History of Libraries & Library Movement in India

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History of Libraries & Library Movement in IndiaDr. A.Y.Asundi

Introduction The history of the evolution of the libraries is an essential in the history of the intellectual development of civilization Libraries are the collective memory of the mankind, because they have existed since ancient and classical times Viscount Samuel Use of writing materials and education through written records naturally stimulated the practice of their collection & preservation that ultimately made ground for the formation of libraries. Very early libraries were of clay tablets, papyrus, palm leaf etc., based

Contd In Egypt, the libraries were usually part of temple Rome introduced library through collection acquired after successful wars In Constantinople, libraries were attached to every Church and even the small communities of the Egyptian deserts collected books.

Clay tablets


Palm leaf

Historical Factors Influence on Est. of libraries1. Renaissance (1400-1700 AD) periodExperimental Science Logic, Science & Philosophy

2. The Impact of Printing - Johann Guttenberg 3. Impact of Industrial RevolutionLiterary & education became more widespread The new mode of life is cities & factories, increased demands on libraries

History of Libraries

The libraries of Ugarit (in modern Syria), c. 1200 BC The excavations uncovered a royal palace of 90 rooms laid out around eight enclosed courtyards, many ambitious private dwellings, including two private libraries (one belonging to a diplomat named ) that contained diplomatic, legal, economic, administrative, scholastic, literary and religious texts.

The Royal Library of Alexandria, in Alexandria, Egypt, was probably the largest, and certainly the most famous, of the libraries of the ancient world.

History of Libraries

The ruins of Taxila consist of many different parts of the city buildings and buddhist stupas which are located in a large area. Taxila is an important archaeological site in the Punjab province of Pakistan.

History of Libraries

Evolution of libraries in UK & USA Industrial revolution in UK & USA has given a big boost to the library movement The concept of liberal education, education for all, political thought and ideas of Democracy all these factors contributed to development of libraries all types

History of library movement in India Indian culture & civilization evidences the existence of libraries since Vedic period. Thanks to the various seats of learning located monasteries, temples, and Buddhist Vihars spread over the length & breadth of our country. Libraries in Ancient & Medieval IndiaLibraries are attached to seats or centres of learning were Nalanda, Vikramshila, Somapuri, Jaggadal, Mitthla, Takshsila etc.,

Contd Libraries in the Moghul Period:In the Moghul period, libraries developed & prospered, thanks to the Moghul Kings who were highly educated and founder of books During Babars period Imperial library was started Bhamanis in South also established libraries for Universities

Library Development in Modern India1808 as a landmark in the history library movement in India Bombay govt. initiated a proposal to register libraries, which would receive free copies of books published from the Funds for the Encouragement of Literature

Development of Public Libraries Early PLs in India were started with support of British The first library of English colony was started in 1662 & was called St.George Library In 1773, Malabaria & portuguese library was started by Ziegenbalg In 1787, Messrs clock, Maxwell co., started the Calcutta circulating library Calcutta library society(1818), Trivandrum Public Library (1829) Calcutta public library (1835). 20th century saw the dovt. of PLs at an accelerated pace all over India Borden established the PL System in Baroda 1910

Development of ALs Pre-Independence PeriodAcademic Libraries are attached to a University, College & school Greater influence and contribution of Christian Missionaries in start up school & colleges. Establishment of three Universities in India

Post Independence PeriodEstablishment of UGC AICTE etc., Appointment of Committees & Commission Setting up & framing NEP.

Development of Special Libraries Investment on R & D and S & T activities Establishment of R & D oganisation Starting up of IISc. Establishment of CSIR Birth of DRDO laboratories Private and Public enterprises Objective and mission oriented Organisations

Role of libraries in formal & informal educationxxxx

Introduction Various institutions founded by the society educational, research, cultural, recreation, business & industrial institutions. The library is the central focal point to serve all these institutions Library & EducationDefined as the aggregate of all the processes by means of which a person develops abilities, attitudes & other forms of behaviours All these process is done through formal & informal education Education aims imparting knowledge & skills, inculcation of values

Formal Education Is given in academic institutions like school, college & universities to which is attached generally a libraryWhile at school, a library tries to supplement classroom teaching In colleges & universities it becomes a focal point of learning Role of library in fostering the intellectual development of students, faculty & researcher needs.

Informal Education Which there is no institutional base, the library becomes the main resource As the users of non-formal programmes have to acquire knowledge through self study. Public libraries are providing non-formal education through Govt. funds. It also conduct non-formal education programmes from time to time Now PLs are becomes Community Information Cenres (CICs). PLs while catering to the recreation & leisure utilization by users.

School Libraries: Features & Functions Children's are our future. Children should be introduced to the books & other documents at very young age. School LibraryPrimary; Secondary & Higher Secondary School Libraries

School Library

Functions of School Libraries To acquire, maintain, & circulate the books & other reading materials relevant to the needs & interests of teachers and students. To create curiosity & interest among the students & staff To teach them how best make use of available materials for their study, teaching, recreation and entertainment. To create a sense of value among the users To inculcate the habit of self-study To enable the teachers to use the libraries to support various programmes of the school To generate a sense of confidence among the users that the library is a centre of all types of

Collections & Services in School Libraries Pictorial books Biographies of great men & women Comics & cartoons Folk tales Punchatantra tales Stories of animals & birds Games & sports Reference books Childrens magazines A.V. Materials etc.,

College Libraries: Features & Functions College education provides a totally different environment for boys & girls who go for higher studies Usually the classes comprise larger numbers of students & unlike school education, the students in colleges get much less individual attention from the teachers. In this context students have to depend much more on self learning The college library thus becomes an automatic choice for students to supplement their class room teaching

College Library