HI2 muistiinpanot Medici, Alberti, Albizzi

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<p>hi2 muistiinpanotMedici &amp; Alberti &amp; Albizzi</p> <p>MediciFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</p> <p>Medici</p> <p>The Medici family was a powerful and influential Florentine family from the 13th to 17th century. The family produced three Money to get power, and power to guard the money (Blue sign with gold, yellow background, red dots) popes (Leo X, Clement VII, and Leo XI), numerous rulers of Florence (notably Lorenzo Information the Magnificent, patron of some of the most Cosimo de' Medici famous works of renaissance art), and later Lorenzo de' Medici members of the French and English royalty. Leo X Like other Signore families they dominated Notable members Catherine their city's government. They were able to Clement VII bring Florence under their family's power Leo XI allowing for an environment where art and humanism could flourish. They led the birth of the Italian Renaissance along with the other great signore families of Italy like the Visconti and Sforza families of Milan, the Este of Ferrara, the Gonzaga of Mantua, and others. The Medici Bank was one of the most prosperous and most respected in Europe. There are some estimates that the Medici family was, for a period of time, the wealthiest family in Europe. From this base, the family acquired political power initially in Florence, and later in wider Italy and Europe. A notable contribution to the profession of accounting was the improvement of the general ledger system through the development of the double-entry bookkeeping system for tracking credits and debits. This system was first used by accountants working for the Medici family in Florence. History The Medici family came from the agricultural Mugello region, north of Florence, being mentioned for the first time in a document of 1230[citation needed]. </p> <p>Contents </p> <p>1 History o 1.1 15th century 2 Art and architecture 3 Notable members 4 See also 5 References o 5.1 Text o 5.2 Documentaries 6 External links 7 Popes Leo X, Clement VII, Leo XI 8 Catherine Cosimo deMedici, Lorenzo deMedici</p> <p>The origin of the name is uncertain although its Italian meaning is "medical doctor". Members of the family rose to some prominence in the early 14th century in the wool trade, especially with France and Spain. Despite the presence of some Medicis in the city's government institutions, they were still far less notable than outstanding families such as the Albizzi or the</p> <p>1</p> <p>Strozzi. One Salvestro de' Medici was speaker of the woolmakers' guild during the Ciompi revolt, and one Antonio was sentenced to death in 1396. The involvement in another plot in 1400 caused all branches of the family to be banned from Florence's politics for twenty years, with the exception of two: from one of the latter, that of Averardo (Bicci) de' Medici, originated the Medici dynasty. Averardo's son, Giovani di Bicci, increased the wealth of the family through his creation of the Medici Bank, and became one of the richest men in the city. Although never held any political charge, he gained a strong popular support to the family when he supported the introduction of a proportional taxing system. His son Cosimo the Elder took over in 1434 as gran maestro, and the Medici became unofficial heads of state of the Florentine republic.[1] The family of Piero de' Medici portrayed by Sandro Botticelli in the Madonna del Magnificat. The "senior" branch of the family those descended from Cosimo the Elder ruled until the assassination of Alessandro de' Medici, first Duke of Florence, in 1537. This century-long rule was only interrupted on two occasions (between 14941512 and 15271530), when popular revolts sent the Medici into exile. Power then passed to the "junior" branch those descended from Lorenzo the Elder, younger son of Giovanni di Bicci, starting with his great-great-grandson Cosimo I the Great. The Medici's rise to power was chronicled in detail by Benedetto Dei. Cosimo and his father started the Medici foundations in banking, manufacturing - including a form of franchises - wealth, art, cultural patronage, and in the Papacy that ensured their success for generations. At least half, probably more, of Florences people were employed by them and their foundational branches in business. 15th century Medici family members placed allegorically in the entourage of a king from the Three Wise Men in the Tuscan countryside in a Benozzo Gozzoli fresco, c. 1459. Piero de' Medici (1416-1469), Cosimos son, stayed in power for only five years (1464-1469). He was called Piero the Gouty because of the gout that infected his foot, and it eventually led to his death. He had little interest for the arts as his father had. Due to his illness, he mostly stayed at home bedridden, and therefore had done little to further the Medici control of Florence while in power. As such, Medici rule stagnated until his grandson Lorenzo took over. Lorenzo de' Medici the Magnificent (1449-1492), was more capable of leading and ruling a city. However, Magnificent was a common title and essentially does not mean anything special in itself. He showed his children great love and affection, too. To ensure the continuance of his success, Lorenzo perceived his childrens abilities and planned their futures and careers for them. He predicted, or rather forced, Piero II to be headstrong, Giovanni a scholar, and Giuliano--not to be confused with Lorenzos brother who had the same first name--good. Giuliano, Lorenzos brother, was assassinated in church on Easter Sunday (1478). Lorenzo adopted Giulianos illegitimate son, Giulio de' Medici (1478-1535), the future Clement VII. The incompetent Piero II took over as the head of Florence after his fathers, Lorenzos', death. Piero was responsible for the expulsion of the Medici from 1494-1512. The Medici remained masters of Italy through their two famous 16th century popes, Leo X and Clement VII, who were de facto rulers of both Rome and Florence. They were both patrons of the arts, but in the religious field they proved unable to stem the advance of Martin Luther's ideas. Another Medici became Pope: Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici (Leo XI). The most outstanding figure of the 16th century Medici was Cosimo I, who, coming from a retire in the Mugello, rose to supremacy in the whole of Tuscany, conquering the Florentines' most hated rival Siena and founding the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.</p> <p>2</p> <p>Art and architecture The most significant accomplishments of the Medici were in the sponsorship of art and architecture, mainly early and High Renaissance art and architecture. The Medici were responsible for the majority of Florentine art during their reign. Their money was significant because during this period, artists generally only made their works when they received commissions and advance payments. Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, the first patron of the arts in the family, aided Masaccio and commissioned Brunelleschi for the reconstruction of the Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence in 1419. Cosimo the Elder's notable artistic associates were Donatello and Fra Angelico. The most significant addition to the list over the years was Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564), who produced work for a number of Medici, beginning with Lorenzo the Magnificent. Lorenzo commissioned him often, even as a child, and was extremely fond of him. Lorenzo commissioned Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) for seven years. Lorenzo also was an artist of poetry and song. Later, Pope Leo X would chiefly commission Raphael (1483-1520) "the Prince of Painters." Pope Clement VII commissioned Michelangelo to paint the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel; the de' Medici family oversaw the construction of the Sistine Chapel as well. Under Savonarola's fanatical leadership, many great works were "voluntarily" destroyed in the Bonfire of the Vanities (February 7, 1497). The following year, on May 23, 1498, Savonarola and his two young supporters were hanged in the public square, the same location as his bonfire. In addition to commissions for art and architecture, the Medici were prolific collectors and today their acquisitions form the core of the Uffizi museum in Florence. In architecture, the Medici are responsible for some notable features of Florence; including the Uffizi Gallery, the Pitti Palace, the Boboli Gardens, the Belvedere, and the Palazzo Medici. Although none of the Medici themselves were scientists, the family is well known to have been the patrons of the famous Galileo Galilei, who tutored multiple generations of Medici children, and was an important figurehead for his patron's quest for power. Galileo's patronage was eventually abandoned by Ferdinando II, when the Inquisition accused Galileo of heresy. However, the Medici family did afford the scientist a safe haven for many years. Galileo named the four largest moons of Jupiter after four Medici children he tutored. Eleonora of Toledo, princess of Spain and wife of Cosimo I the Great, purchased the Pitti Palace from Buonaccorso Pitti in 1550. Cosimo I the Great patronized Vasari who erected the Uffizi Gallery in 1560 and founded the Academy of Design in 1562. Marie de' Medici, widow of Henry IV of France and mother of Louis XIII, is the subject of a commissioned cycle of paintings known as the Marie de' Medici cycle, painted for the Luxembourg Palace by court painter Peter Paul Rubens in 1622-23.</p> <p>Notable members Salvestro de' Medici (13311388), led the assault against the revolt of the ciompi, became dictator of Florence, and banished in 1382 Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici (13601429), restored the family fortune and made the Medici family the wealthiest in Europe Cosimo the Elder (13891464), founder of the Medici political dynasty Lorenzo the Magnificent (14491492), leader of Florence during the Golden Age of the Renaissance Giovanni de' Medici (14751523), also known as Pope Leo X</p> <p>3</p> <p>Giulio de' Medici (14781534), also known as Pope Clement VII Cosimo I the Great (15191574), First Grand Duke of Tuscany who restored the Medici lustre Catherine de' Medici (15191589), Queen of France Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici (15351605), also known as Pope Leo XI Marie de' Medici (15751642), Queen and Regent of France Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici (16671743) the last of the Medici line</p> <p>See also Alberti Albizzi</p> <p>References</p> <p>1. ^ Bradley, Richard (executive producer). (2003). The Medici: Godfathers of theRenaissance (Part I) [DVD]. PBS Home Video. Text Christopher Hibbert, The House of Medici: Its Rise and Fall (Morrow, 1975) is a highly readable, non-scholarly general history of the family Ferdinand Schevill, History of Florence: From the Founding of the City Through the Renaissance (Frederick Ungar, 1936) is the standard overall history of Florence Paul Strathern, The Medici - Godfathers of the Renaissance (Pimlico, 2005) is an informative and lively account of the Medici family, their finesse and foibles - extremely readable, though very homophobic and full of typographical errors. Lauro Martines, "April Blood - Florence and the Plot Against the Medici" (Oxford University Press 2003) a detailed account of the Pazzi Conspiracy, the players, the politics of the day, and the fallout of the assassination plot . Though accurate in historic details, Martines writes with a definite 'anti-Medici' tone. Accounting in Italy Herbert Millingchamp Vaughan, The Medici Popes. New York: G.P. Putnams Sons, 1908. Jonathan Zophy, A Short History of Renaissance and Reformation Europe, Dances over Fire and Water. 1996. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2003.</p> <p>Documentaries TLC/Peter Spry-Leverton.PSL, The Mummy Detectives: The Crypt Of The Medici One-hour documentary. Italian specialists, joined by mummy expert and TLC presenter Dr. Bob Brier exhume the bodies of Italy's ancient first family and use the latest forensic tools to investigate how they lived and died. Airs on Discovery Channel. "Among the Medici" (3-part radio series). BBC Radio 4 (2006).</p> <p>External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: House of Medici Outline of the history of the Medici family</p> <p>4</p> <p>Genealogical manuscript on the house of the Medici (German) Genealogical tree of the house of the Medici Galileo and the Medici Family at PBS Adrian Fletchers Paradoxplace3 pages of Medici portraits and history Medici Archive Project "House of Medici". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company.</p> <p>Leo X</p> <p>Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medici" Categories: House of Medici | Papal families | European royal families | Culture in Florence | History of Florence</p> <p>Pope Leo XFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</p> <p>Birth name Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici Papacy beg March 8, 1513 (elected) an March 11, 1513 (proclaimed) Papacy end December 2, 1521 ed Predecesso Julius II r Successor Adrian VI Born 1 Early Life 11, 1475 December Florence, Italy Italian Wars o 1.1 Role in Died 2 Reformation and last years December 1, 1521 (aged 45) o 2.1 Schism between Rome, ItalyOther popes named Leo</p> <p>Pope Leo X House of MediciBorn: 11 December 1475 Died: 1 December 1521</p> <p>Contents</p> <p>Roman Catholic Church titles Preceded b Succeeded y Pope by Julius II Adrian VIPope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici (11 December 1475 1 December 1521) was Pope from 1513 to his death. He is known primarily for the sale of indulgences to reconstruct St. Peter's Basilica and his challenging of Martin Luther's 95 theses. He was the second son of Lorenzo de' Medici, the most famous ruler of the Florentine Republic, and Clarice Orsini. His cousin, Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, would later succeed him as Pope Clement VII (152334). Early Life</p> <p>o</p> <p>1.2 War of Urbino</p> <p>Reuchlin and Pfefferkorn regarding the banning of Hebrew books o 2.2 The Protestant Schism o 2.3 Italian politics o 2.4 Death 3 Behavior as Pope and patron of arts 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External links</p> <p>For the church, he received the tonsure at the age of six and was soon loaded with rich benefices and preferments. His father prevailed on Innocent VIII to name him cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria in Domnica in March 1489, although he was not allowed to wear the insignia or share in the deliberations of the college until three years later. Meanwhile he received a careful</p> <p>5</p> <p>education at Lorenzo's brilliant humanistic court under such men as Angelo Poliziano, Pico della Mirandola, Marsilio Ficino and Bernardo Dovizio Bibbiena. From 1489 to 1491 he studied theology and canon law at Pisa under Filippo Decio and Bartolomeo Sozzini. On 23 March 1492 he was formally admitted into the sacred college and took up his residence at Rome, receiving a letter of advice from his father which ranks among the wisest of its kind. The death of Lorenzo on the following April 8, however, called the seventeen-year-old cardinal to Florence. He participated in the conclave of 1492 which followed the death of Innocent VIII, and opposed the election of Cardinal Borgia. He made...</p>

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