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  • 8/3/2019 Igniting Change



    Change:A Strategy for Universal Adoptionof Clean Cookstoves and Fuels

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  • 8/3/2019 Igniting Change


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    AcknowledgementsIgniting Change: A Strategy or Universal Adoption o Clean Cookstoves and Fuels w wr by

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    Executive SummaryA Dagerous ad Ueat Reait

    In an era o cell phones, satellites, and the Internet,it can oten be hard to believe that almost hal the

    worlds population still cooks ood, boils water, andwarms their homes by burning wood, dung, otherbiomass, and coal in open res or rudimentary cook-stoves. Yet this is the reality acing the nearly threebillion people who meet their daily household energyneeds in this dangerous and outdated way. Operes ad rudietar cookstoes are ieciet,ueat, ad usae, ad iaig te acrid sokead e particuates te eit eads to ear twoiio deats a ear wordwide, priari aogwoe ad cidre. In addition to these prematuredeaths, millions more are sickened rom acute andchronic lung and heart diseases while hundreds o

    thousands more suer burns or disgurement romopen fames and dangerous cookstoves.1

    Women and girls are at the center o this issue. Theyare typically responsible or securing uel to cookthe amily meal, and when they must leave the saetyo their communities to search or rewood and othertraditional biomass uels, they are at increased risko gender-based violence, particularly in confictareas. Time spent collecting uel is wasted humancapital time that could be better spent on incomegeneration, education, or other activities. Where uelmust be purchased, primarily in urban areas, the costplaces a high burden on amilies struggling to meet

    their basic needs. Inecient cookstoves also placepressure on ecosystems and orests and contribute toclimate change through emissions o greenhouse gasesand black carbon.

    Adding to the challenge is the relatively low level oglobal awareness about this wide-reaching health andenvironmental threat, even among the policy, donor,

    and development communities. Well-known killerssuch as HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis justi-ably capture headlines and donor dollars, but thedevastating health impacts o toxic cookstove smokemerit equal attention and resources. In act, data romthe World Health Organization indicate that moremen, women, and children die each day rom diseasesthat could be entirely prevented by using advanced orclean cookstoves and uels than die rom malaria ortuberculosis.2 Not only is adoption o clean3 cookingsolutions a health, economic, gender, and environmen-tal imperative, it is essential or achieving the UnitedNations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) orchild mortality, maternal health, poverty eradication,gender equality, and environmental sustainability. Inact, by the United Nations Development Programmes(UNDP) 2009 estimates, 1.9 billion people will needaccess to modern uels by 2015 to meet the MDG orpoverty reduction.4

    Wie soe a sa tat te poor caot aordto adopt cea cookig soutios, the opposite is inact the case. Te poor pa eai or teir ack oaccess to cea cookstoes ad ues, and the highcost o poverty in many developing countries meansthat clean cookstoves can quickly pay or themselvesin health, economic, and environmental benets.

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    A Goa Issue at a Tippig Poit

    Fortunately, the prospects or success are strongerthan ever beore. Advanced biomass cookstovesnow exist that, i deployed in large numbers, couldsave millions o lives over the coming decades, whileimproving countless others, empowering women, cre-ating opportunities or the poor, and reducing environ-

    mental impacts. For some, cleaner burning uels likeliqueed petroleum gas (LPG), biogas, ethanol, andsolar power oer healthier and more ecient optionswhen available and aordable.

    There are several reasons or this steady progress inthe sector over the past decade. Iproed cookstoedesigs tat etter refect cosuers eeds, oreprecise eat ad ciate data detaiig te ar-u ipacts o traditioa cookstoe use, ioa-tie usiess odes ad acig ecaiss,copreesie atioa progras, roust testigprotocos, ad iexpesie ut eectie oitorigdeices are just a ew o the promising breakthroughsthat have propelled the sector to a tipping point. Inshort, tremendous progress in the availability, aord-ability, accessibility, and adoption o clean cookstovesand uels oers the prospect or lie-savingand lie-changingbenets or the worlds poorest citizens. Inaddition, these breakthroughs have sparked renewedinterest among the development, public policy, anddonor communities because o the signicant health,economic, gender, and environmental benets that canbe realized by the use o clean cooking solutions.

    Toward Uiersa Adoptio

    o Cea CookstoesThese advances represent important progress, yetmuch remains to be accomplished by the internationalcommunity to ully realize the vast benets rom cleancooking solutions. Foremost among these priorityactions is the development o a thriving global marketor clean cookstoves and uels, with the ability to selltens o millions o clean cookstoves a year. Without amarket, it will be almost impossible to adequately andsustainably address the vast cooking needs o the morethan 600 million o the worlds households still usingsolid uels in inecient cookstoves and open res.5

    Without a stronger evidence base, it will be verydicult to drive sucient investment to solve thisissue at a global scale; without rigorous standards,there will be little accountability; without greater own-ership at the local and national level, the sector willnot be able to scale up adoption o cleaner cookstovesand uels; and without eective measurement andverication o results, there will be no way to ensurevital health and environmental benets on the ground.However, no single stakeholder in the cookstove sectorhas the capability to transorm the eld on their own.A cocerted ad coordiated iteratioa approacaog a te ke stakeoders to create a roust

    arket or cea cookstoes ad ues as te great-est potetia or success.

    Toward this objective, U.S. Secretary o StateHillary Rodham Clinton and a range o leadinginternational public and private actors launched apublic-private partnership in September 2010 withthe ambitious mission to transorm the global marketor clean cookstoves and uels. The Global Alliance

    or Clean Cookstoves (Alliance), led by the UnitedNations Foundation, is an innovative initiative tosave lives, improve livelihoods, empower women,and combat climate change, with a goal o spurringthe adoption o clean cookstoves and uels in 100million households by 2020. To ensure that thenew initiative harnessed the tremendous expertiseo the sector as it developed its programmaticplatorm, the Alliance convened experts rom across-section o cookstove-related disciplines in anunprecedented six-month eort to capture theircollective knowledge and experience.

    The resulting recommendations o nine Working

    Groups and two Cross-Cutting Committees ellroughly into three strategic pillars o engagement eacig dead, stregteig supp, adosterig a eaig eiroet. These threepillars orm the ramework o the ollowing SectorStrategy, a report designed to oster a cohesive visionor the clean cookstoves sector among current stake-holders and new partners and to map a strategy toachieve universal adoption o clean cookstoves. Thisblueprint or donors, the private sector, implement-ers, the United Nations, and policy-makers outlines acombination o policy levers, programming, researchactivities, and unding to catalyze the clean cookstoves

    and uels sector and will serve as the oundation othe Alliances Business Plan.

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    Reacig Uiersa Adoptio o Cea Cookstoes ad Fues


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    Backgroundand NeedWhile use o modern cookstoves is scarcely evenconsidered a luxury in most o the developed world,

    nearly three billion people across the developingworld still cook their ood each day the way it hasbeen done or thousands o years over an open fameor on a crude cookstove using solid uels like wood,coal, crop residues, and animal dung. In sub-SaharanArica and Asia, the lack o access to clean cookstovesand uels or cooking is especially acute, with a thirdo the urban population and the vast majority o therural poor using solid uels to cook their daily mealsover open res or inecient cookstoves6 made romclay, metal, or bricks. In many countries, the rate osolid uel7 usage, especially in rural areas, is 80% to90%8, and the number o people who use these uels

    or cooking is expected to rise as population growthoutpaces economic development. The InternationalEnergy Agency estimates that by 2030, 100 millionmore people will use traditional biomass uels than doso today.9 Even where there is access to electricity orLPG, primarily in urban areas, the use o solid uelsor cooking persists due to cost and cultural actors.

    heat Ipacts

    Daily exposure to toxic smoke rom traditional cook-ing practices is one o the worlds biggest but leastwell-known killers. Penetrating deep into the lungso its victims, this smoke causes a range o deadlychronic and acute health eects such as child pneu-monia, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary

    disease, and heart disease, as well as low birth-weightsin children born to mothers whose pregnancies arespent breathing toxic umes rom open res.10 TheWorld Health Organization (WHO) estimates thatexposure to smoke rom the simple act o cookingconstitutes the th worst risk actor or disease indeveloping countries, and causes almost two millionpremature deaths per year exceeding deaths attribut-able to malaria or tuberculosis.11 In addition, tens omillions more all sick with illnesses that could readilybe prevented with improved adoption o clean andecient cookstoves and uels.12

    Exposure to these toxic umes is greatest amongwomen and young children, who spend the most timenear open res or traditional cookstoves tending tothe amily meal, or schoolchildren who may study bythe weak light o an open fame. Typical wood-redcookstoves and open res emit small particles, carbonmonoxide, and other noxious umes that are up to

    Fuel o Lie: Househol Ene n Helh. Wol Helh Onizion, 2006.

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    100 times higher than the recommended limits set byWHO, and in some settings, considerably higher.13The illnesses caused by smoke rom toxic cookingmethods lead to serious problems or the health andlivelihoods o these amilies, hampering their ability toescape grinding poverty. Women in developing coun-tries are also at risk o head and spinal injuries, preg-nancy complications, and maternal mortality rom thestrenuous task o carrying heavy loads o rewood orother uels, and may also suer rom animal attacks,dehydration, and skin disorders.14 Frequent exposureto cookstove smoke can also cause disabling healthimpacts like cataracts, which aect women more thanmen, and is the leading cause o blindness in develop-

    ing countries.

    heat eects are especia dead or cidreuder te age o e i deeopig coutries: eara o a peuoia deats aog tis age groupoccur as a resut o soke exposure.15 A random-ized-control study in Guatemala led by the Universityo Caliornia, Berkeley, ound that halving exposure tohousehold air pollution with a chimney stove broughtabout a reduction in severe pneumonia, and that largerreductions in exposure had more pronounced eects.16A systematic review o all available studies on thelink between solid uel use and child pneumonia has

    ound an almost doubling o risk or those exposed.Studies also show that without improvements to

    the combustion perormance o a cookstove, simplyadding a chimney on a cookstove can help reducedirect exposure to smoke, but provides limited healthbenets and no environmental benets.17

    Burns rom open res and unsae cookstoves areanother insidious risk aced by poor households depen-dent on kerosene, open res, and unstable metal orclay cookstoves, contributing to a substantial percent-age o the estimated 300,000 burn deaths that occurannually.18 In a crowded household where the amilyhearth may be located on the ground within reacho small children, fames can quickly catch the hemo a garment or sleeping pallet, leading to disguringinjuries and excruciating burns, inection, and evendeath. Because burns require prompt and sophisticatedmedical intervention, oten lacking in remote areas o

    the world, such injuries oten result in debilitatingscarring and loss o movement in their victims.

    The World Health Organization

    estimates that exposure to smoke rom

    cooking constitutes the fth worst risk actor

    or disease in developing countries,

    and causes almost two million premature

    deaths per year.

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    Bcoun n Nee

    Geder ad lieiood Ipacts

    Reliance on inecient cookstoves and solid uels leadsto enormous burdens on amilies livelihoods, espe-

    cially or women and girls. For the most part, cookingremains a womans responsibility in developing coun-tries, and women bear the burden o not only cookingor their amilies, but also o gathering the uel neces-sary to cook the amilys meal. Yet, cooking remainsthe least developed energy sector and, in many coun-tries, uel scarcity and natural resource depletion aectlarge numbers o women. Whats more, the dicultwork to collect uel is rarely counted as productive orcompensated labor.19

    Women and girls can spend 20 or more hours perweek on long, exhausting walks in dangerous and

    isolated areas in order to collect uel or their amiliescooking needs.20 When they leave the relative saetyo their communities to do so, they are at increasedrisk o gender-based violence, particularly in war-torn areas.21 In places like the Democratic Republico Congo and Somalia, where armed conficts makeexposure to rape and other physical assaults a dailythreat, women and girls oten pay a high price orthe lack o sae and ecient cookstoves and uels.The non-prot Physicians or Human Rights reportsthat the majority o conrmed rapes in Farchana,a reugee camp in Eastern Chad, occurred outsidecamps while women were collecting rewood to use as



    Given the stigma oten associated with rape, itis likely that the real number o women victimized by

    gender-based violence linked to the collection o uelor cooking is even higher than reported.

    Not only does uel collection increase a womans vul-nerability to personal attack, but tie spet coectigue ote eaes ess tie to work i te eds, starta sa usiess, or egage i oter pursuits tat

    ca rig uc eeded oe ito te ouseod. Iwomen are unable to spend time generating income orincreasing their educational opportunities because othe time spent collecting uel, they may nd themselveseven more deeply embedded in a cycle o poverty. Thelack o income leads to dependence on collecting uel,but time collecting uel greatly diminishes their oppor-tunity to earn more income. In addition, young girlsare oten called on to assist their mothers in physicallydemanding uel collection and cooking activities, pre-venting them rom regular school attendance and thebenets o a nutritious midday meal that some schoolsprovide.23 Ultimately, women and girls pay the highest

    toll or the worlds reliance on inecient and dirtycooking practices.

    My awakening moment was being

    in Darur, meeting with the women,

    and realizing theyre getting raped tryingto cook the ood we bring them.

    JOSEttE SHEEraN, UN WOrLd FOOd PrOgrammE

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    13Bcoun n Nee

    The use o solid uels also inficts high economic costson amilies who can pay as much as one-third o theirscarce income simply to purchase sucient uel tocook the daily meal. The nancial toll is especiallydraining on the very poor, whose incomes o as littleas a dollar a day must be stretched to cover basicnecessities such as ood, uel, school ees, and medi-cal care.24 Money spent on charcoal or cookstovesmay mean the loss o scarce household income to buymedicine or a sick baby, ood or a hungry child, orcapital to start a small business. In cases where uelis purchased rather than collected, the initial highercost o a more ecient cookstove can oten berecovered through uel savings within a ew months,and savings ater that point allow or expenditureson a range o livelihood-enhancing activities such asstarting a business, purchasing medicines, and payingschool ees. In the case o one Indian-based womenscooperative, women in a clean cookstoves programwere able to use the savings rom the reduction in

    uel use to provide two meals a day or their amiliesinstead o one, increasing the caloric and nutritionalintake levels o their children.25 In addition, studiesshow that women reinvest 90% o their income intheir amilies and communities versus 30% to 40%or men26, which means uel-saving benets can ripplethrough the entire community.

    Finally, as evidenced by the massive market orcharcoal across much o the developing world, themanuacture, distribution, sales, and service o cleancookstoves and uels could be a major potential sourceo employment in regions where jobs are scarce.

    Eiroeta Ipacts

    Reliance on polluting, inecient cookstoves anduels leads to a wide variety o environmental prob-lems. In many countries, much o the native orestcover has been stripped to support charcoal produc-tion27, and in others reliance on wood uel or cookingcan lead to increased pressures on local orests and

    natural resources.28 In most o the urban or peri-urban areas in developing countries, charcoal is usu-ally the uel o choice.29 The unsustainable collectiono wood or charcoal production can contribute tomud-slides, loss o watershed, and desertication,which places urther pressures on regional oodsecurity and agricultural productivity.30 In nations likeTogo, the Democratic Republic o Congo, Cambodia,and Guatemala, the increasing loss o orest canopyor charcoal production also brings devastation tolocal biodiversity, while the construction o loggingroads damages the environment and exacerbates thedwindling habitat o endangered species.31

    Transported through elaborate networks o buy-ers and sellers, carcoa productio is a $10 iioidustr i su-Saara Arica aoe ad causessigicat eiroeta destructio to orests eedto produce te precious ue.32 Alarmingly, the cycleo destruction grows direr every year as populationgrowth and increasingly protracted reugee crises placegrowing pressure on natural resources, and as womenventure urther and urther rom home in a desper-ate search or uel. In addition, competition betweenlocal communities and reugee populations or localuel resources is a requent source o strie in many

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    countries.33 As the worlds population grows, andconficts globally lead to increased pressures on natu-ral resources, uel scarcities are expected to intensiy,aecting rural women most o all.34

    Emissions rom traditional cookstoves also contributesignicantly to outdoor air pollution and exacerbatealready deadly air pollution in large towns and cities

    around the world, aecting those with and withoutaccess to clean household energy.35 In India, whereoutdoor air quality is oten very poor, researchersrom the University o Caliornia, Berkeley, esti-mate that almost hal o ambient health-damagingparticulate air pollution is caused by the burning ohousehold uels or cooking.36 China also experiencessignicant ambient air impacts rom the use o coal-red and biomass-red stoves or residential cookingand heating.37

    In addition, emissions rom combustion o unsustain-ably harvested wood uel and biomass in inecient,traditional cookstoves are a signicant contributor

    to global climate change. The burning o solid uelsproduces signicant quantities o emissions thatimpact the climate in the short-term, including gasessuch as methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrousoxides, as well as particles such as black carbon.38Residential sources, mainly rom cookstoves, representmore than 25 percent o the global inventory o blackcarbon emissions.39,40

    Because these gases and particles have short lie spans rom a ew weeks or black carbon, to a decadeor methane reductions in their emissions couldleverage a more rapid climate mitigation response

    than would occur rom reductions incarbon dioxide

    alone.41 In act, a recent report by the United NationsEnvironment Programme underscored the importanceo introducing clean burning biomass cookstoves, aswell as substituting traditional biomass burning cook-stoves with clean cookstoves that use modern uels,to address climate change and improve air quality.42

    Awareess ad Fiacig Gap

    Data rom the World Health Organization indicatethat more people die each day rom diseases that,in many cases, could be entirely prevented by usingadvanced or clean cookstoves and uels, than romHIV/AIDS, malaria, or tuberculosis.43 In act, mortal-ity gures associated with the use o crude cookstovesand open res are more than double the number odeaths rom malaria, more than three times those romtuberculosis, and roughly equal to the deaths romHIV/AIDS. With global progress in disease controlexpected to reduce death rates or malaria, HIV/AIDS,

    and tuberculosis, WHO predicts that the number odeaths or diseases associated with cookstove smokewill surpass those rom the aorementioned diseasesby 2030.44 Despite this enormous burden, the issueo exposure to cookstove smoke and its impacts, aswell as clean cookstoves and uels as a solution, havereceived relatively little visibility rom the globalhealth or donor communities to date. Better knownhealth issues such as the lack o clean water, poornutrition, and communicable diseases tend to receivegreater attention in the news and have traditionallybeen the ocus o donors eorts.

    Bcoun n Nee

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    Preature Aua Deats roCookstoe Soke ad Oter

    Seected Diseases*

    Souce: Wol Ene Ouloo 2011, Inenionl Ene aenc

    However, iestets i te cea cookstoes sec-tor wi ike eed to reac $4.5 iio aua,according to recent 2011 World Energy Outlookgures by the International Energy Agency, i theworld is going to meet the tremendous global need.45While daunting, these gures are smaller on a percapita basis than those rom comparable health riskssuch as HIV/AIDS, malaria, and eorts to promoteclean water. HIV/AIDS experts estimate that invest-ments o roughly $17 billion a year46 will be needed toaddress this public health priority, and gures in the2008 Global Malaria Action Plan developed by theRoll Back Malaria Partnership estimates investmentso approximately $5 billion a year47 to address thedisease. Given the relative enormity o the health risks

    and deaths caused by cookstove smoke, large invest-ments are clearly both needed and in-line with thebudget realities to conront the problem.

    Funding needs must be urgently addressed, as sub-stituting the current inecient and polluting use osolid uels or cooking can have multiple cost-eec-tive health, environmental, economic, and womensempowerment co-benets over time. For example,ewer trips to local clinics or smoke-induced pneu-monia and lung ailments can mean less strain onovertaxed health services and systems, while re-ducing the need to collect scarce rewood preserves

    precious watersheds, animal habitats, and dwindlingorest cover.

    Time saved in uel collection through the use oecient cookstoves and uels can mean the abil-ity to keep a girl in school, while nancial savingsrom more ecient cookstoves means that incomepreviously used to buy uel can now be used to buychickens or eggs or to start a small business. Higherbirth weights lessen risks or disease throughout adultlie, independent o any uture exposure to cookstovesmoke.48 In short, adoption o clean and ecientcookstoves and uels in developing countries can help

    the international community meet the MDGs ormaternal and child health, other chronic diseases inadults, education, and environmental sustainability, aswell as oster gains in nutrition, emale literacy levels,and economic independence.

    Clean cookstoves and uels can also serve as cost-eective mitigation options or addressing climatechange. A 2010 U.S. Agency or InternationalDevelopment report on black carbon abatementmeasures in Asia ound that clean cookstoves anduels, when implemented eectively, achieved thehighest level o black carbon reductions per unit cost.The same study ound that clean cookstoves and uelsalso provided the most cost-eective greenhouse gasabatement benets o any intervention.49

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    2008 2030Malaria

    2008 2030Tuberculosis

    2008 2030Smoke from


    2008 2030HIV/AIDS



    *does no inclue ehs o col-uele coosoes ol 2008 ehs o inhlion o coosoe soe wee 1.96 illion.

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    17Bies o Wiespe aopion

    Barriers toWidespreadAdoption

    The development o a thriving global clean cookstovesand uels industry that is constantly innovating toimprove design and perormance, while lowering thecost o cookstoves and uels, is the most sustainableway to bring modern cooking solutions to hundredso millions o amilies in developing countries. Whilereducing costs or clean cookstoves, designing prod-ucts that people will buy, addressing cultural preer-ences, and reaching greater scale in the manuacturingand distribution o clean cookstoves are challenges,success will literally mean lie-saving and lie-changingimprovements in the lives o billions o people.

    The good news is that progress is underway to un-lock the most eective means or addressing currentdemand and supply constraints and catalyzing a mar-ket or clean cookstoves and uels. Yet several criticalmarket barriers must be overcome. In addition to theobvious barriers o ensuring a strong demand or andsupply o clean cookstoves and uels, the existence oa strong enabling environment or clean cookstoves isequally critical, as is a continued commitment to mon-itoring and evaluating the improvements to health,livelihoods, womens empowerment, and climate romtheir use. Additional barriers to widespread adoption

    o clean cookstoves and uels include:Lack o objective certication or validating the e-ciency and emission reduction claims o manuacturershas led to uncertainty in the current clean cookstovemarket. The asece o iteratioa-recogizedcea cookstoe stadards ad iited i-coutrtestig capaiities has hampered eorts to scale upadoption rates and led to health and eciency claimsby some manuacturers that oten overstate their prod-ucts benets to the consumer. While many countrieseither currently have, or plan to build, local cookstovetesting centers, such acilities can require expensiveinvestments in laboratory equipment, security mea-

    sures, and sta training that can be hard to make bynancially-strapped developing country governments.

    Lack o robust evidence on the impacts o interventionshas also contributed to a shortage o commitmentsby governments and donors to secure the necessaryinvestment, technology development, and support orimplementation. In particular, there has been a dearto copeig eidece regardig te eat eetso cea cookstoe ad ue iteretios, notably orlarge-scale programs. Although this is now startingto emerge and requires urther strengthening, the his-toric lack o evidence has resulted in the health sector

    ailing to take a lead in promoting the issue in strongpublic health policy, the media, and training programs.

    The ack o awareess aog ouseods i dee-opig coutries regardig te eets o ceacookstoes ad ues is another key barrier. Thisaects the purchase rates o cleaner but oten morecostly products, and raises the bar or new entrantswishing to sell clean cookstoves in sucient quantitiesin order to be protable. Having ewer manuacturersin the market because o low demand may impact the

    ability to meet varied consumer needs, and can resultin higher prices which could put the more expensive,cleaner cookstoves arther out o reach or custom-ers. In addition, both the purchaser and the end-userneed to be aware o and value the benets o cleancookstoves and uels to drive the market. In thoserequent cases where men are responsible or purchas-ing decisions o products like cookstoves, awareness oclean cookstoves and uels must go beyond the emaleend-user.

    Further adding to the complexity o addressing thecooking needs o the end-user is that amilies do not

    always make the transition to clean cookstoves anduels in discrete steps. Many amilies use more thanone cookstove or uel and may in act switch betweenbiomass and LPG, solar and biomass, and other com-binations as their incomes and cooking needs allow.50Despite the act that many solid uel users will eventu-ally transition to cleaner uels like LPG or electricityas their incomes rise51, projected population growthin developing countries is expected to outstrip thecurrent pace o progress in moving people to cleaneruels.52 In addition, traditional biomass uels willalmost certainly continue to be used by the worldspoorest citizens i present usage patterns persist, and

    there is evidence that rising prices or cleaner uels insome countries are orcing some amilies to revert tothe use o solid uels.53

    The clean cookstoves and uels market is intrinsicallycomplex, requiring approaches that are applicableacross a range o ethnic groups, income levels, andsettings (such as rural or urban environments). Faiureto eet cosuers eeds has oten been cited asan impediment to adoption, especially in those caseswhere cookstoves were subsidized or the end user

    but not selected to best meet their needs.54

    Cookstovepreerences are as varied as the dierent oods that they

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    Bies o Wiespe aopion

    are used to cook, with fat-top plancha cookstoves orcooking tortillas in places like Peru and Guatemalabuilt or a dierent set o culinary needs than the smalltwo pot cookstoves used to cook rice and curry inNepal and India. Even within individual countries,local preerences or particular uels and cookstovedesigns can complicate the development o productsthat can be sold to and used by large segments o the


    Distriutio ad supp cai issues also hamperthe development o a market or clean cookstovesand uels in developing countries, and the dicultyo reaching rural residents who do not have accessto retail stores in which to purchase or repair a cleancookstoves can urther complicate adoption rates.55While there may be some humanitarian, reugee, orother particularly vulnerable populations (e.g. theextreme poor and HIV/AIDS patients) where incomelevels do not allow or the purchase o clean cook-stoves and uels, care to ensure that the end-users

    needs are being valued and met is critical to ensuringa sustainable market or clean cooking solutions.

    In addition, the lack o sucient credit and nancingor clean cookstove and uel purchases makes itdicult or consumers to cover the ig iitia cost ocea cookstoes.56 Most small cookstove distribu-tors do not have the nancial resources to allow theircustomers to buy on credit, and cookstove projects are

    oten considered too small to qualiy or bank loansor avorable lending rates.57 Even when custom-ers who are already purchasing uel understand thatcleaner uels like LPG may generate uel savings,the higher initial cost o the cookstove, on average$60, may deter customers.58 Countries have not hadthe nancial and technical support, nor created theenabling conditions required to attract the level oprivate investment needed to create a thriving marketor clean cookstoves and uels.59

    Finally, the ack o a coesie isio or te sectorhas led to a ailure to build the enabling environmentnecessary to oster a robust market or clean cook-stoves. There has been little international coordina-tion to date around a common strategic approach ordeveloping clean cookstove and uel markets, and thishas contributed to a ailure to develop internationalstandards, address key outstanding research needs,and rectiy the alarming lack o awareness o the issue,as well as the long-standing existence o a piecemeal,

    project-based approach to the problem. Adding tothis, in many countries a patchwork o cookstovemanuacturers, non-governmental organizations, andother stakeholders oten exists with little coordinationamong themselves or with the host government. Thissituation has resulted in missed opportunities and aailure to achieve the economies o scale that comewith a more cohesive and strategic approach.

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    19Footer Information Goes Here

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    Footer Information Goes Here

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    21a rpil Eolin Seco

    A RapidlyEvolving SectorThe clean cookstoves and uels sector has evolveddramatically over the past decade and is now poisedto oer signicant lie-saving and lie-changing ben-ets to the poor at a global scale.

    While cookstoves are consistently evolving andimproving in their eciency and emissions, curretodes exist i a deeopig coutr arketstat ca draatica reduce exposure to arusoke. Higher-perorming advanced cookstoves,including the prolieration o clean uel optionsand orced drat technologies have the potential toimprove the eciency o the combustion chamber byover 90%, but considerable nancial, acceptability,and inrastructure challenges remain.60 Recent scien-

    tic evidence indicates that signicant reductions inemissions will be needed to achieve meaningul globalhealth benets or cookstove users and their amilies.61Use o advanced materials or cookstove combustionchambers and the addition o technology to allow orincreased unctionality, such as the charging o batter-ies or cell phones or the inclusion o a small readinglight, oer the prospect o revolutionizing the way thedeveloping world cooks and are a huge leap rom pre-vious generations o clean cookstoves. Cleaner uelsincluding emission-ree solar and low-emission LPGand ethanol also bring the virtual elimination o emis-sions o harmul soot and other toxic gases, as well as

    measurable saety benets.

    Game changing developments in the market orclean cookstoves and uels also include the success oarious ioatie usiess odes. These modelshelp manuacturers expand beyond local and artisanalcookstove production eorts to those that oer stan-dardized, high-quality clean cookstoves at a price andscale that can improve their accessibility to the poor.62Commercial players who are more experienced inmarketing and sales, as well as a transition away romdistribution o subsidized products, are also helpingto transorm the clean cookstoves and uels market.

    Even more importantly, cosuers at te ase o teecooic praid are eig iewed te priatesector as iae custoers with the right to the samerange o goods and services as those arther up theeconomic ladder. This evolution in how consumersare viewed by the sector has led to a more thoughtul,innovative, and interdisciplinary approach to promot-ing modern, aspirational cooking solutions than hasoccurred in the past.

    Notable as well is the rise o successul domesticmanuacturing eorts in Cambodia, China, Ethiopia,Ghana, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Peru, Uganda, andelsewhere, which are providing ecient cookstoves

    at scale, as well as local employment opportunities intheir respective countries.63 Firms in China and India

    are also manuacturing clean cookstoves or exportto global markets, making high-quality, ecient cook-stoves available throughout the developing world.64Several multinational rms have also stepped intothe market with clean cookstoves and uels designedor markets at the base o the pyramid. In addition,womens cooperatives and similar networks are mak-ing strides in the eective marketing and distribution

    o clean cookstoves by employing local distributionchannels, as well as woman-to-woman outreach anddemonstration programs.

    Ioatie acig toos ae aso egu to acce-erate progress in the sector, and consumer nanc-ing options such as micronancing and consignmentmechanisms can provide clean cookstove customerswith an opportunity to overcome the higher initialupront cost o cleaner cookstoves and uels. Carbonnance also oers manuacturers and distributorsthe chance to harness carbon reductions rom uelsavings to bring down the cost o cookstoves or their

    customers. In addition, new commercial entrants tothe clean cookstove market are increasingly leverag-ing social venture nancing or impact investing togenerate equity investments that greatly acilitate theirability to scale their operations.

    The adet o ig-proe atioa cea cook-stoe ad ue progras ad a rise i te uero goeret capios is also spurring unprec-edented advances in the adoption o clean cookstovesat scale. Deployment eorts in China, Peru, India,and Indonesia, among others, are targeting dis-semination and adoption among the poor65,66, whilenascent eorts in countries such as Nigeria, Mexico,and Ethiopia oer additional promise or reachinglarge sectors o the population lacking clean cookingsolutions. Implementing organizations and nationalgovernments are increasingly moving away romgive-away and highly subsidized product deploymentprograms and ocusing on market-based commercialapproaches. In addition, eorts by the World Bankto replicate their successul Lighting Arica initiativethrough their new Clean Cooking Initiative and oster

    an improved commercial market or clean cookstovesin Arica, highlight the adoption opportunities within

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    a rpil Eolin Seco

    regional markets, as does the rise o several regionalAlliances in Latin America, Arica, and Asia.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-ledPartnership or Clean Indoor Air (PCIA) has been akey ally in leading the maturation o this sector overthe past decade. With a current partnership base oover 500 non-prot organizations, cookstove manu-

    acturers, distributors, and other stakeholders, PCIAhas acilitated cookstove testing, training, network-ing, and capacity building programs and has greatlystrengthened the sectors ability to meet the challengeso clean cookstove and uel adoption. The programsintegration into the Alliance in 2012 will provide evengreater leverage or stakeholders and national govern-ments, and advance eorts to increase adoption ratesin developing countries.

    Further bolstering the rigor and credibility o thesector are recet iproeets i ad growigdead or aorator ad ed testig. This workhas included the renement o testing protocols, the

    publishing o testing results in peer-reviewed scienticjournals, and the comparison o high-tech governmentlabs with lower-tech labs. More accurate emissionsmonitoring innovations such as temperature sensorsand those that can let manuacturers and researchersknow a cookstove is actually being used are now beingemployed. Mobile technology is also being developedto more accurately monitor and track cookstove usageand emissions.67 Increasingly, clean cookstoves arebeing tested in the eld as well as the lab, inspiringinvestments rom venture capitalists and those activein carbon nancing. These technologies have alsohelped increase condence in the ability o manuac-

    turers to deliver on their stated health and eciencyclaims, as well as greater rigor or the clean cook-stoves sector.

    Perormance standards not only ensure that users areable to buy clean cookstoves with condence in theirhealth and environmental benets, but also acilitatecarbon nancing and guide additional investment inthe sector. Such standards also help manuacturersto develop and dierentiate clean products and assistnational governments and non-governmental organiza-tions to certiy that locally available cookstoves meet

    a set o uniorm perormance benchmarks. In one othe most promising breakthroughs or the advance-ment o a clean cookstove market, leading cookstovetesting experts reached consensus in February 2011at the 5th Biennial PCIA Forum in Lima, Peru on anapproach to develop strong standards.68 This agree-ment at the premier international clean cookstoveconerence, attended by 350 participants rom 42countries, established a path orward or the develop-ment o eciency, emissions, and saety standards orcookstoves to ensure measureable environmental andindoor air-quality improvements.

    Eergig eidece ro eadig acadeics regard-

    ig te eat ad ciate ipacts o traditioacookstoes ad ues has allowed or improved esti-mates o the burden o diseases associated with expo-sure to cookstove smoke. Better data rom WHO,sociologists, and academics is also starting to providenew insights in to the link between the use o cleancookstoves and uels and improved health and climatebenets. Cross-cutting research rom the gender andeconomic development elds has also shed new lighton the impacts that traditional cooking practices havehad on womens empowerment and livelihoods.69Additionally, ongoing work by WHO on health-basedair quality guidelines or household uel combustion

    will complement the development o standards bypermitting the benchmarking o cookstove emissionsperormance against health benets.

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    the globl allince o Clen Coosoes

    The GlobalAlliance for CleanCookstovesIn early 2010, a diverse group o 85 internationalrepresentatives rom the clean cookstoves and uelsindustries, as well as government, multilateral,philanthropic, humanitarian, non-prot, academic,and private sectors gathered in Washington or a reshlook at an old problem. Hosted by the United NationsFoundation and the Shell Foundation, the two-daymeeting was designed to bring together a small num-ber o global experts or a rank and o-the-recorddiscussion about the best way to address the barrierspreventing the adoption o clean cookstoves and uelsat scale in developing countries. Attendees were asked

    to set aside their individual and organizational sel-interests in order to come together as a group arounda common global strategy or advancing the adoptiono clean cookstoves and uels.

    The group responded enthusiastically to the concepto an alliance o partners rom a range o interestsocused around a common strategic objective. Thissentiment was especially shared by those participantswho elt that the strength o collective voices on theissue o cookstove smoke might result in more donorsupport and global awareness than had previouslyexisted in the sector. Participants were also intriguedby the notion o a partnership that was not ocusedon distributing large numbers o cookstoves per se,but rather on helping to enhance demand, strengthensupply, and build the enabling environment or thedevelopment o a thriving market or clean and e-cient cookstoves and uels.

    In September 2010, U.S. Secretar o State hiarRoda Cito ad a road set o iteratioagoerets, copaies, Un agecies, ad o-goereta orgaizatios ora auced teew- aed Goa Aiace or Cea Cookstoesat the Clinton Global Initiative. The Alliance, aninnovative public-private partnership to save lives,

    improve livelihoods, empower women, and combatclimate change, included 19 ounding partners. Witha aitious goa to oster te adoptio o ceacookstoes ad ues i 100 iio ouseods 2020, te iitiatie seeks to estais a tri-ig goa arket or cea cookig soutios addressig te arket arriers tat curret ipedete productio, depoet, ad use o cea cook-stoes i deeopig coutries.

    Following its launch, the Alliance invited over 350o the worlds leading experts rom a cross-sectiono related disciplines to serve on nine Working

    Groups and two Cross-Cutting Committees


    in anunprecedented eort to analyze and rank the various

    components o what a strategic intervention to ostera healthy market or clean cookstoves and uels mightlook like. Led by co-chairs with expertise in therespective subject areas, the members collaboratedover six months to develop a series o detailed short-and long-term recommendations highlighting the keysteps necessary to transorm the global market orclean cookstoves and uels and bring it to scale.

    At the conclusion o the process, several clear themesemerged. First, te Workig Groups idetied auer o critica areas or driig ot dead orad supp o cea cookstoes, including awarenessand education campaigns, training programs, removalo trade and tari barriers, and eorts to address man-uacturing constraints through improved access to rawmaterials, better skilled labor supply, and assistancewith removing the logistical impediments in gettingproducts to the end consumer. Financing was deemedcritical to both the demand and supply sides o cleancookstove deployment eorts, but was thought to be

    especially critical in helping to acilitate the entranceo new products and rms into the marketplace.The need or technical assistance in researching anddeveloping better cookstove designs and materials wasalso identied by the groups as a key priority, as was aconcerted eort to develop alternatives to biomass asa cookstove uel.

    Second, eorts to icrease awareess at te co-suer ee were aso deeed essetia, as the lacko end-user knowledge about the health and economicimpacts o traditional cookstoves, and the benetsrom the use o clean cookstoves and uels had histori-cally served to depress demand. Capacit deeop-et was aso deeed critica in training women onhow to use their clean cookstoves and uels. Onlya well inormed consumer will purchase the cleancookstove or uel, and only a well trained consumerwill use the cookstove in the correct way so that thebenets can be realized. Non-prot and developmentorganizations were identied or their essential rolein providing this training because o their in-countryexpertise and experience developing projects in thesector. Comprehensive market analyses and surveys tohelp gather data on local economic conditions, market

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    size, and consumer demand or clean cookstove prod-ucts were also seen as crucial or ostering the entranceo new private sector players and acilitating thedesign o products that better meet consumers needs.Where inormation did not exist, commercial playershad previously been reluctant to enter the market ormake investments in production or distribution oclean cookstoves and uels a barrier that could bebroken by clear and comprehensive market analyses.

    Third,Workig Group eers cocurred witte iportace o stregteig te og-egectedeaig eiroet or cea cookstoes ad ues.Cookstove deployment eorts around the world havebeen stymied by a lack o the undamental marketenablers that no single partner has had the resourcesor the political will to execute. There was also astrong consensus among the groups that the develop-ment o robust standards or what constitutes cleanand ecient is critical, along with the priority healthstudies needed to provide a robust, widely acceptedconsensus that will address the question o how cleanthe emissions rom cookstoves need to be to ensuresubstantial health benets. These standards couldevolve over time as new clean cookstove designs comeinto the market and better means or testing emissionsand other attributes, like durability, are developed.Closely tied with an emphasis on clear emissions andeciency standards or cookstoves is the need toimprove the sectors ability to test their products byenhancing the capacity o testing laboratories at thelocal, national, and private sector level. In addition,the groups identied convening the sector, priorityresearch, global advocacy and awareness eorts, andknowledge management as essential steps to advanc-ing the eld.

    Two other areas were deemed critical by the groupsin terms o advancing the sector and ully realiz-ing the health, environment, economic, and gender

    benets rom the use o clean cookstoves. The rstwas adocac ad awareess o te issue o te

    roader goa stage. Recognizing that the issueo household air pollution had historically laggedin terms o awareness at both the public and policy-maker levels, suggestions were oered regarding howbest to mobilize an international awareness eort thatwould bring a much needed understanding o the issueand help raise unding or developing the sector. TheWorking Groups also agreed that eorts are eededto coect etter data o a aspects o te issue, beit inormation on the health or climate impacts ocookstove smoke or the time that women and girlsspend collecting uel. By building the empirical caseor clean cookstoves and uels, policy makers, unders,

    and other key stakeholders would likely be more com-pelled to get involved, and better able to assess howbest to engage in nding solutions or the problem.

    Finally, i the sector were going to reach its goalo universal adoption o clean cooking solutions,te roe o atioa progras was iewed teWorkig Groups as a critica copoet o suc-cessu ipeetatio ad te deeopet o astrog eaig eiroet or cea cookstoesad ues. Catalyzing national clean cookstove anduel campaigns to spur activities at scale and buildlocal, regional, and national markets was seen as aneective way to help manuacturers realize economieso scale and help to build a thriving market. Majorcomponents o such national campaigns could includeextensive local market analyses, development onational networks, support or capacity developmentand awareness campaigns (including national advo-cacy eorts through schools, clinics, and other publicinstitutions), and nationally appropriate standardsand testing centers. These elements were also seen bythe Working Groups as including measures to addresstaris and import duties that discourage investment inclean cookstoves and uels, the establishment o strongnational targets, domestic nancing tools to encouragebusiness chain development, and robust programs tomeasure program eectiveness.

    the globl allince o Clen Coosoes

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    27Seies o achiein globl Scle

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    Strategies for Achieving Global Scale

    Understand and motivatethe user as customer

    Reach the last mile Finance the purchase of

    clean cookstoves and fuels

    Develop better cookstovetechnologies and a broadermenu of options

    Finance clean cookstovesand fuels at scale

    Access carbon finance Build an inclusive value chain

    for clean cookstoves and fuels

    Gather better market intelligence Ensure access for vulnerablepopulations

    Promote international standards and rigorous testing protocols Champion the sector to build awareness Further document the evidence base (health, climate, and gender) Engage national and local stakeholders Develop credible monitoring and evaluation systems



    Foster anEnabling


    Strategies or Sector Trasoratio

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    Seies o achiein globl Scle

    EnhAnCE DEmAnD

    Consumer awareness and education, innovativedistribution models, capacity building, training, andenhanced access to consumer nance are all criticaland mutually reinorcing elements or building andmaintaining demand in the clean cookstove and uelsectors. To achieve the adoption o clean cookstovesat scale, all these elements must be executed as parto a coordinated strategy that also emphasizes properuse o the clean cookstoves and uels.

    Uderstad ad motiate te Useras Custoer

    Consumer awareness and education regarding thehealth, environmental, gender, and economic benetso clean cookstoves is critical to any eort to stimulatedemand or clean cookstoves. Yet, convincing peopleto make the behavioral shit rom a way o cooking

    that their amilies and communities have used orgenerations to a clean cookstove is one o the sectorsmajor challenges. I the customer is not aware o theproducts benets, demand or clean cookstoves anduels will be low and eorts to increase their use willbe in vain.

    Surveys show that even in developing countries, cook-stove smoke-aected households have extremely lowawareness o the health, time-saving, or economic ben-ets oered by clean cookstoves and uels and oten donot aspire to own a cleaner cookstove. In one surveyo cookstove smoke-aected households conducted

    in southern India, only 10% o respondents suggestedclean cookstoves as a way to reduce smoke in theirhomes.72 While it is important to remain consciouso cultural and other local preerences, local cookingpractices can be shited to cleaner products and uelswith the appropriate use o awareness-raising, market-ing, and outreach to help build demand. In some cases,a market or clean cookstoves and uels can be drivenby addressing the intangible value that consumers place


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    29Seies o achiein globl Scle

    on actors beyond health and economic benets thatmotivate them to purchase a clean cookstove.

    Typical methods or building awareness o new andimproved products through television, magazines,and social media oten do not exist in developingcountries, where the poor may lack access to basicmedia outlets, and where radio, word o mouth, streetplays, and rural social marketing are oten the bestmeans or sharing inormation. However, eorts tobuild demand or cleaner cookstoves and uels canalso be complicated by other actors, including theact that cookstoves are a push product, or a productthat people need to be convinced to purchase as theymay not have an immediate perceived value. This iscontrary to what is considered a pull product suchas a mobile phone or computer that provides a serviceor addresses a need that had not been previously metor even envisioned.

    Furthermore, it is dicult to know who in thehousehold ultimately has the decision-making powerto purchase a clean cookstove or switch to the useo a cleaner uel, which can complicate the develop-

    ment o appropriate and targeted campaign messag-ing. As the primary users o cookstoves, women arelikely to be the main drivers o any eorts designedto increase awareness and enhance demand. Yet menare oten responsible or making decisions regardingexpenditures o cookstoves in the household. Further-more, as clean cookstoves represent a new and otenuntested product, customers can also be skepticalo eciency or health claims and oten preer to viewthe cookstoves in use beore making a purchase.

    One way o countering consumers skepticism is orthe sector to develop awareness programs and specic

    messages that will resonate with the end-user. Theseprograms include education o, and endorsements

    rom, credible individuals and organizations, includ-ing: NGOs, womens sel-help groups, school teach-ers, aith-based charities, rural sales teams, localhealth workers (who are already educating patientsabout disease prevention tactics), and village lead-ers, who may also lack inormation on the multiplebenets o clean cookstoves and uels. There are alsopowerul voices closer to home, such as children, whocan be educated at school about the issue, and amilydynamics such as the important relationship between

    a mother-in-law and her daughter-in-law in coun-tries like India that can be tapped. Specic eorts toeducate and involve men in understanding the benetso clean cookstoves are also important so they cansupport purchasing decisions even i they are not theprimary users o the new technology.

    Additionally, as with the introduction o any new prod-uct category, an initial surge o culturally appropriateadvertising and social-marketing may be required toraise awareness. In time, word o mouth, particularlyamong emale consumers, may play a more useul rolein spreading awareness o clean cookstoves, but in theearly stages the costs o raising awareness can be highand can rarely be ully met by individual cookstovebusinesses. This presents an ideal opportunity or theinternational donor community and/or national govern-ments to provide unding or advertising or large-scaleconsumer awareness campaigns.

    Te cookstoe sector ust proote road-asedawareess capaigs targeted at ipacted

    popuatios. Te desig o suc capaigs soude ased o earig ro te successes ad

    aiures o siiar progras or equa sigicatissues (hIv/AIDS, aaria, tuercuosis, etc.)


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    Seies o achiein globl Scle

    iLLustRative inteRventions

    n Assess Custoer Segetatio ad beaiorProiig Families or households at the poorestincome levels do not represent a homogenousmarket. It is thereore vital to provide supportor qualitative and quantitative research on thepurchasing behavior o impacted households in

    order to assess the most eective tools or build-ing consumer awareness o clean cookstoves anduels. Using this research, the sector can developmarketing and branding techniques that appealto specic consumers such as women who areable to purchase cookstoves, or those menwho make purchasing decisions or the entirehousehold.

    n leerage best Practices i Saes o OterProducts A limited amount o international andregional cookstove social-marketing has been con-ducted to date, with little evaluation o the sectorsneeds in order to identiy which practices are suc-cessul. The sector should also evaluate past eortsto sell other social goods, such as cell phones,water puriers, and solar lanterns, and identiythose actors that consumers valued and why.

    n Deeop ad lauc Awareess Capaigs Once best practices are identied, broad-basedawareness campaigns should be developed andlaunched. To have the greatest reach and impact,these campaigns should be carried out in collabo-ration with other partners such as government,UN agency, non-prot, aith-based, and nancialorganizations, as well as cookstove manuacturing

    or distribution businesses. National governmentscan also be eective partners or the develop-ment o mass awareness campaigns, particularlythrough their existing outreach and communica-tion channels.

    Reac te last mie

    Many cookstove smoke-impacted households areoten located in rural or remote locations, which pres-ent challenges or reaching those customers with cleancookstoves and uels in the so-called last-mile beorethe product reaches the consumers door. The size,weight, and ragility o clean cookstoves oten provide

    distribution and logistical challenges that purveyorso mobile phones or easily transportable consumergoods like soap or shampoo do not ace. Similarly,consumers who may not have access to retail loca-tions in towns or cities may need the convenience opurchasing their cookstoves within a ew kilometers otheir homes. They also may want a local or amiliarvendor presence in the event that the cookstove, whichto them represents a new product that they are notcondent in, breaks or does not operate as expected.

    Training on the operation and maintenance o cleancookstoves is critical to establish and ensure success-ul adoption o clean cookstoves and uels, and suchtraining must be done locally to ensure that the cook-stoves are used properly and provide the greatest ben-ets. Other actors such as consumer price sensitivity,deeply ingrained cultural preerences, gender bias,and the need or both scalability and customizationmust be considered when developing mechanisms orreaching the end-user.

    In addition, women can oten play a central role inaddressing these demandside challenges, as they otenexcel in entrepreneurial activities and can be pivotal inthe creation o distribution and repair networks. Forexample, respected local womens organizations may

    have the existing product distribution capacity (staedby women entrepreneurs), access to nancing, and ahistory o successul social-marketing campaigns toaddress the many challenges on the demand-side ina coordinated manner. They may also serve as eec-

    tive local intermediariesor new or unamiliarcookstove manuacturersbecause o their relativeamiliarity to and trusto their customers andlocal communities. As aresult, they can serve a

    unique role in catalyzinglast-mile solutions.

    Ioatie distriutioodes ust e

    a ita priorit. orte cookstoe sector

    as a woe.


    WOrkINg grOUP

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    iLLustRative inteRventions

    n Repicate Ioatie Distriutio modes Inorder to address issues hindering clean cookstoveand uel sales in the so-called last-mile, the sectorshould build on innovative distribution modelssuch as rural sales initiatives, work with sel-helpgroups and women-run businesses, and partner

    with local village savings and loan associations tobuild awareness o clean cookstove business oppor-tunities, bring micronance players into the mix,and stimulate inclusive supply chain models.

    n Iest i Woe Etrepreeurs The sectorshould increase nancial and technical investmentsin capacity building activities or emale entre-preneurs in the clean cookstove and uel distribu-tion chain, in order to enable them to access theresources necessary to start and expand businessesthat will scale up the manuacture, distribution,and use o clean cookstoves and uels.

    n Coduct Regioa ad Coutr-leeWorksops The sector can raise the prole othe clean cookstove issue and encourage knowl-edge sharing and cooperation among cookstoveprogram implementers, unders, and governmentsby conducting workshops in key countries andregions. The workshops should be held, wherepossible, with governments and local stakeholderssuch as small businesses and micro-retailersin order to help them build their businessesand protably reach customers.

    Woe are uique positioed to pa a criticaroe i prootig te adoptio o iproedcookig tecoogies.

    gENdEr CrOSS-CUttINg COmmIttEE

    Fiace te Purcase o Cea Cookstoesad Fues

    For many households dependent on biomass uel ortheir cooking needs, the price o clean cookstoves anduels can be a major barrier to their purchase. Cleanercookstoves oten have a higher rst cost, and cleanuels such as ethanol, pellets, and LPG are more costlythan uel that is gathered or ree, and can also bemore costly than charcoal or coal. One mechanismor tackling this cost constraint is through enhancedor innovative consumer nancing, which can allowconsumers to pay or the clean cookstove in install-ments spread across several months. This nancecan be provided by a range o organizations, whethermicronance institutions (MFIs), credit unions, creditcooperatives, and/or sel-help groups. However, todate, ew MFIs oer loan products or clean cook-stoves, and more institutions should be encouraged todo so.

    iLLustRative inteRventions

    n Proide Catatic Fudig to mFIs International and local nancial institutions shouldprovide grants, sot loans, or technical assistanceto enable MFIs to conduct market research, traincookstove manuacturers and vendors to workalongside loan ocers, and implement other prac-tices to acilitate their support or clean cookstoves.These mechanisms will allow more MFIs to utilize

    investment nancing to on-lend or clean cookstoveprograms.

    n Deeop Guaratee mecais or Cookstoeloas Donors could develop a rst-loss guaran-tee mechanism, whereby donors would take therst loss on cookstove loans, which are seen byinvestors as riskier than traditional micronancepaper loans. This could leverage private investmentin the sector.

    n Repicate Ioatie Fiacig modes Attention should be paid to replicating novelnancing models used in other sectors that are

    likely to help jumpstart behavior change anddemand at the consumer level, including rent toown, ree trial periods, micro-ranchising,consigning, and other methods.

    Deeop better Cookstoe Tecoogiesad a broader meu o Optios

    The availability o high-quality products that womenwant to use is critical to ensuring widespread adop-tion o clean cookstoves and uels. Just like anyother consumer product category, dierent cookstovedesigns are needed to meet dierent individual needs

    (e.g. varying local uel sources, amily sizes, and oodtypes), user-riendliness (e.g. cook quickly), aspirations

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    Seies o achiein globl Scle

    (e.g. clean, modern kitchens), and ability to pay. Inaddition, saety and durability are important.

    Yet, despite the recent surge in clean cookstove inno-vation in the past ew years, with the market entry omultinational players bringing world class researchand development to the sector, the breadth o cook-

    stoves required to meet consumers needs and wantsdoes not yet exist.

    Some cookstoves are ecient, sae, and durable, buttheir initial cost may be too expensive or consumers(usually in the $15-$40 range). Others are very clean,but cost even more ($25-$150 range), while others onlycost a ew dollars and sell at scale, but their health andenvironmental benets may be limited in scope and thecookstoves may not last long enough to obtain carbonrevenues. The physical appearance o the stove, includ-ing its color, size, and shape, as well as its user-riend-liness and ability to cook the locally-preerred oods inthe proper way, also impact a cookstoves desirability

    to the end-user and urther complicate the design equa-tion. Important elements or achieving these resultsinclude materials and design research and eld testing,advocacy and education, and activities that supportentrepreneurs eorts to scale design and productiono high-quality cookstoves and uels.

    Ai or te deeopet o state-o-te-artcookstoes tat are desirae to cosuers adca ur a ariet o ues, wie at te saetie ocusig o te aaiaiit ad use o

    ceaer processed ues.


    Similarly, the sector needs to explore the more e-cient use o existing uels and/or develop new uels.Turning biomass wood, leaves, rice husks, etc. into dense uel pellets through machines that crushand bind the raw material together can improve ueleciency, though there is somewhat limited consis-tency in perormance. However, this consistency has

    been addressed by a ew players in the sector that aremaking standardized pellets rom a mix o biomassselected to maximize eciency and minimize emis-sions. Other rms are growing cassava that can beturned into ethanol and sold locally, displacing the useo expensive, dirty, and environmentally destructivecharcoal. Still others are marketing solar cookers andother technologies that harness the suns rays to cookood cleanly and cheaply.

    The sector is also seeing a steady increase in innova-tive technologies and applications that supportadditional unctionality o clean cookstoves. Some

    are specically linked to improving cookstove per-ormance. One example uses electricity generated byheat rom the cookstoves to drive ans that make thecookstoves burn more eciently. This removes theneed or batteries or the cookstove to be plugged intoan electricity source. Others are providing co-benetsthat should increase adoption, such as using heat-generated electricity to charge mobile phones orsmall LED lights.73

    Other technologies are helping the broader sec-tor mature. Temperature data-loggers that can beattached to the side o clean cookstoves to measurehow oten they are being used are useul or both

    understanding consumer behavior and or provingcarbon reductions or carbon revenues. Personal

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    exposure monitors worn by cookstove users also canprovide researchers with a better understandingo exposure levels, and mobile phone and computertechnologies allow this data to be collected andanalyzed more eectively.74

    In addition, tremendous opportunities exist orincreasing heat transer eciency in cookstoves

    through the use o simple techniques such as pot skirtsand retained heat cookers. All o these technologicalareas require ocus and resources i cookstoves areto be adopted at scale and their impacts eectivelymeasured.

    Our isio is to deeop a m&E raeworktat is ig credie ad pragatic.

    mONItOrINg aNd EvaLUatION WOrkINg grOUP

    It is also critical to not only understand the innova-tions in cookstove models and uels that consumers

    currently value, but also those that they may valuein the uture once they are exposed to them. LPG isoten preerred not just because it is clean, but becauseit can be turned on and o easily, the fame can beadjusted up or down in real time, there is a statusassociated with it, and it cooks ood quickly. In someregions, cookstoves that allow women to stand upwhile they cook have been introduced, and is a eaturethat may be central to their long-term adoption.

    iLLustRative inteRventions

    n Support te Deeopet o AdacedCookstoes Many cookstoves in use todayemploy a simple single-step combustion process,usually based around a rocket stove design whereuel is loaded at the base. While cookstove designsthat are much more ecient are in production,

    many do not meet the requirements or robustoperation such as ease o use, low cost, and longlie-spans. Additional unding is needed or earlystage assistance with research, development, anddesign o new cleaner cookstoves and uels, newmaterials or combustion chambers, and support-ing technologies, as well as a global mapping ocurrent advanced technologies and uels.

    n Iproe Fue Processig TecoogiesOpportunities to improve production o cleancooking uels such as biogas, ethanol, and plantoils should be pursued. A program is also neededto support research and development o cleanprocessed solid uel technologies. For example,technologies should be developed that can turnbiomass, wood, rice husks, and other materials intoclean- and ecient-burning pellets or briquettes.

    n Icrease Ed-User Iput ito Desig Aprogram is needed to ensure that end-consumers,and particularly women, have the opportunityto provide input into the design o the cookstove.This will ensure that the cookstoves meet consumerexpectations and will increase the likelihood oadoption.

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    A key component or advancing the adoption o cleancookstoves and uels entails ensuring sucient supplyo the products that customers value at a price theycan aord. Ensuring sucient capital or cookstovebusinesses, research and development, and start-ups,helping the sector access potential carbon nancerevenues, gathering better market intelligence, andincluding women in the value-chain all help strengthenthe supply-side. Building cookstoves or humanitarianpopulations can also provide opportunities or cleancookstove businesses to move to scale via bulk orlarge-scale sales to governments and relie organiza-

    tions, yet should be undertaken as part o a larger,coordinated overall humanitarian strategy.

    Fiace Cea Cookstoesad Fues at Scae

    Creating a thriving global market or clean cookstovesand uels will require signicant capital rom a rangeo players in the nancial sector at each stage o thecookstove supply value chain research and develop-ment, manuacturing, marketing, distribution, andnancing. These resources are vital to helping allsegments o the clean cookstove manuacturing sector

    overcome the daunting challenges which hinder theadoption o high perormance clean cookstoves anduels at an aordable price. The types o supportneeded to ensure sucient capital run the gamutrom early stage grant unding or start-up costs,to subsidized capital, angel equity investment, andultimately commercial capital. The signicant needsand challenges o securing this nancing dier alongvarious points o the clean cookstoves and uels supplychain and or rms o various sizes. The InternationalEnergy Agencys 2011 World Energy Outlook esti-mates initial annual nancing needs or the cleancookstoves sector at $4.5 billion, which would comemostly in the orm o grants rom donor groups, mul-tilateral institutions, and government agencies.

    The Alliances own initial survey o partners seemsto support these claims. In a survey o 30 leadingclean cookstove businesses and deployment eortsconducted as part o the Alliances Working Groupprocess, respondents o all company sizes mentionedthe need to secure sucient nancing to meet theirbusiness needs (research and development, marketing,manuacturing, etc), as their top priority or driving

    cookstove sales.75 When queried about what the sec-tor would need as a whole in coming years to developa thriving market or clean cooking solutions, three-quarters o the respondents suggested nancing needsin the range o $500 million to $1 billion, with indi-vidual companies stating their needs at between$1 million to $100 million each.

    iLLustRative inteRventions

    n Use o Sot Det Fiacig (auacturers) As a matter o doing business, cookstove manu-acturers must purchase raw materials, nance the

    production o nished goods, and transport theirproducts to distributors. Many distributors makea down payment beore production starts andsome pay on delivery, but many require fexibilityin the timing o their payment until ater sales havebeen completed. In order to carry this nancialburden, manuacturers may require long-term andentrepreneurial debt nancing in combinationwith patient equity or other orms o risk capital.Support should be provided or so-called sotdebt nancing, which has fexible interest rates andrepayment structures that create breathing spaceor all segments o the manuacturing sector in

    the early years. This orm o nancing will likelycome rom the donor community or DevelopmentFinance Institutions until the market beginsto mature.

    n Icrease loas or Workig Capita (distri-utors) Manuacturers typically require uprontpayments rom their clean cookstove distributors.Thus working capital to manage inventory is cru-cial or distributors whose cookstoves may sit on ashel or in a warehouse or weeks or months beorea consumer nally purchases them. Increasing theavailability o working capital loans (ranging insize rom $30,000 to $300,000) to credit-worthy

    distributors that have diversied their business andmay be selling cookstoves as well as other prod-ucts, would be benecial in encouraging distribu-tors to sell clean cookstoves.

    n Foster a Iestet marketpace or CeaCookstoes To amiliarize individual donors,corporations, and governments with investmentopportunities, the cookstove sector should createa marketplace to connect the cookstove researchand development community with the donor andinvestment communities. Such a marketplacecould be created at specialized workshops, via sideevents at related conerences, or virtually througha web portal specially designed to acilitate projectopportunities.


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    Access Caro Fiace

    While not a panacea, carbon nance could becomea game changer during the development o a globalmarket or clean cookstoves and uels. It is arguablythe best near-term means to make advanced solutionsaordable to the poor. While clean cookstoves canconservatively save one metric ton o carbon dioxide

    emissions per year under the right conditions, manymodels can save two to our times that amount.76These emission reductions are then valued and soldthrough global carbon markets, generating signicantrevenue or the project and providing options orkeeping prices low or the consumer. I a project wereable to achieve $8 to $15 per ton o carbon dioxide,or example, carbon nance could produce annualrevenues o $8 to $60 per cookstove that can betracked and conrmed to be in use.77 For a cook-stove that lasts ve years, this is an enormous revenueopportunity that could make even the most expensivecookstoves aordable to the very poor.

    Caro ace proides a coercia patwatat geerates reeues to scae cea cookstoe

    depoet wie icetiizig oitorig,icreased usage ad adoptio, ad icreased

    ue eciec ad duraiit.


    Carbon nancing o cookstove projects also oers otherimportant benets or the sector. It can change theunding dynamic or cookstove projects rom one thathas traditionally ocused on subsidized donor aid to

    that o a nancial transaction that attracts investmentrom the private sector. Carbon nance also requiresrigorous monitoring and tracking to ensure cookstovesare used as they were intended, as revenue results romthe project only i emissions reductions are realized.This potential income stream creates enormous incen-tives (once approval is granted or the nancing) tokeep the cookstoves in operation or as long as possible.

    However, the expense o applying or carbon nanc-ing, the precise and lengthy obligations to measure andmonitor projects, and other requirements or programexecution have presented insurmountable barriers to

    all but the most persistent project developers romaccessing carbon nance to support their projects.Generating carbon revenues rom clean cookstoves isstill in its inancy with only seven Clean DevelopmentMechanism (CDM) cookstove projects registered as oOctober 2011.78 Unortunately, uncertainty surround-ing the uture o carbon markets hampers investmentat scale. Only one-third o those cooking with dirtyuels live in Least Developed Countries and are henceguaranteed access to the largest compliance carbonmarket o Europe beyond 2012. The other two-thirds,more than 1.5 billion people, may not benet romcarbon nance unless regulations are changed.

    Despite the high technical and nancial hurdlesto structuring carbon nance deals, this specialized

    instrument is not available to many other health inter-ventions o this magnitude and could lead to nancingo cookstove projects at scale while ensuring signi-cant societal benets. Given all o the impedimentsand uncertainty currently surrounding the carbonmarkets, the development o a viable and thrivingcookstove sector should not rely solely on carbonnancing. Integrating carbon nance into current

    project development while simultaneously working toremove the remaining barriers will provide a signi-cant opportunity to acilitate investments at the scalerequired to meet the need or clean cookstoves anduels in developing countries.

    iLLustRative inteRventions

    n Proote Sipiied Creditig Approaces adStadardized Toos The sector should proposerevisions to the current rules or generating emis-sion reductions that will lessen transaction costsand time delays in the crediting process. The reg-

    istration process also could be streamlined in orderto improve accessibility or cookstove projects inneed o immediate nancing. For example, thecreation o a comprehensive carbon nance webportal that contains inormation about the process,templates, and standardized tools would supportthe increased utilization o carbon nancing or thesector and assist stakeholders with varying levelso carbon expertise.

    n Create Regioa Caro OsettigIrastructure Developing Programs o Activities(PoAs) that generate carbon osets under the

    CDM can help acilitate access to carbon nanceor clean cookstove projects. Setting up PoAs orcountries and regions that allow or the fexibleparticipation o many cookstove implementationpartners is expensive and time consuming, and ewcompanies can aord to do this on their own, orwish to assist their competitors by paving the way.Creating investor-riendly PoAs that are managedby neutral parties would lower the barriers to entryinto the CDM market currently experienced bycookstove carbon projects, and would help moreprojects tap carbon nancing.

    n Support Oset Dead Geeratio ad

    Caro ad metae Price Guaratees Cookstoves are sources o carbon and methane, yetmarket uncertainty related to the lack o a post-Kyoto agreement and the types o osets that willbe eligible in the European Union has dampenedinvestor interest in these projects in non-LeastDeveloped Countries (non-LDCs). Strong demandor cookstove osets rom both developing coun-tries and non-LDCs in compliance markets willbolster pricing and attract investment. Instrumentsthat ensure a premium price or reduced price riskor carbon and methane osets rom cookstoveprojectsmay reduce private sector investment bar-

    riers and stimulate additional nancing or cleancookstove programs.

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    buid a Icusie vaue Caior Cea Cookstoes ad Fues

    In order or a global cookstove market to thrive, itis important or the sector to build an inclusive valuechain or clean cookstoves and uels. This processentails the involvement o a wide range o stakehold-ers in the development o new cookstove designs, local

    manuacturing projects, distribution eorts, marketingtechniques, awareness campaigns, and other compo-nents o the value chain. Women are a particularlyimportant componen