Holocaust Timeline. *all photos and texts are from USHMM’s website. January 30, 1933 : President Hindenburg appoints Adolf Hitler Chancellor of Germany . Adolf Hitler greets President Paul von Hindenburg, March 21, 1933 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Holocaust Timeline*all photos and texts are from USHMMs website.
Adolf Hitler greets President Paul von Hindenburg, March 21, 1933Recently appointed as German chancellor, Adolf Hitler greets President Paul von Hindenburg in Potsdam, Germany, on March 21, 1933. Hitler appears in civilian dress, bowing in deference to the heavily decorated von Hindenburg. The March 5, 1933, elections had conferred legitimacy on Hitler's leadershipJanuary 30, 1933: President Hindenburg appoints Adolf Hitler Chancellor of Germany http://www.ushmm.org/propaganda/archive/hitler-hindenburg/
Dome of the Reichstag building, virtually destroyed by fire on February 27, 1933. Hitler used the arson to convince President Hindenburg to declare a state of emergency. The government falsely portrayed the fire as part of a Communist effort to overthrow the state. They exploited the Reichstag fire to secure President von Hindenburgs approval for an emergency decree, the Decree for the Protection of the People and the State of February 28. Popularly known as the Reichstag Fire Decree, the regulations suspended the right to assembly, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and other constitutional protections, including all restraints on police investigations. February 27, 1933: The Reichstag Firehttp://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007657March 20, 1933: SS opens the Dachau concentration camp outside of Munich View of barracks and the ammunition factory in one of the first photos of Dachau concentration camp. Dachau, Germany, March or April 1933.Established in March 1933, the Dachau concentration camp was the first regular concentration camp established by the National Socialist (Nazi) government. Heinrich Himmler, in his capacity as police president of Munich, officially described the camp as "the first concentration camp for political prisoners.The first prisoners arrive on March 22. They are mainly Communists and Socialists. Dachau is the only camp to remain in operation from 1933 until 1945.
During the anti-Jewish boycott, an SA man stands outside a Jewish-owned store with a sign demanding that Germans not buy from Jews. Berlin, Germany, April 1, 1933.http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_ph.php?MediaId=2675APRIL 1, 1933: NATIONWIDE BOYCOTT OF JEWISH-OWNED BUSINESSESAt 10:00 a.m., SA and SS members stand in front of Jewish-owned businesses throughout Germany to inform the public that the proprietors of these establishments are Jewish. The word "Jude," German for "Jew," is often smeared on store display windows, with a Star of David painted in yellow and black across the doors. Anti-Jewish signs accompany these slogans. The official boycott ends at midnight. APRIL 7, 1933: LAW DISMISSES JEWS FROM CIVIL SERVICE Law for the Reestablishment of the Professional Civil Service removes Jews from Government Service As a result, civil service employees are forced to prove their "Aryan" descent by documenting the religion of their parents and grandparents. If unable to do so, they are dismissed from service. Similar laws passed in the following weeks affect Jewish lawyers and doctors. Law on the Admission to the Legal Profession forbids the admission of Jews to the bar.
Jewish lawyers line up to apply for permission to appear before the Berlin courts. Berlin, Germany, April 11, 1933http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_ph.php?ModuleId=10005681&MediaId=476
Crowds gather at Berlin's Opernplatz for the burning of books deemed "un-German." Berlin, Germany, May 10, 1933.In a symbolic act of ominous significance, university students burned upwards of 25,000 volumes of un-German books, presaging an era of state censorship and control of culture. On the evening of May 10, in most university towns, right-wing students marched in torchlight parades against the un-German spirit. At the meeting places, students threw the pillaged and unwanted books onto bonfires with great ceremony, band-playing, and so-called fire oaths. May 10, 1933: The burning of Un-German bookshttp://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005852JULY 14, 1933 Law for the Prevention of Progeny with Hereditary Diseases De-Naturalization Law revokes the citizenship of naturalized Jews and undesirables. SEPTEMBER 15, 1935: NUREMBERG LAWS ARE INSTITUTEDAt their annual party rally, the Nazis announce new laws that revoke Reich citizenship for Jews and prohibit Jews from marrying or having sexual relations with persons of "German or related blood." "Racial infamy is made a criminal offense. The Nuremberg Laws define a "Jew" as someone with three or four Jewish grandparents. TheNazis classify as Jews people who had converted from Judaism to another religionwhose grandparents were Jewish. http://www.ushmm.org/outreach/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007695
"The Nuremberg Law for the Protection of Blood and German Honor." The illustration is a stylized map of the borders of central Germany on which is imposed a schematic of the forbidden degrees of marriage between Aryans and non-Aryans. The German text at the bottom reads, "Maintaining the purity of blood insures the survival of the German people." OCTOBER 18, 1935: NEW MARRIAGE REQUIREMENTS INSTITUTEDThe "Law for the Protection of the Hereditary Health of the German People" requires all prospective marriage partners to obtain from the public health authorities a certificate of fitness to marry. Such certificates are refused to those suffering from "hereditary illnesses" and contagious diseases and those attempting to marry in violation of the Nuremberg Laws. http://www.ushmm.org/outreach/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007695March 7, 1936: German troops march unopposed into the Rhineland
During the remilitarization of the Rhineland, German civilians salute German forces crossing the Rhine River in open violation of the Treaty of Versailles. Mainz, Germany, March 7, 1936. Hitler ordered the German armed forces (Wehrmacht) into the demilitarized Rhineland. Hitler's action brought condemnation from Britain and France, but neither nation intervened. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005439
A formerly Jewish-owned store (Gummi Weil) expropriated and transferred to non-Jewish ownership (Stamm and Bassermann). Frankfurt, Germany, 1938.http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_ph.php?ModuleId=10005681&MediaId=2692"ARYANIZATION" Government agencies at all levels aimed to exclude Jews from the economic sphere of Germany by preventing them from earning a living. Jews were required to register their domestic and foreign property and assets. German authorities intended to "Aryanize" all Jewish businesses, a process involving the dismissal of Jewish workers and managers, as well as the transfer of companies and enterprises to non-Jewish Germans, who bought them at prices officially fixed well below market value. From April 1933 to April 1938, "Aryanization" effectively reduced the number of Jewish-owned businesses in Germany by approximately two-thirds. March 11-13, 1938: Germany incorporates Austria in the Anschluss (Union)
Cheering crowds greet Hitler as he enters Vienna. Austria, March 1938. After a prolonged period of economic stagnation, political dictatorship, and intense Nazi propaganda inside Austria, German troops entered the country on March 12, 1938. They received the enthusiastic support of most of the population. Austria was incorporated into Germany the next day.http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005447AUGUST 17, 1938: JEWS REQUIRED TO ASSUME "JEWISH" NAMEThe German government requires all Jews in Germany whose first name is not immediately recognizable as Jewish to add a "Jewish" name following their first name. Men are required to add "Israel" and women "Sara." In October, the German government confiscates all passports held by Jews. New passports issued to Jews have a "J" stamped on them, indicating that the holder is Jewish.http://www.ushmm.org/outreach/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007703
Passport issued to Lore Oppenheimer, a German Jew, with "J" for "Jude" stamped on the card. Hildesheim, Germany, July 3, 1939.
As a synagogue burns during Kristallnacht, firefighters instead save a nearby house. Residents watch as the synagogue is destroyed. Oberramstadt, Germany, November 9-10, 1938. Violence against Jews broke out across the Reich. It appeared to be unplanned, but German propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels and other Nazis carefully organized the pogroms. In two days, over 250 synagogues were burned, over 7,000 Jewish businesses were trashed and looted, dozens of Jewish people were killed, and Jewish cemeteries, hospitals, schools, and homes were looted while police and fire brigades stood by. November 9, 1938: Kristallnacht, Night of Broken Glasshttp://www.ushmm.org/outreach/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007697
Nazis block Jews from entering the University of Vienna. Austria, 1938.http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_ph.php?MediaId=2006 NOVEMBER 15, 1938Reich Ministry of Education expels all Jewish children from public schools.
Preceded by:APRIL 25, 1933Law against Overcrowding in Schools and Universities limits the number of Jewish students in public schools.
APRIL 9, 1937The Mayor of Berlin orders public schools not to admit Jewish children until further notice. August 23, 1939: Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Agreement
Nazi foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop (left), Soviet leader Joseph Stalin (center) and Soviet foreign minister Viacheslav Molotov (right) at the signing of the nonaggression pact between Germany and the Soviet Union. Moscow, August 1939. The German-Soviet Pact had two parts. An economic agreement, signed on August 19, 1939, provided that Germany would exchange manufactured goods for Soviet raw materials. Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union also signed a ten-year nonaggression pact on August 23, 1939, in