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  • Elmcare.com - All about elm trees and elm tree care.

    Home | Elm Care Products | Register your Elm | Forum

    Last Update 17/12/01

    How Trees Work

    About Elm Trees

    Caring for Your Elm

    Elm Tree Diseases

    Elm Tree Links

    Quick Elm Facts

    Visit TreeHelp.com for all of your tree and shrub care needs

    Customized Elm Tree Care Kits

    Custom care kits include specialized and innovative soil treatments designed to promote root development and the long-term health and vitality of your elm. A healthier elm will be better able to fight against Dutch elm disease.more

    Elm Tree Registry

    Register your elm tree to receive customized care advice...more.

    Return of the Stately Elm

    Writer and broadcaster Jamie Swift examines the Canadian city of Winnipeg's struggle to combat Dutch elm disease. Through the work of community groups like the Coalition to Save the Elms and innovative technology, the city has achieved substantial success... more.

    Did you know a new wild

    bird seed has been developed and tested that actually repels squirrels? Click here to learn about Squirrel Proof Wild Bird

    Seed.

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  • Elmcare.com - All about elm trees and elm tree care.

    New Treatments for Dutch Elm Disease?

    Researchers examine new ways to fight this devastating disease.

    Elm Species

    Elms come in many sizes and shapes...learn about them all.

    Elms in History

    Look at elms in the context of human history.

    Elms in Literature

    Read what some of the world's leading poets and authors have written of the elm.

    Elm Tree Links

    Links to a growing community of academics, homeowners and professional tree care experts.

    Quick Elm Facts

    Discover something new and interesting about the elm.

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  • How Trees Work

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    Home > How Trees Work Last Update 30/08/00

    How Trees Work

    Types of TreesImportant FactsStructure of a TreeHow Trees BreatheHow Trees Drink

    About Elm Trees Caring for Your Elm Elm Tree Diseases Elm Tree Links Quick Elm Facts

    What is a ring-porous vascular system? What is the difference between wild-type and cloned trees?

    Find the answers to these questions and more by clicking on one of the topics below:

    More Info... Important Facts Types of Trees Structure of a Tree How Trees Drink How Trees Breathe

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  • Types of Trees

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    Home > How Trees Work > Types of Trees Last Update 30/08/00

    How Trees Work

    Types of Trees Important FactsStructure of a TreeHow Trees BreatheHow Trees Drink

    About Elm Trees Caring for Your Elm Elm Tree Diseases Elm Tree Links Quick Elm Facts

    Angiosperms vs. Gymnosperms

    Trees are scientifically divided into two major categories: angiosperms and gymnosperms.

    Angiosperms are flowering plants and their seeds are encased in a protective ovary. This division contains the larger number of species can be further subdivided into dicots and monocots. Dicots have two seed leaf structures and include many broadleaf trees such as the elm, maple and oak. Monocots have one seed leaf structure and include species such as the palm.

    Gymnosperms, on the other hand, do not produce flowers. Their seeds have structures such as cones, rather than a protective ovary. Conifers (needle-leaf trees) are a major group of gymnosperms.

    Deciduous vs. Coniferous

    Trees can also be divided into deciduous and coniferous categories.

    Deciduous trees are also known as broadleaf trees because the leaves are generally larger and wider than those of conifers. The larger leaf size means a greater surface area for photosynthesis, but it also mean the leaf is too fragile to withstand winter conditions. Therefore, most deciduous trees drop their leaves in autumn.

    Coniferous trees keep their leaves throughout the year, shedding only the oldest leaves. Usually these leaves are lower down on the tree and do not receive as much sunlight as newly developed leaves higher up. Some of the best-known members of the conifer family are pines, spruces, firs, and hemlocks. The cones of the conifers are its flowers.

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  • Types of Trees

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  • Important Facts About Trees

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    Home > How Trees Work > Important Facts Last Update 30/08/00

    How Trees Work

    Types of TreesImportant Facts Structure of a TreeHow Trees BreatheHow Trees Drink

    About Elm Trees Caring for Your Elm Elm Tree Diseases Elm Tree Links Quick Elm Facts

    Some trees are wild, others are cloned

    It's easy to think that all trees of a species are alike. This is only true, however, of certain species. Most trees are wild-type trees, meaning that their genetic make-ups are as dissimilar as individual humans. An example of a wild-type is an elm.

    Other trees have been cloned to produce many trees with identical genes. This is usually done to guarantee the presence of certain favourable characteristics of the tree. Examples include apple and pear trees.

    This distinction is important when treating diseases. In a wild-type tree, each tree will react differently.

    Some trees are ring-porous, some are diffuse-porous

    Trees can be divided into ring-porous or diffuse-porous types. This refers to the structure of the vascular system.

    The vascular system of diffuse-porous trees (such as a birch) is characterized by vessels spread evenly throughout the sapwood. These vessels are produced regularly during the growing season.

    Diffuse-Porous

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  • Important Facts About Trees

    The vessels of a ring-porous tree (such as an elm) are generally larger and concentrated in the outermost layer of sapwood. These vessels are produced early in the season.

    Ring-Porous

    This is significant because it affects a tree's susceptibility to vascular wilt diseases. Ring-porous vascular systems are very efficient, but are much more vulnerable to blockage. The elm's vulnerability to Dutch elm disease is an case in point.

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  • Structures of Trees

    Home | Elm Care Products | Register your Elm | Forum

    Home > How Trees Work > Structure of a Tree Last Update 30/08/00

    How Trees Work

    Types of TreesImportant FactsStructure of a Tree How Trees BreatheHow Trees Drink

    About Elm Trees Caring for Your Elm Elm Tree Diseases Elm Tree Links Quick Elm Facts

    Leaves

    The leaves convert carbon dioxide into oxygen and provide the tree with energy to grow and fight disease...more.

    Roots

    The roots provide structural stability to the tree and are the means by which it takes up water and minerals...more.

    Bark

    Bark is the outer protective covering of tree trunks. The form and structure of bark can differ greatly from tree to tree...more.

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