History of Oceanography Main groups –Ancient Food, commerce –Middle Ages Commerce –European Exploration –Birth of Marine Science Scientific in nature –Twentieth

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  • History of OceanographyMain groups AncientFood, commerceMiddle AgesCommerceEuropeanExplorationBirth of Marine ScienceScientific in natureTwentieth Century Technology!

  • Early CivilizationWhy would civilizations have knowledge of marine science?FoodTrade and new landWhat Scientific knowledge is learned?SeafaringInvention of ships

  • Phoenician ContributionsMotivated by trade so traveled great distancesEstablished trade routes throughout Mediterranean and Great BritainUsed constellations and landmarks to navigateNorth Star was Called the Phoenician Star in the ancient world

  • Polynesian ContributionsCrossed thousands of kilometers in canoes made of stone, bone and coral toolsSignificanceEarliest known regular, long distance, open ocean seafaring beyond sight of landColonized all of the South Pacific in about 1,000 years

  • Greeks ContributionsPytheasPredict tidesMeasured the angle between the horizon and the north star to improve navigationEratosthenesCalculated the Earths circumferenceFirst latitude and longitude systemIrregular because he used landmarks to run the lines through and not a regular interval

  • Greeks ContributionHerodotusPublished detailed history of Greeces struggles with Persian EmpireProduced a detailed mapPtolemyFirst to show earth as a sphere on a mapUsed the latitude and longitude system set up by Hipparchus

  • Middle Ages500 AD to 1500 ADSuppression of further advancements in the knowledge of geography and scienceEntered in the Age of Intellectual DarknessAKA Dark AgesEX: Greeks knew the earth was round but during the Middle Ages people thought it was flat.Great loss of knowledge

  • Vikings Contribution790 AD to 1100 ADEstablished trade routes throughout Europe, N. Africa and Central Asia9th Century climate warmedAllowed the vikings to find Greenland, Iceland and North America

  • Chinese ContributionChina did not feel the Middle Ages like EuropeAware of magnetism around 240 BCTrue compass was referenced in 1000 ADFirst reference for seafaring is 1125 AD

  • End of the Middle AgesRenaissance!1400 ADNew interest in long ocean expeditions for political and economic reasonsMajor expedition at the time was a route around AfricaPrince Henry the Navigator of Portugal triedBartholomeu Dias and Vasco da Gama succeed

  • Portugals ContributionChristopher ColumbusPurpose: Find a route to Asia and East IndiesUsing Ptolemys estimation of the earths size (too small), he miscalculated Amerigo VerpucciFirst European to recognized South America as a new continent

  • Portugals ContributionVasco Nunez de BalboaFirst to see Pacific Ocean by crossing the Isthmus of PanamaFerdinand MagellanFinanced by SpainFirst expedition to sail around the worldStarted with five ships and 260 menOnly 1 ship and 18 men returnedMagellan was not one of them

  • Cooks ExpeditionCaptain John Cook3 Expeditions devoted to methodical, scientific oceanographic dataWent to Tahiti, New Zealand, Hawaiian Island, AustralianWas on a secret mission to find a southern continentUsed an important invention called the Chronometer

  • ChronometerInvented by John Harrison in 1735Received a cash reward Is a clock or watch that wasnt affected by the waves and motion of the seaMade it possible to determine longitude in open sea

  • Charles DarwinVoyage of the BeagleFormed two theoriesEvolutionFormation for Atolls (a type of coral reef found in the Pacific)Both theories were not well received until more data/evidence was found

  • Challenger ExpeditionFirst devoted entirely to Marine ScienceFour year mission under the direction of Charles Wyville ThompsonDocumented temperature, currents, water chemistry, marine organisms, bottom sedimentsIt took 23 years to write up reports on all the data found and filled 50 volumes

  • Challenger ExpeditionFirst soundings deeper than 4,000 metersCaptured biological samples in midwater and bottomDiscovered marine organisms in the deepest parts of the oceanSampled and illustrated plankton in various habitats and depths not knownCataloged and identified 715 new genera and 4,717 new species

  • Twentieth Century Marine ScienceMeteorMajor accomplishments is mapping the Atlantic FloorAtlantisSignificance is it was built for the sole purpose of ocean studies; confirmed the Mid-Ocean RidgeHMS Challenger IIFound the deepest part of Marianas Trench called the Challenger Deep

  • SubmersiblesBathysphere1930sBeebe and BartonSteel ball with a windowRecirculating air and a tether for communication and powerVery uncomfortable; moved with the shipAllowed first deep water visits

  • SubmersiblesTriesteSphere attached to large floatOperated much like a blimp in waterFloat contains a liquid less dense than water and a ballast to adjust vertical heightPropellers to move horizontally-very limitedDescended to the bottom of the Challenger Deep in the Marianas Trench

  • SubmersiblesAlvinNew submersibleAble to dive to depths of 4,500 metersKnown for the dives to the Titanic and hydrothermal ventsContains 3 men and not tethered

  • SubmersiblesJohnson SealinkUsed by Harbour Branch Oceanographic Institution in Fort PierceDevoted primarily to the research Operating depth of 914 meters Up to 4 men and not tethered

  • Self Contained DivingFirst practical methods in the middle of 19th centuryHard hat diving-air supplied from surfaceLimited by support & heavyFirst workable scuba recirculated pure oxygenOxygen can be toxic at depthsSCUBA delivered compressed air Cousteau and Gagnan

  • New TechnologiesROVsRemotely Operated VehiclesUnmanned submarine; cameras, claws, etc.More compact and inexpensiveCan go where submersibles cantAUVsAutonomous Underwater VehicleUntethered and self propelled by computers

  • New TechnologiesLORAN-CLOng RAnge NavigationBased on radio signals from the coastOnly functional with LORAN-C transmittersGPSGlobal Positioning SystemSignals from satellitesWorks everywhere