Hand Book of Biofertilizers Vermiculture

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HAND BOOK OF BIOFERTILIZERS & VERMICULTURETHE LIVING SOIL Biological Management of Soil Fertility Sustainable agriculture: Needs of the Hour Evolution of Sustainable Agriculture Sustainable Livelihood Making of Sustainable Farming Systems Management of Organic Inputs Regulation of Nutrient Dynamics by resource Quality Control Environmental Regulation of Organic Matter Management Organic Inorganic Interactions Nitrogen Phosphorus Nutrient Mixture Need for Organic Inputs Long Term Effects The Farming Systems Context ORGANIC SOURCES AND DYNAMICS Organic Material Use Composting to Enhance the Usefulness and Acceptability of Organic Materials Special Management Practices for Utilization of Organic Materials on Land Bulky Organic Manures/Animal Manures/Crop Residues/Composts Type of Bulky Organic Manures Farmyard Manure Composted Manure Urban Compost Bulky Organic Manures Farm Yard Manure (FYM) Compost Aerobic method Anaerobic method Enrichment of Manure and Compost Enriched farmyard manure Enrichment of compost with microbial Inoculants Super digasted compost sheep and goat manure Poultry manure Sewage and Sludge Night Soil Poudrettes Concentrated Organic Manure Oil cakes Meal group of manures Crop residues Agro industrial wastes Rice husk

Bagase Pressmud Tea wastes Coir waste Green Manuring Green Manuring in Situ Green Leaf Manuring Poultry Manure :An Efficient Organic Manure for Rice Formation Mechanisms of Complex Organic Structures in Soil Habitats Organisms Involved in Organic Matter Formation Chemohetertrophic anmals Saprophytic Bacteria, fungi and profozoa Oxidoreductive enzymes Classes of Mono phenol monoxygenases Synthetic Reactions in Soil Degradative Processes Types of Plant Material for Decomposition The pathway of lignin decomposition Microorganisms for Lignin biodegradation Acquired stability Synthetic Processes for Humus Formation The Role of Oxidative Coupling in Humus Formation Theories of Humus Formation Modern theories of humification VERMICULTURE Earthworms as Indicators of Soil Fertility Soil enrichment Earthworm: The Natural Blosector Interaction of Vermicompost Earthworm Mulch-Plantroot (Vemp) Recycling of Wastes Through Vermitech Earthworms and Plant Growth Advantages of Organic Manure and the Role of Earthworms What is Vermicompost Vermiculture and Pollution Hazard Advantages of Vermicompost Adverse Effects on Crops Economic Viability Vermiculture Process Selection of Suitable Species Eplges Endoges Anecigues Basic Characteristics of Suitable Species Fixing Earthworms for Identification Transport of Fixed Worms to Laboratory Description of Suitable Species Family: Lumbricidae

Bimastos parvus [=Allolobophora (Bimastos) parvus Eisen] Eisenia foetida (sav) Family: Eudrilidae Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinb) Family: Megascolecidae Lampito mauritil (Kinb.) Metaphire anomala Mich.(=Pheretima anomala) Metaphire posthuma (=Pheretima posthuma) Perionyx excavatus E.Perr. Perionyx sansbaricus Michaelson Maintenance of Base Culture Vermicastings as Inoculant Vermicomposting Materials Animal during Agricultural waste Forestry wastes City leaf tilter Waste paper and cotton cloth etc. City refuge Biogas slurry Industrial wastes Preliminary Treatment of Composting Material Pre-treatment of leaf litter and agricultural waste Small Scale or Indoor Vermicomposting Large scale or Outdoor Vermicomposting Requirements for Vermicomposting Container Bedding material Moisture content Temperature Successful Adoption of Vermiculture Initiation of Vermiculture in India Successful Applications in India Composting of waste Use in agriculture APPLICATION OF VERMICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY Vermiculture Biotechnology Earthworm for Nutrient Management Effect on soil fertility Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium Earthworms for Water Management Earthworm castings Earthworms Act as Biopump Earthworms for Effective Waste Management Composting of Municipal and Industrial Wastes Earthworms for Disease and Pest Management Earthworms for Nutritional Crops Earthworms for Sustainable

Agriculture and Waste Land Development Earthworms As vectors of Beneficial Microorganisms Successful Applications Hamessing Vermiculture Bio-Technology Selection of proper species Use of vermicastings for inoculation Earthworms and land use practices Effect of organic manure and NPK fertilizers on earthworm activity Cultivation Mulching Irrigation Biocides Procedure to Prepare Vermicompost Culturing technique Culture bed Feed composition Feed application Wormcast production and collection Application of Vermicompost Conclusion Future Research Needs COMPOSTING OF AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTES Definition Principles of Composting Agricultural Wastes Methods for composting of Agricultural wastes Indore Method Activated compost Banglore method Nadep Compost Coimbatore method Synthetic Compost Windrow composting (leaf compost) Accelerated composting and enrichment Vermi composting Animal waste composting Oil palm waste composting Phospho compost Re inforced compost from sugarcane trash and pressmud Enriched FYM (EFYM) Weed composting Composting of parthenium Hints for composting agricultural wastes Industrial Wastes Composting of coir pith Composting of Pressumud Using distillery effluent Using microbial inoculum Using pressmud and Distillery effluent Conclusion

Future Needs BIOLOGICAL FERTILIZERS Soil Biota in Sustainable Agriculture Bio Diversity of Soil Biota Possible Management Strategies Importance of Biological sources of Nutrients Overcoming Soil Deficiencies Nature's Way Bio-Fertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture History of Bio-Fertilizer Research Economical and Environmental Benefits Development of Bio-Fertilizer Industry Groups of Bio-Fertilizers Conclusion MICROBAL INOCULANTS FOR NITROGEN FIXATION Nitrogen Fixing Organisms and Plant Associations Azotobacter Beijerinckla Azospirillum Other Bacteria Asymbiotic Blue Green Algae Frankia Rhizobium General Taxonomic Characteristics of Legumes Characteristics of the family Plants, shrubs, woody vines, and annual and perennial herbs Characteristics of the sub-families Mimosodeae:Plants, shrubs, woody, vines, a few perennial herbs Caesalpinoldeae:Plants, shrubs, rarely. Scandent, rarely herbs Papilionoldeae:Plants, shrubs, annual or perennial herbs Techniques to Enumerate Rhizobia Plate Count Technique Flourescent Antibody Technique (FAT) Enzyme linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) Plant Infection Technique Growth system for MPN methods Suitable test host for MPN technique Distribution of Rhizobial Population Rhizobium culture Genetic modifications in Rhizobium strains Rhizobium in Nodule Agrobacterium (A. radiobacter, A. tumefacions) Structure and Function of Nodule Formation of Nodule in Leguminous Plants Leghaemoglobin Site of Nitrogen Fixation in Nodules Leguminous Plants/Rhizoblaceae Symbiosis Isolation and Identification Mass Production Carriers for Rhizobiuminoculants

Method of Inoculation Crop Response Factor Affecting Crop Response Confirming Nodulation Field Methods for Identification of Plant Actually Fixing Nitrogen The Need to Inoculate Selecting and Handling Inoculoants Inoculation Methods of application Bio-Fertilizers and Their Usage in Field Crops Seed treatment Seedling root dip Soil Application Optimizing Nitrogen Fixation in NFS Effective and Ineffective Strains Establishment of Inoculated Rhizobium Production of Rhizobium Biofertilizer Selection of strains Carrier materials and their sterilization Suitable nutrient broth Suitable packing material Suitable adhesive material Fermentation Rotary shaker method Bioreactor Frankiacease Symbiosis Azospirillum Biofertilizer Major Species Isolation Mass Multiplication Method of Inoculation Conditions Needed for Successful Inoculation Crop Response Azotobacter Biofertiuzer Isolation Mass Production Method of Application Crop Response Methods of Application of Azospirillum and Azotobacter Blue Green Algae Inoculant Distribution Isolation Mass Production Methods of Field Application Crop Response Blue Green Algae (BGA) and Azolla Mass Production and Applications Crop Response Factors Affecting Response BGA Production Technology Trough method Pit method

Mass Multiplication of BGA in the Field Dual Cropping of Azolla with Rice Azolla Anabaena Symbiosis Multiplication of Azolla Propagation Cement Cistems Mass multiplication in nursery plots Enhanced Crop Production MECHANISM AND ESTIMATION OF NITROGEN FIXATION Diazotrophic Microorganisms Biological Nitrogen Fixation Asymbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Microorganisms Mechanism of Asymbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Requirements of Nitrogen Fixation Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Mechanism of Nitrogen Fixation in Legumes Theory of Virtanen Theory of Burn's and Wilson Nitrogen Converters in the Soil Cyanobacteria and Nitrogen Fixation Nitrogen Fixing Fungi Bio-chemical Aspects of Diazotrophy Nitrogenase Producing E.Colicells Genetics of Free living and Symbiotic Diazotrophs Organization of Nitrogen fixation Genes Nod Genes for Nodulation Regulation of Nitrogen fixation Genes Genetics of Symbiotic Diazotropha Transfer of NIF Genes to Microorganisms Transfer of NIF-Genes and Development of new Nitrogen-Fixing Plants Estimates of Nitrogen Fixation N-Based Methods Nitrogen Balance Studies Acetylene Reduction Assay Quantifying Nitrogen Fixation in NFSS Quantities of Nitrogen Fixed Factors Influencing Biological Nitrogen Fixation Biological Factors Oxygen Water stress Temperature Age pH and soil nutrients Combined soil N Salinity Lack of suitable bacteria Recovering form Stress Nitrogen Fixation Research in India

BIOLOGICAL MOBILIZATION OF PHOSPHORUS Forms of P Available in Soil P Availability Issue Mode of Action of PSMs Organic Acids and P Solubilization Enzymes and P-solubilization Effect of PSMs on Growth and P economy Duel Inoculation of P-Solubilizers and Nitrogen Fixes Isolation Crop response Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (VAM) Roots as Sinks and Sources of Nutrients and Carbon in Agricultural Systems Importance of Mycorrhiza Benefits to Plants Other Roles in Ecosystems Values of People Mycorrhizal Interaction with Plants and Soil Organisms in Sustainable Agrocecosystem Symbiosis Root System form Soil and site Factors influencing Mycorrhizas Mycorrhizal Inoculum Soil Disturbance Soil Fertility Adverse Soil Conditions Characteristics of Fungal Isolates Manipulating Mycorrhizal Fungi Type of Associations Types of Mycorrhiza Ectomycorrhiza Ectendomycorrhiza Endomycorrhiza/Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) Arbutold mycorrhiza Monotropoid mycorrhiza Ericold mycorrhiza Orchidoid mycorrhiza Host Plants Place of Availability of Mycorrhizal Plants Mycorrhizal Fungi Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) Establishment of Symbiosis Classification of AMF Ectomycorrhizae (ECM) Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) How mycorrhizas Work Nutrient Depletion Zones Hyphal Activity Mycorrhizal Dependency Obligatorly Mycorrhizal Plants Facultatively Mycorrhizal Plants Non mycorrhizal plants Mycorrhizal Fungi and Pathogen Interaction

Nitrogen Transfer in Mycorrhizal Plants Nitrogen Nutrition in Mycorrhizal Plants Forms of Nitrogen used by Mycorrhizal Associations Mycorrhizal Effects on Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation P Response Curves Inoculation Methods A. Trasplanted crops B. Plant directly sown in the field Mycorrhizal pellets Fluid drilling Inoculation in furrows Pre-cropping Appropriate VA mycorrhizal Technology A. Transplanted crops B. Field sown crops THE CYCLIC SYSTEM OF NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT Geographical Nutrient Transfer Natural transfers (nutrient flows in landscapes) Nutrient transfer into cities Export into other countries The Concern Future nutrient shortages From Nutrient Flows to Cycles Organic Farming and Waste Recycling The Cyclic System For Nutrient Management Minimizing Nutrient Losses Changes in soil slope Soil cover Hamessing Untapped Nutrient Sources Exploring Internal Nutrient Sources Better use of Nutrient Sources Soil nutrient and soil fertility aspects Optimum soil reaction Soil organic matter Organic Materials Crop residues and farm manures Commercial and Industrial waste products Other organic fertilizers better Nutrient Management for Crops and Crop Rotations Adaptation of crops and crop rotations to nutrient supply Nutrient Management for Quality Products and Stress Resistance Higher quality of food and fodder products Nutrient management of grass land for fodder quality Higher stress resistance of crops due to better nutrition Nutrient Management in Farming Systems Efficient Nutrient Recycling with Agroforestry Recycling paths: short term and longer term Agroforestry Systems Role of Agroforestry Agroforestry for soil enrichment Ecological balance

Organic matter and nutrient addition to soil Biological Nitrogen fixation Nutrient cycling Conclusion Exploitation Cropping vs Sustinable Agriculture True at Different Yield Levels Exploitation cropping Sustainable agriculture at low to medium yield level Extensive sustainable farming Bio or ecofarming (deliberate extensive farming) Sustainable agriculture at high yield level Nutrient Management on Arid Lands Saline soils Nutrient Management in Humid Tropics Rice cropping on paddy soils Agroforestry Intergrated Nutrient Management Integration of fertilizers with bulky organics Green manuring with inorganic fertilizers Bio fertilizers with inorganics Integrated Approach in Bio fertilizer Use Low cost Technology for Enrichment of Compost Sugarcane trash compost Biogas slurry Vermicompost Industrial wastes Municipal and sewage wastes Management of Major Nutrients (N.P.K.) with Organic Sources Nitrogen Synchronization General Properties of Nitrogen from organic Sources Cover Crops and Ridge Tillage in Sustainable Farming Phosphorus Mycorrhiza Potassium Biological Approach for Secondary and Micronutrients Acquisition Vam Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) Organics Organic Farming vs Biodynamic Farming Principles of Biodynamic Farming Rules for using Biodynamic Agriculture Few Biodynamic Preparations Conclusion PERSPECTIVES Constraints in Bio-Fertilizer use Production Constraints Unavallability of appropriate and efficient strains Unavailability of a suitable carrier Mutation during fermentation Lack of standards in packaging

Market Level Constraints Lack of awareness of farmer Inadequate and inexperienced staff Lack of quality assurance Seassonal and unassured demand Limited scope for marketing Resource Constraints Limited resources generation for BF production Limited risk taing capacity of farmers Field level constraints Soil and climatic factors Native microbial population Faulty inoculation techniques Crop management Quality control Research and Development Needs Widening Research base Screening new Efficient Strains Improvement in Production Technology Preparation of Bio-fertilizer Map Quality Assurance Improving Distribution System Improving Technical Support System Institutional Support for Research and Development Quality Control Promotional S...


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