Guidelines for Equipment Reliability - · PDF fileGuidelines for Equipment Reliability Technology Transfer # 92031014A-GEN SEMATECH May 5, 1992 Abstract: This guideline was developed

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  • SEMATECHTechnology Transfer 92031014A-GEN

    Guidelines for Equipment Reliability

  • 1997 SEMATECH, Inc.

    SEMATECH and the SEMATECH logo are registered service marks of SEMATECH, Inc.

    Product names and company names used in this publication are for identification purposes only and may be trademarks or servicemarks of their respective companies

  • Guidelines for Equipment ReliabilityTechnology Transfer # 92031014A-GEN

    SEMATECHMay 5, 1992

    Abstract: This guideline was developed by a task force comprised of reliability experts and users ofreliability methodologies from the SEMI/SEMATECH member companies. The document waswritten to address the needs of semiconductor equipment manufacturers and their customers. Itincludes a description of the principles of a cost-effective reliability program, instructions on howto get started, and details on what needs to be done. A large portion of the document is dedicatedto analysis and testing methodologies. These include: Failure Modes and Effects Analysis(FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Component Failure Analysis (CFA), Human ReliabilityAnalysis (HRA); and Reliability Testing, Component Testing, Accelerated Testing (Sudden Death,Step-Stress Testing), Burn-in Testing, Life Testing, Environmental Stress Screening, QualificationTesting, and Acceptance Testing.

    Keywords: Life Cycle Phases, Reliability Testing, RAMP, Failure, FRACAS, Failure Modes and EffectsAnalysis, Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Design of Experiment, Cost of Ownership, InfantMortality, Reliability Qualification Testing (RQT), Taguchi, Users Groups, Reliability BlockDiagram Modeling (RBD), Environmental Stress Screening (ESS), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)

    Authors: Dhudsia, Vallabh

    Approvals: Vallabh Dhudsia, Project Manager & AuthorKeith Erickson, DirectorDan McGowan, Technical Information Transfer Team Leader

  • iii

    Technology Transfer # 92031014A-GEN SEMATECH

    Table of Contents

    1 SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................. 1

    2 THE RELIABILITY IMPROVEMENT PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT LIFE CYCLE........... 22.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 22.2 The Equipment Life Cycle .................................................................................................. 22.3 Life Cycle Phases ................................................................................................................ 32.4 Life Cycle Cost.................................................................................................................... 92.5 The Reliability Improvement Process ............................................................................... 132.6 Applying the Reliability Improvement Process................................................................. 212.7 Summary ........................................................................................................................... 232.8 References ......................................................................................................................... 24

    3 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RELIABILITY IMPROVEMENT PROCESS....................... 253.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 253.2 Managements Role........................................................................................................... 253.3 Applying the Reliability Improvement ProcessThe Reliability Improvement Process..... 263.4 Specific Applications of the Reliability Improvement Process......................................... 44

    3.4.1 Starting with Equipment in the Design Phasewith Equipment in the DesignPhase .................................................................................................................... 44

    3.4.2 Starting with Equipment in the Prototype Phase ................................................... 463.4.3 Starting with Equipment in the Pilot Production Phasewith Equipment in the

    Pilot Production Phase ......................................................................................... 473.4.4 Starting with Equipment in the Production and Operation Phasewith

    Equipment in the Production and Operation Phase ............................................. 493.4.5 Starting with Equipment in Phase Out Phase with Equipment in Phase Out

    Phase .................................................................................................................... 503.5 Functional ResponsibilitiesResponsibilities...................................................................... 513.6 Where to Begin.................................................................................................................. 523.7 Reliability Plans ................................................................................................................ 553.8 Application of Resources and Communicating Value ...................................................... 563.9 Summary ........................................................................................................................... 573.10 References ....................................................................................................................... 58

    4 ACTIVITIES AND TOOLS IN THE RELIABILITY IMPROVEMENT PROCESS............... 594.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 594.2 Reliability ActivitiesActivities.......................................................................................... 59

  • iv

    SEMATECH Technology Transfer # 92031014A-GEN

    List of Figures

    Figure 2-1. Percent of Total Life Cycle Costs vs Locked-in Costs................................................ 9

    Figure 2-2. Impact of a reliability program on life cycle cost...................................................... 11

    Figure 2-3. Optimizing Life Cycle Costs ..................................................................................... 12

    Figure 2-4. Decrease in Life Cycle Costs in New Generations of Equipment............................. 13

    Figure 2-5. The Reliability Improvement Process........................................................................ 14

    Figure 2-6. Application of Reliability Improvement Process....................................................... 22

    Figure 3-1. Multiple Equipment and Their Life Cycle Phase Status............................................ 53

    Figure 4-1. A Block Model Developed in RAMP for the SETEC Generic Wafer HandlerSystem...................................................................................................................... 125

    Figure 4-2. An Estimate of the Cumulative Distribution Function for MTBF .......................... 127

    Figure 4-3. A Pareto Diagram for Component Contribution to System Failure ........................ 128

    Figure 4-4. A Revised Block Diagram for the SETEC Generic Wafer Handler System,showing the Addition of the Redundant Wafer Sensor............................................ 128

    Figure 4-5. An Estimate of the Cumulative Distribution Function for MTBF afterModifying the Generic Wafer Handler System........................................................ 129

    Figure 4-6. A Pareto Diagram for Component Contribution to System FailureafterModifying the Generic Wafer System...................................................................... 130

    Further analysis reveals that C2 fails if parts 1 and 2 (P1 and P2) fail. C4 fails if parts 3or 4 (P3 or P4) fail. The block diagram model now looks like:.............................. 135

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    Technology Transfer # 92031014A-GEN SEMATECH

    List of Tables

    Table 3-1. Reliability Improvement Process Applied at Six Different Starting Points................. 27

    Table 3-2. Reliability Improvement Process Activities ............................................................... 31

    Table 3-3. Reliability Improvement Process Activities2-3. Reliability ImprovementProcess Activities for the Design Phase..................................................................... 34

    Table 3-4. Reliability Improvement Process Activities for the Prototype Phase......................... 37

    Table 3-5. Reliability Improvement Process Activities for the Pilot Production Phase .............. 40

    Table 3-6. Reliability Improvement Process Activities for the Production and OperationPhase .......................................................................................................................... 42

    Table 3-7. Reliability Improvement Process Activities for the PhaseOut Phase2-7.Reliability Improvement Process Activities for the PhaseOut Phase ...................... 44

    Table 3-8. Design Phase Reliability Improvement Process Activities......................................... 45

    Table 3-9. Prototype Phase Reliability Improvement Process Activities..................................... 47

    Table 3-10. Pilot Production Phase Reliability Improvement Process Activities WhenInitiated In Pilot Production Phase............................................................................. 48

    Table 3-11. Production and Operation Phase Reliability Improvement Process ActivitiesWhen Initiated in Production and Operation Phase................................................... 50

    Table 3-12. Phase Out Phase Reliability Improvement Process Activities When Initiatedin Phase-Out Phase...............................