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Guiding Rules of Grammar 1

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Guiding rules of English grammar

Thousands of words divided into eight parts of speech

Nouns Different types of nouns

Nouns in plurals f/fe

endings change to s/ves endings Example beliefs, proofs, knives, leaves. dwarfs/dwarves

Nouns in plurals y

endings consonant + y change to ies Example ladies,ponies y endings vowel + y s is put Example toys, guys

Nouns in plurals Quy

endings y changes to

ies Example colloquies, soliloquies o endings add either s or es Example tomatoes, volcanoes, commandos, zoos, studios

Plurals for s endingsMany

native English words form plural by adding es Example - buses Some are always treated as singular uncountable Example news, billiards

Plurals for s endings Some

are singular or plural according to meaning Example economics, ethics, wages, rabies

Plurals for s endings Some

plural nouns have no singular forms Example belongings, clothes, congratulations, remains

Plurals for s endings Some

plural nouns have singular forms only in set phrases or with different meaning Example: spectacles/ a spectacle, trousers/ trouser press, scissors/ scissor movement

Plurals for s endings Names

of countries with s endings are singular but treated as plural when the name denotes the countrys sports team Example Netherlands, United States

Plurals for s endings Mountain

ranges and groups of islands plural Example The Himalayas, The alps

Old English plurals Children,

women, men, feet,

teeth

Plurals Plural

only nouns without s are police, cattle, people etc.

Zero plurals Some

have same singular and plural forms Example:sheep Animals that you hunt or catch have zero plurals Example: deer, fish, duck

Zero plurals Measurement

nouns have zero plurals Example: two dozen eggs, six foot tall man Nationality nouns ending in a hissing sound have zero plurals Example: Chinese, Japanese, Swedish

Problem plurals with foreign wordsLarva larvae Alumna alumnae Formula - formulas/formulae Stigma stigmata Bacterium bacteria Fungus - fungi (a list of such generally used foreign words is given in the pdf file of your courseware)

Nouns from verb forms Swimming

is a good exercise. To see is to believe./ Seeing is believing.

Pronouns

Pronouns case Subjective or Objective Its

me or Its I ? What comes after to be is not a subject its a complement so a confusion It is she who broke the rules.

Pronouns case Subjective or Objectivetogether between you and I/ between you and me The preposition between requires the object form Between you and me Two

Pronouns case Subjective or Objective Let

you and I/ let you and me An object follows the word let Let Tina and me handle this.

Pronouns case Subjective or Objective But

me/ But I? CONJUNCTION BUTPREPOSITIONI

like that but I think its very expensive. Nobody but me bought that.

Pronouns case Subjective or ObjectiveTaller

than me/I am As tall as me/ I am Than and as are conjunctions here so, a subject is needed Im not as clever as she is. She is much taller than I am.

Pronouns - orderconfessing a fault I, you and he I and Raman have made a mistake. While .

Pronouns - order While

expressing a positive idea or praise You, he and I You and I have scored the highest marks

emphatic pronouns He himself will ask you. To indicate on ones own I arranged it myself. As reflexive pronouns I hurt myself while shifting the furniture. As

Pronouns self words

Pronouns - It Its

/its

Even though its a new fan, its speed is not good.

Pronouns who/whom subject Whom object Who else is coming for this meet? Whom do you want to meet? Who

Pronouns my/mine This

is my idea. This is mine idea. x This idea is mine.

Pronouns - Indefinite One

must do ones duty. Everyone must do his/her duty.

Pronouns - Indefinite Each

other for two persons One another for more than two Either and neither when referring to one out of two Any, any one, none, no one when referring to one out of more than two

Pronouns - Who/which/that This

the type of dictionary that I have been looking for. This the dictionary which I have liked. This is the person who gave it to me.

verbs

verbs In

English grammar, verbs are the most complex and varied part of speech. They can be categorized in different ways.

VerbsA

doing verb tells you something about the activities of its subject. Being and becoming verbs link the subject with its complement or quality.

Verbs Auxiliary

verbs and Modals are used as part of a verb phrase The government is considering all the options. The government should consider all the options.

Verbs regular/irregularRegular verbs have ed in their simple past and past participle forms turn turned turned

Verbs regular/irregularIrregular verbs give rise to lot of difficulty begin began begun put put put come came come tell told told (please refer to the pdf file of irregular verbs in your courseware)

Verbs finite/nonfinite Finite

forms are the verbs used in normal way with a subject and tense Reema writes legibly.

Verbs finite/nonfinite Non-finite

forms are the verbs used as nouns, adjectives and adverbs Writing should be legible. I need written documents. He is going out to write the quote on the wall.

Uses of finite verb formsBase form: I/You/We/They/The students, etc. like fast food.

S form: He/She/The student/Everybody wants to see a movie. Simple past form: I/You/She/We/They/The students/ everybody wanted to see a

Past Participle form: Mr Sharma has asked me to contact you. The thief had escaped by the time the police arrived. The road has been repaired.

Present Participle form: Leena is working on a different project.

Verbs non-finite Gerunds

- nouns Participles adjectives Infinitives nouns, adjectives, adverbs

Uses of non-finite verbs Reading

is a good habit. It was a fascinating performance. Everyone wants to see a movie. It is difficult to write with a broken pen.

Problematic verbsLie lay, lain/ lied, lied Lay laid, laid Was/were(were for a wish/ an uncertainty/ contrary to the fact Shall/will

Adjectives & Adverbs

Adjectives & Adverbs They

function as modifiers. Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.

Adjectives & Adverbs Use

comparative form when referring to two Use superlative form when referring to more than two Some adjectives and adverbs allow no comparison

Adjectives & Adverbs Some

adjectives and adverbs allow no comparison unique, round, square, perfect, perfectly, completely, universally, always, never, hardly etc.

Adjectives & AdverbsUse comparative and any other When comparing one with a group of which it is a part K2 is higher than any other mountain peak in India. Srinagar is more famous than

Adjectives & AdverbsUse more and not -er to form the comparative when comparing qualities of the same person or thing Susan is more simple than honest.

Adjectives & Adverbs

Do not use double comparatives and superlatives She is more taller than her sister. (wrong) Mukesh Ambani is one of the most richest men of the world. (wrong)

Adjectives & Adverbs Many

adverbs are formed by adding -ly to an adjective neat/ neatly, careful/carefully Some -ly forms are only adjectives leisurely, heavenly, friendly, motherly, lovely

Adjectives & Adverbs Sometimes,

adjectives and adverbs have the same form hourly, monthly, yearly, fast Be careful while using only to avoid ambiguity.

Adjectives & Adverbs Few

refers to numbers and less to quantity As many as refers to numbers and as much as refers to quantity

Adjectives & Adverbsand older/oldest elder to, older than Negatives I barely knew no one in the party. (wrong) I barely knew anyone in the party. Elder/eldest

Articles a/an/the

Articlesan indefinite Bring me a book.(any) I have a pen.(one) He is an honourable man. (one) This is a unique idea. a/

Use of the definite article THE To

particularly refer to: I have the pen that you gave me. Before the names of holy books and news papers : The Geeta, The Times of India

Use of the definite article THE Before

the names of famous Buildings: The Tajmahal, The Red Fort Before an adjective to represent a class (excluding man): The rich/The tiger Man is a social animal.

Use of the definite article THE Before

the descriptive names of countries -The U.S., the U.K. Before the Superlatives: the tallest, the most successful person

Use of the definite article THE Before

Ordinal numbers: the second answer, the third floor Before the names of unique objects: The Universe, The World, The Earth

Use of the definite article THE Before

directions: The sun rises in the east. Before the names of musical instruments: Rohit plays the guitar beautifully. Before collective nouns: the news, the crowd, the audience

Use of the definite article THE Before

names of Rivers, Seas, Oceans, Mountain ranges: The Ganges, The Pacific Ocean, The Arabian Sea, The Himalayas. Before other or others if the number after these words is specific.

Use of the definite article THE THE

is not used before abstract nouns, material nouns, common uncountable nou

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