Hvac Project

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BASE CASE DESCRIBTIONEnergy saving in buildings is a very important topic that is being studied locally

Chapter 1Introduction 1.1

and globally to reduce the cost of energy consumption, and different electrical and mechanical equipment that are used for different purposes. The energy saving in buildings depends on several factors including: the comfort, the durability, the cost, and the efficiency. These factors must be studied carefully for each building that is chosen as a base case to take the best options that are available ones. From two factors of them, the cost and efficiency, we create the comfort conditions for buildings, and have durability .for along time This type of study is chosen because its importance in our daily life. Most of engineers are dealing with air conditioning from many years ago until these days, and try .to make successive improvements on it In Mechanical Engineering field, there is a combination of factors and methods that are discussed to save energy using the best choices and decisions for constructing .and founding mechanical system with more efficient in energy, durability, and the cost One of the mechanical energy fields is air conditioning or HVAC engineering; it is an applied engineering science looking for specifying the techniques to get a medium with comfort conditions for human, no matter what is the case of surrounded air. However, the climate of outdoor conditions is very important role to determine the comfort indoor conditions, by increasing or decreasing the humidity and temperature for .indoor HVAC science also concerns on the quality of indoor air, by ventilation techniques to obtain healthy conditions, by taking the air inside that is polluted from microbial and smoking outside and bring a fresh air to inside, to get a comfort and healthy conditions for humans, and to produce an excellent products like medicines as an .example A case study for studying energy saving in buildings is a hospital in Palestine that is located in Bethlehem city called Caritas Hospital. The hospital is chosen because the heath sector is considered as an important sector in any country, the development of healthy sector is a proof of the growth and progress of the country. Thus, the idea of saving energy in hospitals was found to provide comfortable conditions for doctors,

patients, employees, and the visitors. In addition, there is diversity in energy facilities that number of facilities like the emergency centers that are open 24 hours, sterilization rooms, laundering rooms, and cooking (kitchens). Also, some rooms needed 100% fresh air or high ventilation rates like surgical rooms and sterilization rooms to remove the .microbial contamination To manage the energy saving in hospitals, there are several steps under consideration: Every hospital must identify one person to manage the hospital energy efficiency, and observing the rate of using energy and water in hospital. In addition to, .controlling on air handling units, HVAC system, and lighting

Base Case Study 1.2Caritas hospital which was selected as case study in this project contains four levels, basement level, ground level, first level, and second level. Ground level and first .level are chosen to study because those levels contain the main activities in the hospital This hospital belongs to nursing faculty in Bethlehem city, thus there are exam .rooms, school section and classrooms for the students, and there is a section for patients : The ground level consists of .(See plan in the Appendix) Five rooms of exams.1 Two rooms for triage purposes.2 .Two rooms for feeding and changing for babies.3 Water cycle (bathroom), the next room is for janitor.4 .Store room and another bathroom.5 .Control area room.6 .Audiology booth room.7 .Social worker room.8 .Personal use room.9 2

.Accountant room.10 .Nurse room.11 .Reception.12 .Waiting and play kids area.13 .Minor entrance and two corridors.14 .Emergency treatment room.15 (Two rooms for dirty and clean linen (laundry.16 .Dirty wash room.17 .Blood receiving room.18 .Two labs of Chemistry and Micro-biology.19 .Lab store room.20 .Laboratory office room.21 .Two rooms for laboratory use.22 .Blood storage room.23 .X-ray room.24 .Ultrasound room.25 .Dark room.26 .Visitor's water cycle.27 .Staff water cycle.28 .Equipment room.29 .Another bathroom.30 .Two rooms of dirty utility.31 Playroom.32 .Physiotherapy.33 .bedrooms, each room contain 5 beds 11.34 3

.Two rooms for treatment discharge.35 .Two isolation rooms.36 .Corridor for main entrance.37 .Two rooms for tea kitchen.38 The area of the this level is 1300 m : First level consists of .(See plan in the Appendix) .bedrooms 9.1 (classrooms. (school section 3.2 (school offices.(school section 3.3 .Laundry room.4 .Lobby.5 .Living room + kitchen.6 .Dirty utility.7 .Janitor room.8 (Waiting. (school section.9 (doctors rooms. (school section 3.10 (Library. (school section.11 (Two bathrooms. (school section.12 .(Doctor waiting room (school section.13 .(Dirty utility. (School section.14 .(premature rooms. (Premature section 3.15 .(Ultra sound+ social worker. (Premature section.16 .(Premature patient waiting. . (Premature section.17


.(Doctors' offices+ conference room. (Premature section.18 .(Water cycle. . (Premature section.19 .The area of the first level is 1210 m

Climates for the region of case study 1.3Caritas hospital is located in Bethlehem city in Palestine, thus the climate in Palestine is affected by Mediterranean Sea climate, dry summer and short, cool, rainy .water The climate of Bethlehem is pleasant in the most of the time in the year; winter extends three months from mid December to mid March and may be severe, during the rest of year the climate is temperate. However, the hottest months are July and August. The summer is eased by breezes that are coming from Mediterranean Sea. In addition, in the summer season the climate is hot in daytime and fairly cool at night. The sunshine in summer is thirteen hours during a day, but in winter the sunshine is seven hours during a [day. [1

.Overview of Solar Water heating systems1.4Solar energy and the application of solar energy are increasing because the solar radiation is parental source of energy and it is easy to get and collect and it has variety of .application. This energy reaches the earth on the form of radiation 5

Solar radiation is renewable energy that comes from the sun as a result of a .nuclear fusion that takes place in the sun The radiation reaches to the earth on the shape of waves, about half of these waves are invisible (short-waves) these waves have an electromagnetic energy .The temperature of .solar radiation reaches to 5800K Solar water heaters also called solar domestic hot water systems can be a costeffective way to generate hot water for the homes. They can be used in any climate, and .the fuel they use is sun shine and it is free Solar water heating systems include storage tanks and solar collectors. There are two types of solar water heating systems: active, which have circulating pumps and [controls, and passive, which don't. [2

Most solar water heaters require a well-insulated storage tank. Solar storage tanks have an additional outlet and inlet connected to and from the collector. In two-tank systems, the solar water heater preheats water before it enters the conventional water heater. In one-tank systems, the back-up heater is combined with the solar storage in one [tank. [2

Chapter 2 .HVAC Load AnalysisIntroduction 2.16

The main aim of the (HVAC) systems is to create comfort condition for the people inside spaces, and these conditions can be achieved by controlling the (temperature, humidity and solar gains) in the interest space. Hospitals are one of the most important spaces that must be conditioned in order to provide the best service for all .patients The most important thing that must be available in hospitals is the air conditioning which include cooling, heating and filtration of the space, nowadays it becomes one of the most important thing that must be provided in any hospitals specially when we are talking about surgery rooms or intensive care rooms where the climate in .these rooms must be kept steady on a specific comfort condition In our case we are to design an air conditioning system for (Bethlehem) hospital, we need to find how much power must be used to accomplish this task, heating and cooling loads must be calculated, since they help in the selection of the air conditioning equipment needed for this project. The calculations of the heating and cooling load are based on the climate information that is available about Jerusalem region since there are nearly the same climate between Bethlehem and Jerusalem. When calculating the heating needed for the project the main load that was taken into perspective was the .transmission load, since this load takes a large space when considering cooling in winter The hospital buildings have a proper design shape and there service that must be provided. Technical systems must be designed and adjusted to meet the requirements and needs of each individual environment. Most countries have regulations that outline how these requirements may be fulfilled, through proper design and operation of technical systems and the building it self. This is mainly accomplished by regulation for thermal .insulation, ventilation, lighting, and indoor temperature and humidity levels

Comfort Temperature in medical sectors 2.2


Indoor temperature in hospitals is usually (1-4) C higher than other natural building. A typical temperature for patients rooms is (22-23) C. This minimum value .should be maintained during the colder part of the year When temperature discomfort is identified, it is usually more efficient to localize the source of discomfort and treat it, by controlling the temperature incr