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History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) [email protected] A Presentation at the BEIA Project Workshop Conducted in Lira, Uganda, by CREEC, Makerere Univ., Kampala, Uganda (Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation) 22 – 24 August 2012

History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) [email protected]

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Page 1: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

History of TLUD Gasifier StovesTLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification

Paul S. Anderson PhD“Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) [email protected]

A Presentation at the BEIA Project Workshop Conducted in Lira, Uganda, by

CREEC, Makerere Univ., Kampala, Uganda(Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation)

22 – 24 August 2012

Page 2: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

Objective ofThis Presentation

To put TLUD cookstove development into a

practical perspective for planning next steps.

TLUD (tee-lud) stands for

Top-Lit UpDraft.

Page 3: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

Scientific Basis of FireSolid dry biomass “burns” with these processes:

• Heat causes pyrolysis (chemical decompo-sitions into combustible gases) and carbonization (charcoal creation).

• Charcoal can be “char-gasified” into gases.

• The created gases can combust; solids do not!

• These processes can occur at different rates and in different places in different fires.

• Control and separation of these processes are the keys to different types of combustion.

Page 4: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

TLUD is “Top-Lit UpDraft”• Ignition at the top of a

column of chunky dry biomass creates a down-ward migrating pyrolytic zone (or front) that is starved of oxygen, creating charcoal plus pyrolytic gases (“smoke”) that move upward to where fresh secondary air enters, resulting in clean combustion of the gases for heat for cooking. Example with FA:

FA = Forced Air or Fan Assisted

Page 5: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

Four Essential Componentsin Any Successful Stove Project• Fuels: Stored and available energy.

• Combustion Devices: Release of the energy. This is our focus!

• Applications: Uses of the energy.

• Human Factors: Costs, availability, cooking preferences, sizes, social perceptions, marketing, etc.

Page 6: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

Conception and Birth of TLUDs

TWO origins, both based on observed needs:

• Thomas Reed – USA – 1985 – During a trip to South Africa – Scientific epiphany of inverted downdraft (IDD) gasification.

• Paal Wendelbo – Norway – late 1980s & ’90s – While an NGO worker in Eastern Africa – Experimentation with devices to contain and control small top-lit smokeless fires seen in his youth during World War II.

Page 7: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

Reed’s IDD Prototype - 1995• 10 years of laboratory

work resulted in the Wood-Gas stove prototype with Natrual Draft (ND) that did NOT work well. (Because of annular flame.)

• Publication of 1996 paper A WOOD-GAS STOVE FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES with Ronal Larson who mainly worked on ceramic options and charcoal production.

Page 8: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

Wendelbo’s Peko Pe• Several years of in-field

experimentation resulted in the Peko Pe with Natrual Draft (ND) that DID work well. (Has a concentrator disk.)

• Approximately 5000 gasifier stoves in northern Uganda by 1999.

• Ignored by funding agencies at that time.

Page 9: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

Beyond the Originators - 1• Wendelbo – severe malaria

in 1999 at age 70 – left Africa. He reappears only in 2007.

• Reed – totally shifts his attention to fan assisted (FA) IDD gasifiers.– Internet Listserv discussions

spread the info.

– Alex English (young Canadian engineer ) becomes interested in larger applications.

Barrel-size TLUD in 2000 in India by Alex English.

Page 10: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

Beyond the Originators - 2• Reed makes two trips to India 1998 and

2000.

• Contact with gasification expert Prof. Mukunda of IISc – Bangalore and others (including Sri Lanka) who take interest.

• Chance demonstration to Paul Anderson in 2001 in the home of Reed’s cousin who is Anderson’s friend.

Page 11: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

Tincanium and Other Experimentation

• Slow incremental progress with gasifier stoves with ND and FA until 2005.

• 2004 Anderson and Reed use the term “Top-Lit UpDraft” for the first time.

• 2005 stove by Anderson wins the clean emissions contest at Stove Camp, and takes the names of “Champion” & TLUD (Tee-Lud). The success comes from the concentrator disk.

Page 12: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

Original “Champion” at Stove Camp 2005

Page 13: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

Anderson’s “Champion”TLUD made by Servals

Automation

Prices depend on the stove configuration, including gasifier and stove structure for heat application.

Full set in stainless steel with 2 reactors costs US$37 in Chennai..

Finalized design and production started in Chennai in January 2009. Test sites are needed.

Page 14: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

Photos of Champion Gasifiers Made and Used in India - 2009

A humanitarian project near Chennai, India, sponsored by the Sunset Rotary Club of Bloomington-Normal (Illinois, USA).

Page 15: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

Reed’s Woodgas Campstove with Fan Assistance (FA)

• Now produced in three sizes in India for affluent campers.

• 100% stainless steel construction.

• Price starts at US$55.

• Several thousand sold since 2003.

Page 16: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

TLUD Milestones (2005-2010)• Dr. Mukunda and team at the Indian

Institute of Science in Bangalore use TLUD technology for the BP “Oorja” forced air stove.

• 400,000 units were distributed.

• Now conducted by First Energy Ltd.

Page 17: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

BP TLUD by IISc-Bangalore• Mentioned at PCIA-III in

Bangalore in 2007, but very little information released.

• 400,000 units installed in India by 2008.

• Uses BP-made pellet fuel.• Control of fan-forced air.• Subsidized price of US$17.

Page 18: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

Reddy’s Magh-CM1 Cookstove

• Some with ceramic base and fan assistance (shown).

• Actively promotes biochar production.

• Information on Stoves Website.

• Dr. Sai Baskar Reddy Nakka develops several styles of TLUDs in Hyderabad, India.

Page 19: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

TLUD Milestones (2005-2010) Prof. Alexis Belonio accomplishes the TLUD-FA

usage of rice hulls in the Philippines. His designs are in production in Indonesia and Vietnam.

He first learned of TLUD technology from a Sri Lanka speaker at a Thailand conference.

Rolex award winner.

Page 20: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

Rice Hull TLUD-FADevelopment in Vietnam by Paul Olivier

of concepts by Alexis Belonio

Production in three sizes, all in stainless steel.

No more than about 2 watts is requiredto power the 150 gasifer.

Page 21: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

Daxu TLUD Cookstove - China-Winner of an Ashden Award for Enterprise in 2007.

-Winner of low emission among 8 Chinese cookstoves.

-Natural draft TLUD.

-Over 25,000 produced; possibly discontinued.

-Price US$140; many with subsidy sold for $6 to $26.

Page 22: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

Nurhuda’s TLUDs in Indonesia• Prof. M. Nurhuda has designed and

produced several innovative models that are insufficiently recognized.

• Over 2500 units of model UB-02 have been produced and sold at $10.

Page 23: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

Nurhuda’s TLUDs in IndonesiaThe newest model, UB-03-1, sells for ~US$12.

Intentionally designed to appear similar to a kerosene (parafin) stove.

Note that it has 4 legs separate from the cylinders.

Page 24: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

Variations of TLUD gasifier cookstoves.

[ Top row is with fans. ]

Page 25: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

Some Other Efforts with TLUDs and Micro-gasification

• Philips Corp – Doing their own thing with minimal contact with others.

• World Stove – Self-declared as NOT a TLUD stove, but independent testing is not available.

• Biolite – Focused on use of TEG for power for a fan-assisted stove.

• All of the above have had TLUD starts and then diversions into other directions.

• All of these plus BP’s Oorja stove are corporate for-profit efforts.

Page 26: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

Start the BEIA Project by CREEC• No substantial non-profit funding of TLUD work

before the World Bank BEIA Project.• At PCIA 2009 in Kampala, Karsten Bechtel and

Paul Anderson met for the first time.• Application to WB is submitted and approved

BEFORE the TLUD stove design is finalized!• Karsten Bechtel defines that the stove will have:

– More stability; – More fire power;– Incorporated pot-support than the Champion.

• The result in 2010 is the Mwoto TLUD gasifier!!

Page 27: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

Mwoto TLUD Cookstove• Sheet metal.

• Fabricated by skilled tinsmiths.

• Price approx. US$16.

• Primary air control permits significant turn-down of fire intensity.

Page 28: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

DURING the BEIA Project• TLUD technology is too new to be static.

• Important subtle changes to the design by the Project Team. Special recognition to Saddam, the Master Tinsmith of the Project.

• Because the BEIA Project requires consistency of the product design, some further enhancements have intentionally NOT been introduced. These include:

Page 29: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

• TChar Variations of TLUDs

• Fan Assisted (FA) Options

• Experimentation with Materials

• Variations in Sizes and Uses

• Prospects for Mass Production

• Applications of the TLUD heat

These are discussed later today in the presentation on new TLUD systems.

Some Further Developments of Mwoto TLUD Stoves

Page 30: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

The Progress Ahead• Dr TLUD estimates that only about 20%

of what can be known about TLUD gasifiers has been discovered. 80% awaits our efforts.

• By 2020 there needs to be 30 million TLUD micro-gasifier stoves into the developing societies. Currently there are fewer than one million.

• Welcome to the frontiers of science and humanitarian service!!!

Page 31: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu

Thank you.• There will be more time later today for

discussion about the prospects for future actions.

• Feel free to ask any questions.

Paul “Dr TLUD” Anderson

Email: [email protected]

Website: www.drtlud.com

Page 32: History of TLUD Gasifier Stoves TLUD (“Tee-Lud”) refers to “Top-Lit UpDraft” gasification Paul S. Anderson PhD “Dr. TLUD” ( Doc Tee-lud ) psanders@ilstu.edu