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Human Osteology - · PDF file1 Human Osteology • Study of the Skeleton • Systematic Anatomy • Regional Anatomy • Cartilage • Bones • Ligaments Normal Anatomical Position

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    Human Osteology

    Study of the Skeleton Systematic Anatomy Regional Anatomy Cartilage Bones Ligaments

    Normal Anatomical Position

    The skeleton is positioned as it would be in a living person who is standing on two feet, eyes and head forward, hands at the side with the palms turned outward. The skeletons right side is your right side etc.

    Anatomical Planes FRONTAL (or coronal)

    separates the body into Anterior and Posterior parts MEDIAN (or midsagittal) separates body into Right and Left parts HORIZONTAL separates the body into Superior and Inferior parts SAGITTAL any plane parallel to the median plane

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    Anatomical Terms Superior: above Inferior: below Anterior: toward/from

    front (ventral: toward belly)

    Posterior: toward/from back (dorsal: quadrupeds)

    Medial: toward midline Lateral: toward/from the

    side (way from midline)

    Proximal/Distal

    proximal: nearest axial skeleton ; end of the bone is the closest to the skull or its attachment to the trunk or axial skeleton

    distal: farther away from axial skeleton; the end that is furthest away from the skull and axial skeleton

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    Skeleton

    Axial Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton

    Parts of Skeleton

    Skull Infracranial or

    Postcranial skeletons

    The Skull

    thinking, speaking, hearing, seeing, breathing, smelling, eating (mastication), and tasting

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    Parts of the Skull

    Skull Cranium (skull minus

    mandible) Calvarium (vault) Calotte (skull cap) Mandible (lower jaw)

    22 Skull Bones

    6 unpaired and 8 paired 8 Cranial 14 Facial + 6 ear bones (incus, stapes, malleous)

    Frankfurt Horizontal Plane

    The line from inferior edge of the left eye socket to the top of the bony ear hole (external auditory meatus) parallel to a level surface

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    Frontal

    Left Lateral

    Basal or Inferior

    Posterior

    Superior

    Major Cranial Sutures

    Basal Suture

    Spheno-occipital synchrondrosis: betweem sphenoid and occipital bone

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    Bones of the Vault Frontal Bone (1) Parietal bone (2) Occipital bone (1) Temporal bone (2) Sphenoid bone (1)

    Bones of the Face/Eye Socket

    Maxilla (2) Nasal bone (2) Zygomatic bone (2) Mandible (1) Ethmoid bone (1) Lacrimal bone (2)

    Bones of the Skull

    Palatine bone (2) Zygomatic bone (2)

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    More Bones of the Skull

    Inferior nasal concha (2)

    Vomer (1)

    Ear Ossicles

    Incus Malleous Stapes

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    Features

    External Auditory Meatus

    Zygomatic arch Temporomandibular

    joint (TMJ)

    Basal View

    Foramen magnum Occipital condyles

    Mandibular Anatomy

    Body Ramus Head of condyle Coronoid process

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    Special Features

    Superciliary arches (brow ridges)

    Galbella Nasion Canine fossa Anterior nasal spine

    Other features Temporal Line Mastoid process Supraorbitial notch/foramen

    Superior nuchal line External occipital protuberance

    Teeth

    Part of the digestive system

    Homodont Heterodont

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    Teeth

    Deciduous (primary) Permanent (secondary)

    Deciduous Teeth

    Incisors (2) Canines (1) Molars (2) Total = 20 Deciduous Dental

    formula: 2 1 0 2 2 1 0 2 = X 2 = 20

    Permanent (Adult) Teeth

    Incisors (2) Canines (1) Premolars (2) Molars (3) Total teeth: 32 Permanent dental formula: 2 1 2 3 2 1 2 3 = 16 X 2 = 32

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    Tooth Anatomy

    Enamel Dentin Pulp Cementum

    Forensic Sex

    Names these Bones?

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    Names these Bones?