How Chemistry has changed our lives

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By: Shranda Call. How Chemistry has changed our lives. What is Chemistry?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


<p>Slide 1</p> <p>How Chemistry has changed our livesBy: Shranda CallWhat is Chemistry?The dictionary defines Chemistry as the branch of science that deals with identification of the substances of which matter is composed; the investigation of their properties and the ways in which they interact, combine, and change; and the use of these processes to form new substances. More simply put: Chemistry is the study of matter. Chemistry is often called the central science because it connects all the other scientific studies including Physics, Anatomy and Biology. </p> <p>There are dozens of examples where Chemistry has made huge impacts: BiologyPhysicsArt Physiology Film AnatomyFood Science Genetics Phlebotomy Cooking Cleaning products PharmacyNutrition Currency Cosmetics Geology Music Astronomy GardeningAnatomy The human body is so immensely complex, there is so much that we will never understand; but thanks to the understanding and study of Chemistry, we are able to better acknowledge the way our bodies function.</p> <p>The entire Human body is made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfur, Phosphorous, Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Iodine and a number of micronutrients. If all these millions of enzymes came to an equilibrium, the body would not be able to function any longer.</p> <p>Technology Plastic was discovered using the chemical understanding. Plastic and other synthetic materials have played a huge part in the development of computers. These materials are extremely useful because some are able to withstand large changes in temperature. Silicon computer chips are placed in almost every computer including phones, game systems, and printers. They are used to process the information. These chips have condensed the information and the objects necessary to make a functional computer. HygieneSoaps are created from sodium and fatty acids which are produced in a chemical process called saponification. Soap acts as an emulsifying agent. Soap suspends oil and dirt so that it can be removed. Oil and grease are nonpolar and insoluble in water. When soap is added, the nonpolar hydrocarbon portion breaks up the nonpolar molecules. A different type of micelle forms and the dirt attaches to this and is washed away. Toothpastes are a mixture of an abrasive, a detergent, a thickener, a humectant, water, color and flavor agents.CookingBaking soda is pure sodium bicarbonate. When the baking soda combines with moisture and an acidic ingredient, the chemical reaction produces bubbles of CO2 that expand and force the baked goods to rise. Yeast is a fungus and needs energy to grow. By adding sugar, the yeast gains the necessary energy. By adding oxygen, the yeast has respiration and will grow. ArtPaint is composed of 4 main parts:The pigment provides color for the paints. These colors can be found in nature such as clays, berries, soot, etc. A pigment is a material that changes the color of light it reflects as a result of selective color absorption.Binder is the main body of the paint. It holds the paint together and carries the pigment. The third part is the carrier. The carrier provides consistency and viscosity and makes it possible to apply the product. Additives are low-level ingredients that provide properties such as mildew resistance, de-foaming and leveling. </p> <p>Cleaning productsThere are three basic types of cleaners: Acids, Alkalis and Solvents. Choosing the right cleaner depends on the type of soil you are trying to remove. Cleaners go through a few step process when removing the residue:Penetration: the action of the liquid entering into porous materials or into crevices, joints or seams.Emulsification: the action of breaking fats and oils into very small particles. Suspension: the action which holds up insoluble particles in a solution. Saponification: the action of changing insoluble animal fats and oils into a soluble soap. CURRENCY</p> <p>As the economy evolves, so does the currency. Most all financial transactions are made through technology whether its using a card, ATM, or depositing money at a bank who uses a computer. The creation of money requires a chemical process and has been tested numerous times by those trying to counterfeit the dollar bills by hand carving metal plates to stamp the marks on the dollars and print them out. Cosmetology Chemistry is a huge factor when it comes to beauty and cosmetics. Chemistry is prevalent in almost every item used including makeup, hair dye, hair spray, shampoo, shaving cream and sunscreen. Surfactant molecules, used in shampoo, attract water at one end and oil at the other end. This helps wash away the dirt at the roots.Hair products such as straightening sprays change the chemistry of hair by rearranging the structure. Hair relaxers break disulfide bonds which allow hydrogen bonds to reform and take on the flat shape. Hair coloring techniques alter the pigment of hair by either adding a different pigment or removing the original color. The ingredients in hair dye combine with oxygen and binds the new hair color to the shaft.NUTRITION</p> <p>Nutritional chemistry analyzes the biochemistry of the body and helps understand metabolic rates, stress, immune function, adrenal and hormones. Our lives depend on the fuel we provide for the chemical reactions that sustain and grow our bodies. Nutrition can be ingested directly such as protein that forms tissue. It can also be taken indirectly like enzymes that trigger the metabolism. A Chemistry of LoveAlthough there are no love potions that cause instant infatuation, chemistry plays a major part in how a relationship progresses. Attraction is triggered by pheremones and lust is triggered by testosterone. The chemical changes in the body include sweaty palms and a pounding heart which are the result of higher than normal levels of norepinephrine. The feeling of being in love is due to a large amount of dopamine and phenylethylamine. Biggest InfluenceI believe the biggest influence chemistry has had on our lives is in the medical field. It has been made very apparent that without the medical advances and technology we have in todays world, hundreds of thousands of people would have died over something that can now be fixed. The advances that have been made just over the past decade are so substantial. Medical equipmentAs stated before, the benefits of understanding chemistry has paved the way for thousands of discoveries including technological advances such as the silicon computer chip. This chip is used in many computerized medical equipment such as MRIs, CT scans, X-ray machines, and even blood pressure machines. </p> <p>LabsWithout the chemical knowledge doctors and medical staff have, it would be impossible to perform the labs that they do to determine everything from blood type to cancer detection. The specimens are either taken directly at the lab or are sent in from another office. They are given a lab number and are set down to perform the tests on.Blood is often run through a centrifuge and the serum is separated. Some samples are run through pH tests, diluted, filtered, distilled or sent through chromatography. PharmacologyPharmacology encompasses drug properties and composition, toxicology, therapy, interactions, and medical capabilities.The study of these chemicals requires a great knowledge of the biological system. Over the years that our knowledge has increased, it has become possible to analyze the bodys receptors and design chemicals that act on specific cell signaling. The study of chemistry will never dwindle. It has been a major staple in history and will continue to be forever in order to help us better understand our bodies, technology, and the world around us. </p> <p>Chemistry really is the central science.</p>