How do psychologists answer questions?
How do psychologists answer questions? . Module 2 . Stinger . 1. Why is psychology fuzzier than hard sciences? 2. Why do psychologists struggle to be accepted as scientists? (Why not just do theoretical and philosophical work and throw empiricism to the wind?) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
<p>How do psychologists answer questions?</p>
<p>How do psychologists answer questions? Module 2 1. Why is psychology fuzzier than hard sciences? 2. Why do psychologists struggle to be accepted as scientists? (Why not just do theoretical and philosophical work and throw empiricism to the wind?) 3. Why cant we just rely on intuition and common sense in understanding the workings of the human mind? 4. What does the term Hindsight is 20/20 mean? 5. How does Hindsight is 20/20 apply to the scientific method? Stinger Why are the answers that flow from the scientific approach more reliable than those based on common sense and intuition? How do psychologists use the scientific method to construct theories? The limits of intuition and common senseIntuition can lead a person astraySome questions are not intuitiveHow big is paper folded 100 times? How many people need to be in a group in order to have a 50% chance of sharing a birthday?Notions of common sense err alsoThinking Critically With Psychological Science Doctors see cause of death as self-evident if presented with both a case study and an autopsy, but have trouble predicting death without the autopsy (Dawson, et al 1998)Slovic and Fischoff( 1977) and Wood (1979): Psychology studies SEEM like common sense Does absence make the heart grow fonder? Out of sight out of mind? Anecdotal evidence exists to support both claims. witnesses much more sure of suspect if they are told which one is being suspected. Wells and Bradfield (1998):all students made false identification after watching a grainy video, but the ones who were told they did it right recalled greater confidencePost hoc ergo propter hocDescribes better than predictsThe Hindsight BiasWe are all observers of behaviorScience proves a human need to belong Sometimes common sense is wrongFamiliarity breeds contempt? Dreams predict the future?Pre menstrual syndrome involves emotionality?OverconfidenceWe think we know more than we do We are more confident than correctUnderestimation of unscramble task (Goranson 1978)Common Sense How long would it take you to unscramble Wreat -> WaterEtryn -> EntryGrabe -> BargeNow unscramble OCHSAUnscramble task </p>
<p>Collegians predicting voting behavior, dropping a class, calling home, etc. were correct 71% of the time. (Vallone 1990) Tetlock (1998) Asked experts to predict political, economic, and military situation five years out Experts asked to recollect after five years The more confident the expert felt, the less correct he was (80%+ confidence = 40%- correct) Despite getting things wrong, they could all justify the ways in which they were right. Predicting our Own BehaviorGive evidence for the saying absence makes the heart grow fonder. Give evidence for the saying out of sight, out of mind Why might you be able to find evidence for both of these? What, then, does common sense tell you about these terms? How might you go about testing them? Stop and ReviewTesting claims Moses (test the claims of the prophet) James Randi and the Aura seersMeteorites? Skeptical but not cynical Humility: the ability to reject your own ideasThe rat is always right!Critical Thinking Examine assumptionsDiscern hidden valuseEvaluate evidence Assess conclusionsThe scientific attitudeMassive brain loss in early life has minimal long-term effects. Within days, newborns recognize their mothers odor and voice. Brain damage can leave a person able to learn new skills yet be unaware of them. Diverse groups report similar levels of personal happinessElectroconvulsive therapy is a good treatment for sever depression. Surprising findings!The midlife crisis is a psychological phenomenon. Mothers suffer from empty nest syndrome. Sleepwalkers are not acting out their dreams. Sleep talkers are not talking through their dreams. Past experiences are not indelibly and permanent recorded in our brains and cannot be access in full through hypnosis. Most people do NOT suffer from low self-esteem. Opposites do not attract. What you believe, but is wrongExit TicketWhat common perception can YOU test using a scientific attitude? How would you test it? HomeworkReview your notes. Define the following and give an example of each.Hindsight biasCritical ThinkingWrite three questions that you wish to know more about. Exit Ticket and Homework </p>