303 AD.

    - Ratan Singh committed Kesariya along with his chief warrior. - Two commanders named Gora and Badal shown extreme bravery. - Laxman Singh of Sisoda Village and his 7 son’s sacrificed their life for the

    country. - Allauddin occupied the Fort. - It was the first Saka of Chittor Fort. - Allauddin changed the name of fort to Khijrabad and handed over to his

    son Khijr Khan. - During this invasion Amir Khusro accompanied Allauddin and described it

    in his book ‘Khazain-ul-Futuh’. - In 1540 AD. Malik Muhammad Jayasi described the beauty of Padmini in

    his book ‘Padmawat’ which is written in Oudhi language. - After few days Chittor was handed over to Maldeo Songara. He was

    brother of Kanhardeo Songara of Jalore. His nickname was Munchala Maldeo.

    - Note:- According to Rajasthani Literary sources and folk tales, Padmini was daughter of Punyapal Bhati of Pugal.

    - Hemratna Suri written the book named ‘Gora Badal ri Chopai’.

    9. Hammir (1326-1364) - Note:- Rahap

    Sisoda Village (Rana) Laxman Singh Ari Singh

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    Hammir (Rana Branch) - Therefore, change in Mewar form Rawal to Rana dynasty. - Hammir was grandson of Laxman Singh of Sisoda Village who sacrificed his

    life in the first Saka of Chittor. - Ari Singh was father of Hammir. - Hammir captured Chittor from Banveer Songara who was son of Maldeo

    Songara. - Since Hammir came from Sisoda village therefore his successors were

    known as Sisodia and Rana branch was established in Mewar. - The battle of Singoli was fought between Hammir and Muhammad Bin

    Tuglak. - In Kirti Stambh(pillar) eulogy Hammir is addressed as Visam Ghati

    Panchanan which means a lion in fearsome wars. - In the Rasik Priya (a commentary on Geet Govinda) Hammir is addressed as

    a brave king. - Hammir constructed ‘Annapurna’ temple (Barvari Mata) in the Chittor fort. - Hammir is known as reformer of Mewar because he re-conquered Mewar.

    10. Rana Lakha (Lakshya Singh ) (1382-1421 AD) - During his rule a silver mine came into existence at Zavar. - Lake Pichola was built by a Banjara. (Natani ka Chabutra is near to Lake

    Pichola) - Kumbha Hada died while defending fake Bundi.

    Mewar Marwar Lakha Chunda Son Son Daughter Chunda Ranmal or Hansabai Ridmal

    - Rana Lakha married to Hansabai who was daughter of Rao Chunda of Marwar. On this occasion Chunda who was son of Rana Lakha promised to offer throne of Mewar to son of Hansabai in place of himself.

    - Due to this oath Chunda is known as ‘Bhisma Pitamah’ (grandfather) of Mewar. Also, on the account of this sacrifise descendants of Chunda were given right to become part of Harawal.

    *Harawal = Leading troops of army during war

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    - Chundawats were given 4 Thikanas (Feudal state) of first class (out of 16 Thikanas of first class). Salumbar which was the best first class Thikana was bestowed to them.

    - Chundawats were given right to manage the state affairs in the absence of Rana from the capital. This right was given to the Rawals of Salumbar.

    - The coronation ceremony of rulers of Mewar (Rana) was also done by Rawal of Salumbar.

    11. Mokal (1421-1433 AD) - Son of Hansabai - Due to lack of trust of Hansabai, Chunda left Mewar and settled in Malwa.

    Now, Ranmal who was brother of Hansabai became Guardian of Mokal. - Mokal reconstructed ‘Sammidheswar Temple’ (originally constructed by

    Parmar King Bhoj) in Chittor. - He constructed security walls of Eklinga Ji Temple. - In 1433 AD King Ahmed Shah of Gujarat invaded Chittor. When Mewar

    army was in its camps at Jheelwara (Rajsamand) then Chacha, Mera and Mehpa Panwar murdered Mokal. At that time Mokal’s son Kumbha was also in the camp but other chieftains managed his escape to Chittor.

    - Mokal’s wife Kamlawati fought bravely with Ahmed Shah.

    12. Rana Kumbha (1433-1468 AD) - Ranmal was guardian of Rana Kumbha. - Rathore influence was increased in Mewar court. They Killed Chunda’s

    brother Raghav Dev Sisodiya. Therefore to get rid of the Rathore dominance Hansabai called Chunda from Malwa to Mewar.

    - Ranmal was killed with the assistance of his concubine Bharmali. - Ranmal’s son Jodha ran away from Mewar along with his brother. He took

    shelter in a village named Kahuni near Bikaner. - Chunda attacked Mandore and occupied it. - Hansabai played the role of mediator to realize treaty between Kumbha

    and Jodha. This treaty is known as the treaty of Aanwal and Banwal. - Jodha married his Daughter Shrinagar Kanwar to Raimal son of Kumbha. - Soubhagyawati Parmar was mother of Kumbha.

    1437 AD THE BATTLE OF SARANGPUR KUMBHAV/S MEHMUD KHILJI (SULTAN OF MALWA)

    - Kumbha won the battle, he built victory tower at Chittor to commemorate

    the victory. The tower is also known as Vijay Stambh. It is also known as

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    Vishnu Dhwaj as Lord Vishnu’s idol is there in its middle. It is also called Museum of idols or encyclopedia of Indian sculpture.

    - It is nine storey building constructed in 1440-1448 AD. It is 120 feet high and 30 feet width.

    - On its third storey nine times ‘Allah’ is written in Arabic language. - Its architects were Jaita and his son Napa and Punja. - It consist of Kirti pillar eulogy which is written by Atri and his son Mahesh. - It was renovated by Maharana Swaroop Singh when its upper part was

    damaged. - Col. James Todd compared it with ‘Qutub Minaret’. - Fergusson considered it better than Tarjan of Rome. - It is emblem of Rajasthan police. - It is first building of Rajasthan on which postal stamp was issued. On 15

    August, 1949 a 1 Rs postal stamp was issued.

    Jain Kirti Pillar- - It was constructed by a Jain trader ‘Jija Shah Bagherwal’ in the 12th century

    in Chittor Fort. - It is devoted to first Jain Thirthankar Adinath so, it is also known as Adinath

    monument.

    1456 AD – The treaty of Champaner - According to this treaty Mehmud Khilji of Malwa and Qutubuddin of

    Gujarat planned a joint attack on Kumbha. - Kumbha defeated the combined army of both in the Badnaur battle. - Kumbha defeated Sahasmal Deora of Sirohi in 1457 AD. - Kumbha helped Shams Khan of Nagore against Mujahid Khan. (both were

    of Nagore and fighting for the throne of Nagore) - Titles of Kumbha:-

    1. Hindu Surtan 2. Abhinav Bharatcharya (Due to his knowledge of Music) 3. Rano-Raso (Patron of writers) 4. Halguru (Winner of hilly forts) 5. Danguru 6. Chaphguru (Due to his mastery in Guerrilla warfare)

    - Contribution of Kumbha in architecture:- According to ‘Veer Vinod written by Shyamaldas ji out of 84 forts of Mewar 32 forts were constructed by Rana Kumbha. 1. Kumbhalgarh Fort (Rajasamand)

    - Architect was Mandan

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    - The upper part of Kumbhalgarh is called Katargarh which was personal residence of Kumbha. It is known as eye of Mewar. 2. He reconstructed Achalgarh Fort of Sirohi. 3. Basanti and Machan both forts were constructed in Sirohi. 4. Bhomath fort – it is situated on Bhomath plateau (Dungarpur –

    Banswara). - He reconstructed Eklinga ji temple. - He constructed Kumbha Swami temple in three forts namely Chittor,

    Kumbhalgarh and Achalgarh. - He constructed Shrinagar Chanvari temple in Chittor fort. - In the reign of Kumbha in 1439 AD Dharankshah constructed Ranakpur Jain

    temples. It has 1444 pillars, so also known as museum of pillars. Choumukha temple (one of Jain temples of Ranakpur). Its architect was Depak.

    - Kumbha was an excellent musician. His music teacher was Sarang Vyas. Some of his textbooks on music are 1. Surha Prabandh 2. Kamraj Ratisar 3. Rasik Priya (It is a commentary written on Geet Govinda of Jaidev) 4. A commentary work on Chandi Satak 5. Sangeet Raj = His largest textbook 6. Sangeet Sudha 7. Sangeet Mimansa 8. Sangeet Ratnakar.

    - There was an intellect in his court named Kanha Vyas author of ‘Eklinga Mahatmya’. The first part of Eklinga Mahatmya is called Raj varnan and written by Kumbha.

    - Books written by Mandan- 1. Vastusar 2. Devmurti Prakaran 3. Raj Vallabh 4. Roop Mandan 5. Vastu Mandan 6. Prasad Mandan 7. Shagun Mandan 8. Kodand Mandan

    - Mandan’s brother was Natha who wrote a book named Vastu Manjari. - Mandan’s son was Govind who wrote following books- Kala Nidhi and

    Dwar Deepika. - Kumbha’s daughter Rama bai was also a good musician, she was given

    Javar Pargana.

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    - Kumbha’s sister Lala Mewari was married to Achal Das Khichi who was ruler of Gagron. (Khichi is a sub branch of Chouhans)

    - Kumbha was killed by his own son Uda in Katargarh, that’s why Uda is known as Parricide ruler.

    13. Raimal (1473-1509 AD) - His queen Shrinagar Devi (Daughter of Jodha) constructed Ghosundi

    stepwell near Chittor. *In Ghosundi a 2nd century BC inscription is found which is the first written evidence of Vaishnav sect in Rajasthan.

    - Raimal constructed ‘Adhbhut Shiva Temple’ in the Chittor Fort. - Prithviraj – He was elder son of Raimal and popularly known as flying

    prince. He reconstructed the Ajmer fort and renamed it as Taragarh on behalf of his wife’s name Tara. His twelve pillared Chattri (Cenotaph) is situated in Kumbhalgarh Fort.

    - His sister’s husband named Jagmal Deora (Sirohi) poisoned him to death. - Jaimal – he fought with Solankis and was killed by them.

    *Surtan Solanki was father of Tara.

    14. Maharana Sangram Singh (1509-1527 AD) – Rana Sanga - (Grandson of Kumbha, Son of Raimal) - Prithviraj and Jaimal tried to kill Sanga when they heard the prophecy of a

    Charan woman. Sanga lost his one hand. Sanga escaped from there and came to Roopnarayan temple of Sevantri village. Here, Bida Jaitmalot defended him and Sacrificed his own life. After that, Sanga took Shelter at Karmachand panwar’s house in Srinagar (Ajmer). Battle of Khanwa (on 17th March,1527) – Rana Sanga v/s Babur

    1517 AD – Battle of Khatoli Rana Sanga defeated Ibrahim lodi 1519 AD – Battle of Bari in both the battles 1519 AD – Battle of Gagron = Rana Sanga defeated Mehmud Khilji II of Malwa. At that time the Gagron fort was under the control of Medini Rai, Rana Sanga’s Friend. Medini Rai was ruler of Chanderi (MP). On the question of succession of Idar (a princely state of Gujarat) Rana Sanga defeated Mujffar Shah II of Gujarat.

    - Sanga defeated Babur in the Battle of Bayana.

    The Battle of Khanwa (1527 AD)

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    - Babur declared Jehad prior to the battle. - He waived off Tamga tax from Muslims. - He Prohibited alcohol. - Rana Sanga wrote letter to almost all princely states of Rajasthan to help

    him in the battle. It is called Pati-Parwa. Amber – Prithviraj Kachhawaha Chanderi – Medini Rai Bikaner – Kalyan mal (son of Jaitri) Jodhpur (Marwar) – Maldeo Merta – Viramdeo Sirohi – Akheraj Deora Bangar (Dungarpur –Banswara) – Udai Singh Kathiyawar – Jhala Ajja Gogunda – Jhala Sajja Bijoliya – Ashok Parmar Mewat – Hasan Khan Mewati Mehmud Lodi (younger son of Ibrahim Lodi)

    - During the Battle an arrow hit the eye of Sanga. Therefore, Maldeo took him away from battle field.

    - Then Jhala Ajja took the command. - Finally, Babur won the battle. - Injured Sanga was brought to Baswa (Dausa). Later he wished to continue

    the war, therefore his commandant poisoned him because they realized the fact that it was not possible to defeat Babur. Sanga died at kalpi (MP). His place of cremation is at Mandalgarh. Note:- In this battle Mirabai’s husband Bhojraj (eldest son of Sanga) died. Ratan Singh Rathore was father of Mira.

    - Sanga is known as ‘ruins of soldiers” - Sanga is memorized as the last Hindu Ruler.

    15. Rana Ratan Singh (1528-1531 AD) - He died in a war against Surajmal Hada of Bundi.

    16. Rana Vikramaditya (1531-1536 AD) - His mother Karnwati was his guardian. - During his time king Bahadurshah of Gujarat invaded Chittor in 1533 AD.

    Thereby in a treaty the Ranthambore fort was given to Bahadurshah. - In 1534 AD Bahadur Shah again invaded Chittor. Thereafter Queen

    Karanawati sent Rakhi to Humanyun seeking his help.

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    - At that time Mewar’s second Saka was performed. In the leadership of Bagh Singh of Dewaliya the Keshariya was done. Queen Karnawati did Johar along with other Rajput women.

    - The cenotaph (chhatri) of Bagh Singh is near Rampole. He was known as Dewaliya Deewan.

    - The command of Mewar was given to Banveer who was a son of female slave of flying prince Prithviraj as Vikramaditya was minor at that time.

    - Banveer tried to kill Udai Singh but Panna Dhai sacrificed her son Chandan to save Udai Singh.

    17. Maharana Udai Singh (1537-1572 AD) - Panna Dhai took Udai Singh to Kumbhalgarh where Asha Devpura who was

    fortsman of Kumbhalgarh gave shelter to them. - Akheraj Songara married his Daughter Jayanta Bai to Udai Singh. - In 1540 AD with the support of king Maldeo of Jodhpur, Udai Singh

    replaced Banveer and became Maharana. 1557 AD the battle of Harmada: :Udai Singh v/s Hazi Khan Pathan (Governor of Ajmer).

    - In that battle, Maldeo supported Hazi Khan and therefore Udai Singh lost it.

    - In 1559 AD Udai Singh founded Udaipur and constructed Udai Sagar Lake. In 1567-68 AD Akbar invaded Chittor.

    - Udai Singh handed over the keys of Chittor fort to Jaimal (ruler of merta) and himself moved to ‘Girva Hill’.

    - Jaimal was injured by a bullet of a rifle named Sangram which was shot by Akbar when he was over-looking the repairing work of damaged parts of the fort.

    - Finally it was decided to do Saka when there came shortage of water and food in the fort.

    - Under the leadership of Phool Kanwar who was wife of Fateh Singh Chundawat, Johar was organized.

    - Fateh Singh and Jaimal leaded the Kesariya. - Injured Jaimal fought the battle by sitting on shoulder of Kalla Rathore.

    Therefore, kalla Rathore is worshipped as a folk deity (Lok Devta) of four hands.

    - The place of cremation (Chhatri) of Fatta is near Ram Pol whereas that of Jaimal and Kalla are between Hanuman Pol and Bhairav Pol.

    - Akbar was highly influenced by their bravery and kept their statues sitting on elephant at the entrance of Agra fort.

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    - Similar Statues are also there at outer premises of Junagarh Fort at Bikaner.

    After that war Udai Singh made Gogunda his capital. The place of cremation (Chhatri) of Udai Singh is at Gogunda.

    18. Maharana Pratap (1572-1597 AD) - The coronation of Maharana Pratap was done at Gogunda. Krishnadas

    Chundawat (Rawat of Salumabar) displaced Jagmal to coronate Maharana Pratap.

    - Birth : 09 May, 1540 - Mother – Jaywanta Rai - Wife – Ajmade Kanwar - Childhood name – Kika - Recoronation place – Kumbhalgarh Fort - Capital – Gogunda

    - The battle of Haldighati: 18 June, 1576

    Maharana Pratap v/s Akbar - In this battle the commander in chief of Royal army was Man Singh which

    was his first independent war- campaign. - Following delegation were sent to convince Rana Pratap for a treaty prior

    to the Haldighati Battle- o Jalal Khan Korchi o Man Singh o Bhagwant Das o Todarmal

    - When Rana Pratap’s horse, Chetak was injured in the battle, Rana Pratap left the Battle field. Therefore Jhala Man took the command.

    - Chetak’s cremation place is in Balicha Village. - Badayuni called this battle as ‘Battle of Gogunda’. - Abul Fazal called it ‘Battle of Khamnaur’. - Col. James Todd called it ‘Thermopalli of Rajasthan’. - Adarshi Lal Srivastav called it ‘Battle of Emperor –Tiger’ - Hakim-khan Sur and Punja Bhil also fought the battle on the side of

    Maharana Pratap. - After the Haldighati battle when financial conditions of Maharana Pratap

    worsened then Bhamashah and his brother Tarachand donated their entire wealth to Maharana Pratap.

    - A soldier named Mihatar Khan re-encouraged the uprooted Mughal army.

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    - Shakti Singh Initially was with Akbar but later on came-to Pratap’s camp on emotional account.

    - Kanhyaia Lal Sethia written ‘Pathal (Pratap) & Pithal (Prithviraj Rathore)’ - Prithiviraj Rathore was married to Kiran Kanwar who was daughter of

    Shakti Singh (younger brother of Pratap). - After the Haldighati battle the Mughal commander in chief Shahbaj Khan

    made four insuccessfull attempts to win the Kumbhalgarh fort. - In 1580 AD Amar Singh arrested women of Mughal Haram at a place

    named Sherpur.

    1582 AD The Battle of Diver - Col. James Todd called it Marathon of Mewar. - In this battle Mughal commander in chief ‘Surtan Khan’ was killed

    Jagannath Kachhawaha led the last Mughal Campaign against Maharana Pratap in 1585 AD. Jagnnath Kachhawaha’s 32 pillared cenotaph is located at Mandalgarh.

    - Maharana Pratap reconquered entire Mewar excluding Chittor and Mandalgarh.

    - In his last times Pratap made Chawand (Dungarpur) his capital from here Mewar School of painting was started. Pratap also constructed Chamunda Mata Temple.

    - On 19 January, 1597 Pratap died in Chawand when he was pulling a bow string.

    - Rana Pratap cenotaph is at Baroli. *Note :- After the Haldighati Battle Akbar himself invaded Udaipur and named it Mohammadabad. -The Battle of Utala was fought between Jaitra Singh Chundawat and Ballu Shaktawat to gain participation in Harawal (leading part of army).

    19. Amar Singh (1597-1620 AD) - 5 February, 1615 Mughal-Mewar treaty (in the reign of Jehangir) - From the side of Mewar the proposal of treaty was presented by Haridas

    Jhala and Shubhkaran. - Conditions of treaty:-

    1. Prince Karan Singh would attend the Mughal Court. 2. Karan Singh would be made Mansabdar of five thousand.

    - Maharana Amar Singh was disheartened with the treaty and handed over the throne to Karan Singh. Thereafter he spent rest of his life at a place named ‘Nou-Chowk’ (Rajsamand).

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    - During the reign of Amar Singh the Mewar School of Paintings was flourished.

    - The cenotaph (Chhatri) of Amar Singh is at Aahar. - After Amar Singh the Cenotaphs of all the Maharans of Mewar are situated

    at Aahar (Udaipur) -

    20. Karan Singh (1620-1628 AD) - He started construction of Jagmandir Palace in Pichola Lake at Udaipur. - Shahjahan took shelter at Jagmandir during his rebellion period. - He constructed palaces in Udaipur – Dilkhush palace and karan Vilas

    Palace.

    21. Jagat Singh I (1628-1652 AD) - He completed the construction of Jagmandir palace. - He constructed Jagdish (Jagannath) Temple in Udaipur. - At this temple Jagannath Rai eulogy is written by Krishna Bhatt. - Dhai Temple near Jagdish temple was constructed by Nouju Bai who was

    Maharana’s mother. - He constructed Mohan Temple in the Lake Pichola and also Roopsagar

    Pond. *Note:- In 1631 AD Shahjahan provided Shahpura Princely state (Bhilwara) to Sujan Singh by separating it from Mewar.

    22. Raj Singh (1652-1680 AD) - He supported Aurangzeb during the war of succession. - He opposed Aurangzed on imposition of Zazia in 1679 AD. - He offered support to Maharaja Ajit Singh of Jodhpur against Aurangzab. It

    is known as Rathore –sisodiya coalition. - He got married with princess Charumati of Rupangarh (Kishangarh) against

    the wish of Aurangzeb. Prior to the marriage, there was a war between Mewar and Mughals in which Ratan Singh Chundawat, Rawat of Salumbar refused to participate. His Hadi queen Sahal Kanwar sacrificed herself to prove him that the glory of motherland is superior to all other pleasures.

    - He also married Roopmati (Chanchal Kumari) who was princess of Roopnagar against the wish of Aurangzeb.

    - He established idol of Srinathji at Sihar (Nathdwara). - Also installed idol of Dwarkadhisa at Kankroli (Rajsamand). - Constructed temple of ‘Amba Mata’ at Udaipur. - Constructed Rajasamand Lake where Amar Singh spent his last time at

    Nou-Chowki. The lake was constructed as a famine relief work. On the

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    banks of this lake Raj eulogy (Raj Prashasti) is inscribed on 25 big rockedicts which are India’s biggest rock edicts in Sanskrit language.

    - His queen Ramras De constructed ‘Trimukhi’ stepwell. - His mother Jana De Constructed ‘Janasagar’ pond at Udaipur. - His titles were’ Vijaykat Katu’ (conqueror of enemies) and Hydraulic ruler. - After Maharan Kumbha, he was the one who highly Patronize cultural

    activities in Mewar. Intellects in his court:- 1. Ranchhod Bhatt Tailang, he wrote – Raj Prashasti and Amar Kavya

    Vanshavali. 2. Kishore Das – Raj Prakash 3. Sadashiv Bhatt – Raj Ratnakar

    23. Jai Singh (1680-1698 AD) - He built Jaisamand Lake which is also known as Debhar Lake. There are two

    islands in the lake namely Baba ka Magra and Payari.

    24. Amar Singh II (1698-1710 AD) - Debari Agreement in 1710 AD.

    Between Mewar Rana Amar Singh II Ruler of Amber Swai Jai Singh Ruler of Marwar Ajit Singh According to the agreement it was agreed to-

    i. Assist Ajit Singh in occupying throne of Jodhpur (Marwar). ii. Amar Singh II married his daughter Chandra Kunwar to Swai Jai Singh

    on a condition that son from Chandra Kunwar would be the next ruler of Amber.

    25. Sangram Singh II (1710-1734 AD) - During his rule Marathas interfered in the state for the first time. - He constructed ‘Saheliyon ki Bari’ (a fountain garden) for the royal maids at

    Udaipur. - He prepared the outline of Hurda conference. - He constructed the great temple of Vaidhyanath in Sisarama village where

    Roop Bhatt wrote the eulogy of Vaidhyanath temple.

    26. Jagat Singh II (1734-1751 AD) - On 17 July, 1734 AD the Hurda conference was organized. Its objective was

    to unite all Rajput princely states against the Marathas. - It was decided that after the end of rainy season a war would be declared

    against Marathas in Rampura.

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    - It was headed by Jagat Singh II and other participating members were Jaipur – Swai Jai Singh Jodhpur – Abhay Singh Kota – Durjansal Bikaner – Jorawar Singh Karoli – Gopal Singh Kishangarh – Raj Singh Bundi – Dalel Singh Nagore – Bakht Singh The Hurda conference could not succeed as Swai Jai Singh didn’t took much interest in it because he was not given its leadership.

    - Jagat Singh II constructed Jagat Vilas Palace in Udaipur. - His courtperson Nekram wrote a book named ‘Jagat Vilas’. - Marathas intruded for the first time in Mewar during his reign and

    collected ‘tax’ from him.

    27. Bhim Singh (1778-1828 AD) - Krishna Kumari Dispute :

    Krishna Kumari who was daughter of Mewar Maharana Bhim Singh was engaged with Bhim Singh the ruler of Marwar. Unfortunately Bhim Singh (ruler of Marwar) died before marriage. Therefore, her engagement was again done with Jagat Singh who was ruler of Jaipur. But it was objected by Marwar ruler Man Singh.

    - 1807 AD, the Battle of Gingoli (In Nagore near parbatsar) was fought between Jaipur and Jodhpur. In this battle Bikaner ruler Surat Singh and Tonk Nawab Amir Khan Pindari cooperated Jaipur.

    - Finally to end the dispute Krishna Kumari was poisoned to death on the advise of Asind Thakur Ajit Singh Chundawat and Amir Khan Pindari.

    - In 1818 AD Bhim Singh did the subsidiary alliance with the Britishers. During alliance Mewar was represented by Ajit Singh Chundawat and British representative was Mattcalf. *Col. James Todd was the political agent of Mewar.

    28. Maharana Swarop Singh (1842-1861 AD) - He started Swaroopshahi coins in Mewar.

    *In Mewar ‘Chandori coins’ were given in the form of Prize. - He was the ruler during the revolt of 1857 AD. - He constructed the upper part of kirti Stambh.

    29. Sajjan Singh (1874-84 AD) - He constructed Sajjangarh Fort. It is called crown jewel of Mewar.

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    - He granted the title of ‘Kaviraj’ to Shyamaldas who was writer of ‘Veer Vinod’.

    - He established ‘Deshhiteshani Assembly’ on 2nd July, 1870 AD. - It was the institute of social reformation. Its objective was to minimize

    marriage expenditure among Rajputs. And also to ban polygamy. Kaviraj Shyamaldas was also its member.

    - He established ‘Mahaindrasa’ assembly in 1880 AD, which was a judicial institution.

    30. Fateh Singh (1884-1921 AD) - The famous ‘Bijolia movement’ started during his reign. - When he was going to attend the Delhi court of Lord Curzon in 1903 AD

    then Kesari Singh Barahth wrote 13 Sorathas (a form of poetry) to him which are called ‘ Chetawanj ra Chungatiya’ i.e warning messages.

    31. During Independence of India the ruler of Mewar was Maharana Bhupal

    Singh Who also became first ‘Maharaj-Pramukh’ of Rajasthan.

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