The Ultimate Guide to Learning how to use Your first DSLR 97 Comments A Post By: Elliot Hook If you’ve bought yourself a DSLR and, after unpacking it from the box, you are intimidated by the number of buttons and dials, and by the thickness of the Most Recent Most Popular Tips for Beginners Portrait Photography Tips Home Tips & Tutorials Cameras & Equipment Post Production Bookstore Forum Search Landscape Photography Tips Email Newsletter RSS Facebook Twitter Google+ StumbleUpon Join 1,417,294 Subscribers! Polls What kind of photography do you do? Portraits Landscape Macro Take creative control of your portrait photography – after the shot. find out how Use our professional PDF creation service at http://www.htm2pdf.co.uk!

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  • The Ultimate Guide toLearning how to use Yourfirst DSLR


    A Post By: Elliot Hook

    If youve bought yourself a DSLR and, after unpacking it from the box, you areintimidated by the number of buttons and dials, and by the thickness of the

    Most Recent Most Popular Tips for Beginners Portrait Photography Tips

    Home Tips & Tutorials Cameras & Equipment Post Production Bookstore ForumSearch

    Landscape Photography Tips

    Email NewsletterRSSFacebook


    Join 1,417,294Subscribers!

    PollsWhat kind of photography do youdo?

    Portraits Landscape Macro

    CloseTake creative control of your portrait photography after the shot. find out how

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  • manual, it can be very tempting to put the manual down, flick it onto Auto andstart shooting. Whilst that is fine for some, it may not be long until you crave thecreative control that inspired you to purchase a DSLR in the first place, but wheredo you begin?

    Photography Tips & TutorialsMy Biggest PhotographyFailures and What I Learned

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  • If you consider yourself a beginner who is unsure of how to make the most of yourcamera, this post is designed for you. Its intended to be a brief, a one-stop shop tohelp you take your camera off auto, and take control of your DSLR. It isnt intendedto be a replacement for your camera manual, so will not explain every last settingin great depth, but will cover enough of the basics to get you in control of yourcamera, and give you the key topics to go back to your manual to read.

    The topics covered in this post are:

    1. Shooting modes

    aperture priorityshutter priorityprogrammanual

    2. ISO

    3. Completion of the exposure triangle

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  • 4. Metering

    exposure compensation (+/-)

    5. Focussing

    focussing modes (AF-S/AF-C)focus points

    6. File size/types

    raw vs jpeg

    7. White balance

    Which should be more than enough to get you on your way. So lets begin

    1. Shooting modes

    The best place to start is with shooting modes. The shooting modes will most likelybe found on a dial labelled with auto, Av, Tv, P, M and maybe more. Selecting ashooting mode will determine how your camera behaves when you press theshutter, for example, when auto is selected, the camera will determine everythingto do with the exposure, including the aperture and shutter speed. The othermodes, Av, Tv, P, M, are there to give you control:

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  • Dont worry if your mode dial looks a little different; different manufacturers usedifferent abbreviations for the shooting modes. Your mode dial may have theletters A, S, P, M (instead of Av, Tv, P, M), yet they all function in the same way. Below, I have given each abbreviation for the given mode.

    Aperture Priority (Av or A)Aperture priority can be thought of as a semi-automatic shooting mode. Whenthis is selected, you as the photographer set the aperture and the camera willautomatically select the shutter speed. So what is aperture and when would youwant to control it?

    The aperture is the size of the opening in the lens through which light is allowed topass whenever the shutter is opened the larger the aperture, the more lightpasses through.

    The aperture is measured in f-stops and is usually displayed using an f-number,e.g. f/2.0, f/2.8, f/4.0, f/5.6, f/8.0 etc, which is a ratio of focal length over diameter of

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  • the opening. Therefore, a larger aperture (a wider opening) has a smaller f-number(e.g. f/2.0) and smaller aperture (a narrower opening) has a larger f-number (e.g.f/22). Reducing the aperture by one whole f-stop, e.g. f/2.0 to f2/8 or f/5.6 to f/8.0,halves the amount of light entering the camera.

    Aperture is one of the most important aspects of photography as it directlyinfluences the depth of field that is, the amount of an image that is in focus. Alarge depth of field (achieved by using a small aperture (large f-number)) wouldmean that a large distance within the scene is in focus, such as the foreground tothe background of the landscape below.

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  • An aperture of f/13 was used here to give a large depth of field, ensuring that the wholeimage, from the foreground grasses to the background mountains. was sharp

    Whereas a shallow depth of field (achieved by using a large aperture (small f-number)) would produce an image where only the subject is in sharp focus, but thebackground is soft and out of focus. This is often used when shooting portraitureor wildlife, such as the image below, to isolate the subject from the background:

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  • A large aperture of f/4.5 was used to capture this water vole, against a soft, out of focusbackground

    So when using aperture priority, you can get complete control over your depth offield, whilst the camera takes care of the rest.

    Shutter Priority (Tv or S)Similarly to aperture priority, this is another semi-automatic shooting mode,though in this instance, you as the photographer set the shutter speed and thecamera will take care of the aperture. The shutter speed, measured in seconds (ormore often fractions of a second), is the amount of time the shutter stays openwhen taking a photograph. The longer the shutter stays open, the more lightpasses through to the sensor to be captured.

    You would select a short shutter speed if you wanted to freeze a fast movingsubject, such as shooting sports, action or wildlife, for example:

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  • A very fast shutter speed of 1/4000th sec was used to freeze the motion of this grouse inflight

    You would use a long shutter speed if you wanted to blur a moving subject, forexample water rushing over a waterfall (slower shutter speeds will require you toput the camera on a tripod to ensure the camera is held steady whilst the shutteris open):

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  • To capture the motion of the waves, and render the water with a soft, milky texture, a shutterspeed of 6 seconds was used here

    So whilst you worry about what shutter speed you need for a given photograph, thecamera will determine the appropriate aperture required to give the correctexposure.

    Aperture and shutter priority shooting modes may be semi-automatic, meaningthat some may deride their use because theyre not fully manual, however they areincredibly useful modes to shoot in that can give you enough creative control tocapture scenes as you envisage them.

    Program (P)Program mode is almost a halfway house between the semi automatic modes ofaperture/shutter priority and full manual control. In program mode, you are able toset either the aperture or shutter speed, and the camera will maintain the correctexposure by adjusting the other one accordingly, i.e. as you change the aperture,the shutter speed will automatically change, and vice versa. This gives youadditional freedom that using either aperture priority or shutter priority cannot givewithout switching between shooting modes.

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  • Manual (M)Manual mode is exactly what it sounds like, you are given full control over theexposure determination, setting both the aperture and shutter speed yourself. There will be an exposure indicator either within the viewfinder or on the screenthat will tell you how under/over exposed the image will be, however, you are left tochange the shutter speed and aperture yourself to ensure you achieve the correctexposure.

    Practically Speaking: as a first step to taking your camera off auto, aperture priorityand shutter priority modes offer two very simple ways to start to understand howthe different setting impact your images and are a perfect starting place forlearning how to use your camera more creatively.

    2. ISO

    ISO is a measure of how sensitive the sensor of your camera is to light. The termoriginated in film photography, where film of different sensitivities could be useddepending on the shooting conditions, and it is no different in digital photography.The ISO sensitivity is represented numerically from ISO 100 (low sensitivity) up toISO 6400 (high sensitivity) and beyond, and controls the amount of light requiredby the sensor to achieve a given exposure

    At low sensitivities, more light is required to achieve a given exposure comparedto high sensitivities where less light is required to achieve the same exposure. Tounderstand this, lets look at two different situations:

    Low ISO numbersIf shooting outside, on a bright sunny day there is a lot of available light that will hit

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  • the sensor during an exposure, meaning that the sensor does not need to be verysensitive in order to achieve a correct exposure. Therefore, you could use a low ISOnumber, such as ISO 100 or 200. This will give you images of the highest quality,with very little grain (or noise).

    Taken at ISO 100, the image does not show signs of noise (even when looking at the 100%crop (right)

    High ISO numbersIf shooting in low light conditions, such as inside a dark cathedral or museum forexample, there is not much light available for your camera sensor. A high ISOnumber, such as ISO 3200, will increase the sensitivity of the sensor, effectivelymultiplying the small amount of available light to give you a correctly exposed

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  • image. This multiplication effect comes with a side effect of increased noise on theimage, which looks like a fine grain, reducing the overall image quality. The noisewill be most pronounced in the darker/shadow regions.

    This image was taken as the sun was going down, meaning there was not much ambientlight. Therefore, this was shot with ISO4000, however you can see very obvious noise in the100% crop (right)

    Practically Speaking: you want to keep the ISO as low as possible, as the lower theISO, the less noise and the higher the quality of the resulting image. Outside on asunny day, select ISO200 and see how it goes. If it clouds over, maybe select anISO between 400-800. If you move indoors, consider an ISO of around 1600 orabove (these are approximate starting points).

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  • Most digital SLRs now have an auto-ISO function, where the camera sets the ISOdepending upon the amount of light in which you are shooting, keeping it as low aspossible. Auto-ISO is a very useful tool when starting out with your camera, as it isallows you to define an upper limit i.e. where the images become too noisy such asISO1600 or 3200, and then forget about it until situations where you specificallywant to override the automatic setting, for example if taking landscape imagesusing a tripod, you can afford to use the lowest ISO possible.

    3. Completion of the Exposure Triangle

    Its important to note that aperture, shutter speed and ISO are all part of theexposure triangle. They all control either the amount of light entering the camera(aperture, shutter speed) or the amount of light required by the camera (ISO) for agiven exposure.

    Therefore, they are all linked, and understanding the relationship between them iscrucial to being able to take control of your camera. A change in one of thesettings will impact the other two. For example, considering a theoretical exposureof ISO400, f/8.0, 1/10 second. If you wanted to reduce the depth of field, anddecided to use an aperture of f/4.0, you would be increasing the size of theaperture by two whole f/stops, therefore increasing the amount of light entering thecamera by a factor of 4 (i.e. increasing by a factor of 2, twice). Therefore, to balancethe exposure, you could do the following:

    Situation 1: Reduce the shutter speed by a factor of 4, i.e. to 1/40th second.Situation 2: Reduce the ISO by a factor of 4, i.e. to ISO100Situation 3: A combination of the above, shutter speed by a factor of 2 (to1/20th second) AND reduce the ISO bv a factor of 2 (to ISO200).


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  • Aperture, shutter speed and ISO are all facotrs that influence your exposure, and are alllinked. Its just a case of balancing the books!

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  • countering the change in aperture. Its just a case of understanding that they areall linked, and so changing one setting, will cause a change in another.

    Using a combination of the semi-automatic shooting modes and auto-ISO wouldmean you wont necessarily need to think about adjusting your exposure in such away initially, however understanding the relationship that ISO or aperture has withshutter speed, and knowing the practical implications is a big step in masteringyour DSLR .

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  • 4. Metering

    Through out all of the above discussion, I have said that the camera calculates theexposure depending on the amount of available light, but what is it actually doing?

    When taking a photograph, using any form of automatic exposure calculation (e.g.aperture priority mode, shutter priority mode, auto-ISO etc) the camera always triesto calculate an average exposure. It will asses the entire scene, both light anddark areas, and determine the exposure so that all of the tones within the entireimage average to 18% grey called the middle grey.

    This is known as metering, and it is the reason that if you point your camera at abright white scene, such as after it has snowed, and take a photograph theresulting image will always appear darker than you or I see it. Similarly, if you pointyour camera at a really dark scene, such as a low-lit room, and take a photographthe resulting image will always be brighter than you or I see it.

    The scene is always being averaged by the camera and most of the time thatresults in the image appearing to be correctly exposed. However, you can controlwhat areas of the scene are being assessed by the camera in order to influencethe way in which the exposure is metered.

    Generally, there are three metering modes that you can choose from:

    Average - The camera will assess the tones across the entire image form cornerto corner, and expose the scene to 18% grey from that assessment.

    Centre-weighted The camera weights the exposure reading for the area in thecentre of the viewfinder that can total up to approximately 80% of the scene,

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  • ignoring the extreme corners of the image.

    Spot metering The camera will use a very small area of the scene, typically asmall circle in the centre of the viewfinder that totals approximately 5% of theviewfinder area. It will make the assessment of dark/light tones in this area andexpose the entire scene to 18% grey, from that assessment.

    Practically speaking: when starting out with your camera, either average or centreweighted metering are a good starting point. They will both provide a fairlyconsistent measure of the exposure required and, if you select one mode and stickwith it, you will soon begin to understand when a scene will be under exposed (i.e.too dark) or over exposed (i.e. to light) compared to how you see it with your owneyes.

    But what can you do if a scene is under/over exposed? That is where exposurecompensation comes in.

    Exposure compensation

    Generally found on a small +/- button near the shutter, this is one of the mostuseful functions to learn how to use. It allows you to either increase or decreasethe cameras default meter reading to account for the actual brightness of a scene.

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  • If a scene contains primarily bright tones and is being rendered too dark, forexample, a bright white snow scene (that will typically be reduced to 18% grey bythe default metering system), you can apply positive exposure compensation to letthe camera know that the scene should be lighter than middle grey.

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  • A spring lamb leaping in front of a snowy hillside. Left: Straight out of camera, with the snowcaught as grey. Right: With +2 stops exposure compensation (added in post processing). Thebright snowy background caused my camera to underexpose this scene by nearly two stops,which could have been corrected by exposure compensation in camera.

    Conversely, if a scene contains primarily dark tones and is being rendered too light,for example, a dark night scene (that will typically be increased to 18% grey by thedefault metering system), you can apply negative exposure compensation to let thecamera know that the scene should be darker than middle grey.

    5. FocussingRegardless of what shooting mode you are using, or what ISO you define, thechances are there will be a subject of your image that you want to have in focus. Ifthat focus is not achieved, the image will not be what you wanted.

    Autofocus modesDSLRs come with a range of autofocus modes, however, for simplicity, the two thatare most important to understand are AF-S and AF-C

    AF-S autofocus-single. This is best used when taking photos of stationarysubjects such as portraits of people, landscapes, buildings etc. When you half-press the shutter, the focus will be acquired and locked on that point for as long asyou hold the button down. If you want to change to focus, you need to release thebutton, recompose and then re-half-press.

    AF-C autofocus-continuous. This is best used when taking photos of action ormoving subjects such as sports and wildlife. When you half-press the shutter,focus will be acquired and locked on to a given subject. When that subject moves,the focus will adjust with it, refocusing all of the time until the photograph is taken.

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  • (These modes are not to be confused with the AF/MF switches on the lens, where AFstands for autofocus and MF stands for manual focus. That switch is an overridefor if you want to manually focus your lens. If you want to make use of theautofocus modes discussed above, ensure the lens is set to AF).

    Focus PointsBoth of those focus modes rely on what are known as focus points. When you lookthrough the viewfinder, you should see a number of squares/dots overlaid acrossthe screen. When you half-press the shutter, you should see one of these squaresbe highlighted in red. That is the active focus point, and it is that position withinthe frame that the camera is focussing on. A viewfinder with 9 focus points isshown below:

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  • New DSLRs can come with over 50 focus points and the temptation is to leave it onfully automatic focus point selection, with the thinking that the camera will be ableto select the correct focus point. However, only you know what you want to focuson, and there is no better way than ensuring the correct subject is in focus than byusing one focus point, and placing that focus point over the subject.

    If you select a single focus point, you should be able to change which point isactive fairly easily either by using directional buttons one of the dials. If you selecta focus point that is on your desired subject, you will ensure that the camerafocuses where you want it to. After a small amount of practice, you will soon getinto the habit of being able to change the focus point without taking the cameraaway form your eye.

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  • Practically speaking: Initially, set your camera to use a single focus point (yourcamera manual should tell you how to do this). This way, you will be able to choosewhat you are focussing on, ensuring that the subject you want to capture is infocus. Once you are familiar with the basic focussing modes and focus pointselection, you can then explore the more advanced modes that your camera mayoffer.

    6. File Size/Types

    You will have the option to be able to change the size of the images that yourcamera records, and in which file type. You want to set the file size to the largestpossible (whether it is large or fine or super fine) to ensure that you are makingthe most of the mega pixels that you have just invested in.

    You will also have the option of choosing whether to record the images as raw orjpeg file type. A raw file is uncompressed, and so contains a lot of image data thatallows for a lot of flexibility during post-processing (i.e. on your computer) but alsocomes with additional complications such as the need to process every file usingdedicated editing software and a larger file size. A jpeg is a compressed file type,that is automatically processed by the camera. They will be print ready straightout of the camera, and are much smaller files, meaning you can fit more imagesper memory card.

    Practically speaking: When starting out with your camera, using jpeg is the moststraight forward. It will enable you to get the best results whilst you learn thebasics or your camera before complicating matters with post-processing of rawfiles.

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  • 7. White Balance

    If shooting in jpeg, as recommended above, you will need to make sure you setyour white balance before taking a picture. The white balance can significantlyimpact colour tone of your photographs. You may have noticed that sometimesyour images have a blueish tone to them or, in others, everything looks veryorange. This is to do with the white balance and, whilst you can make someadjustments to the image on your computer, it is much simpler if you get it rightup-front.

    Different light sources (such as the sun, light bulbs, fluorescent strips etc) emitlight of different wavelengths, and therefore colours, which can be described bywhat is known as colour temperature. Light from a candle, or from the sun duringsunrise/sunset, is very warm, and contains a lot of red/orange wavelengths;whereas light from a fluorescent strip is much cooler, containing a lot of bluewavelengths. This coloured light is reflected off of surfaces, but our brain in cleverenough to recognise this and automatically counter the effect, meaning that westill see a white surface as a white surface. However, your camera is not thatintelligent, and unless told otherwise, will record the orange or blue tones givingthe colour cast to your images.

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  • Left: The image captured using auto white balance has a heavy yellow tone from the artificialstreet lighting. Right: the same image, corrected for a Tungsten white balance, giving thecooler tones on the stone work, and the bluer sky

    As the colour temperature of different light sources is well known, there are anumber of presets built into your camera that help to overcome the differentcolours of light in different situations cooling the warm light, and warming thecool light all in the cause of trying to capture the colours of the scene accurately. The auto feature (auto WB or AWB) will attempt to predict the colour of the light bydetecting the predominant colour of the scene and then countering it, however itmay not necessarily make a correct decision, leaving you with inaccurate colours. Therefore it is best to set the colour balance before you take your image and justto make sure (note: the above image was a raw file giving me a lot of latitude forwhite balance correction. Jpeg files are not as susceptible to white balanceadjustments, meaning the white balance correction needs to be made before theimage is taken):

    Daylight To be used on clear sunny days. Bright sunlight, on a clear day is asnear to neutral light that we generally get

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  • Cloudy To be used when shooting on a cloudy day. Adds warm tones to daylightimages.

    Shade To be used if shooting in the shade, as shaded areas generally producecooler, bluer images, so need warming up.

    Tungsten Used for shooting indoors, under incandescent light bulbs, or understreet lights, to cool down the yellow tones.

    Fluorescent Compensates for the green/blue tones of fluorescent light stripswhen shooting indoors.

    Flash the flash will add a cool blue cast to the image, so used to add somewarmth.

    Practically speaking: avoid auto white balance and set the white balance manually. Generally, you will be able to look up at the sky and see what kind of day it is, anddetermine the colour balance required pretty easily. If you move indoors, justcheck the lighting that you are shooting under, and again select the appropriatewhite balance. It will soon become second nature to set it as you take your cameraout of the bag.


    So that is an overview of the settings you will encounter when you want to take theleap and take your camera off Auto. You dont necessarily need to consider themall straight away, but exploring and understanding the effect of each setting willsoon have you in complete control of your camera. The biggest step, that will giveyou the most noticeable difference in the feeling of control and direct influence on

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  • If you enjoyed this article,you might also like...

    Getting Creative with Aperture andColourStart To See Photographically In SixEasy StepsHow to Select the Perfect Nikon DSLR

    creative results, will be to start using the aperture priority or shutter priorityshooting modes and once you are familiar with those, you can start thinking aboutexploring further. Soon enough, you will no longer think of your camera as amysterious black box, but understand how to achieve the photographic results thatyou bought it for in the first place.

    Read more from our Tips & Tutorials category.

    Elliot Hook is a wildlife and landscape photographer basedin Hertfordshire, UK. Elliot loves being outdoors with hiscamera, and is always looking to improve his ownphotography and share what he has learnt with others.Elliot also can be found at his website, on Twitter, Flickr and500px.

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  • for Your NeedsSetting The Mood By Adjusting YourWhite BalanceThe Basics of Using ND Grads toImprove Your Landscapes

    Some older comments

    Wendy Elphinstone September 29, 2013 05:11 pm

    Excellent tutorial!!! I'm actually finally understanding. Thank you formaking a very informative, to the point, tutorial! I really appreciate it!

    Kathy September 29, 2013 12:33 pm

    First I love this website! This is the best article I have read on thedifferent settings. It is especially helpful to have the pictures anddiagrams. Great article and thank you so much, Kathy

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  • Phylo September 28, 2013 11:02 am

    Many thanks for the excellent tutorial. As a beginner, startingtomorrow i will using the suggested program modes.

    Dave September 28, 2013 07:07 am

    Awesome! Simple, clear and ultimately understandable. Mostimportant to me is that I took away at least two excellent proceduresto improve my photos (wb setting and exposure comp).

    Ross September 27, 2013 08:55 pm

    A very good article and direct to the point.HOWEVER - your discription of P mode is a little incorrect. I have aCannon 400D. On this camera, P mode lets you set all settings as youwant them, (exposure offset, ISO etc,) BUT the shutter speed andaperature are set as the camera sees fit.With some experimenting I found that the aperature can be changedand the shutter speed will correct itself. However no reference ismade in the manual about this.I use this mode for general photography when I am a bit lazy and setISO as I want it, and tweek the offset if required. I try to remember toleave my camera on this setting when finished as it is then ready fora basic photo in a quick reaction situation.

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  • I use Tv or Av when I want to control either shutter speed, oraperature for the purpose you explain.If you use one of these modes the other will be adjusted by thecamera, or flash if out of range.

    On a different subject, I always have my camera set to take bothJPEG and RAW together, it can be done on the Cannon. Storage mediais cheap, I keep about four x 4GB cards in my case and never runout of space. I don't post process about 95% of my photos, but it isVERY good to have a RAW file if I do want to "fix" that special photo.

    The last comment I will make is I always check the histogram, and ifnot to my satasfaction, make corrections using the offset, exposingon a lighter/darker area and reframing, depending on my mood.Once again, thanks for an excellent article, simple and to the point.Ross.

    Stephanie Lanzetti September 27, 2013 04:20 pm

    Thank you, thank you, thank you.

    I have just taken up photography and have been grappling withpretty much all the above. I couldn't find anything that would explainit all simply and clearly; this has done the job.


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  • Tallulah September 27, 2013 12:54 pm

    By the way, Elliot, LOVE your photos! The hares are stunning!

    Tallulah September 27, 2013 12:46 pm

    Thanks very much for this article. I just purchased a Pentax K-5 IIand the info you shared in this article will really help my learningprocess.

    George Hewitt September 27, 2013 08:12 am

    Best explanation of the various camera settings, especially WHY youchoose one over the other. Better than any camera manual. Givesreal encouragement and desire and purpose to steer clear of auto.Perfect for beginners and for many who think they are not beginners.

    Benedict Menezes September 27, 2013 12:49 am

    An excellent article along with good photographs illustrating thepoints. My sincere thanks to the author,a very good teacher.

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  • Elliot Hook September 24, 2013 04:28 am

    Frank - yes, that is what the two separate priority modes do, howeverprogram mode functions almost as a hybrid of the two. The camerawill determine the exposure, yet you should have the option ofchanging either the aperture OR shutter speed (within the one mode)and the camera will change the other to maintain the balancedexposure. It is a 'semi-automatic' way of shooting that gives a littlemore flexibility over the two individual priority modes.

    Gnslngr45 September 24, 2013 12:50 am

    Good article. There's so much to learn. This website is a tremendouslygood place to start (and continue). I read it every chance I get andeven after 4+ years, I still find nuggets here to improve myphotography.


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  • leighann September 22, 2013 02:59 am

    I love the pictures really amazing I hope you ceep up the good work

    Frank September 22, 2013 12:50 am

    Great article, but I'm a little confused about the difference betweenProgram mode and Priority modes. In the description of Programmode it says you set one and the camera takes care of the other.Isn't that what Priority modes do too?

    Natalia September 21, 2013 04:35 am

    Thanks for explaining the basic! Very useful information!!!

    Gourab September 20, 2013 10:49 pm

    excellent.I have read these points bits & pieces in DPS.But this one isstunning with all assembled together with perfect example &pictures.

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  • Babs Baker September 20, 2013 09:43 pm

    Very informative. ..excellent for ALL photographers and studentseverywhere!

    Richard Taylor September 20, 2013 04:01 pm

    Excellent tutorial. Thanks very much.

    David Stransky September 20, 2013 06:51 am

    That was a GREAT article with a lot of useful information. I have beenusing my DSLR for many years and still have not mastered all ofthose things. I plan on trying some of them this weekend at a localstate park. I also forwrded a link to to a fiend who just bought a newcamera.

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