Guide on Making Research Papers

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    ENGLISH 123: DEFINING RESEARCH

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    Research comes from the word recercher,

    re and cercer; modern cercher to search; the

    act of searching into a matter closely and

    carefully: inquiry directed to the discovery oftruth.

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    It is a careful critical inquiry or examination in

    seeking facts or principles, diligent

    investigations in order to ascertain

    something.-Webster

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    PREPARING FOR RESEARCH WRITING

    What to have? What it means?

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    A professional attitude toward writing.

    Professionalism is not an image at all;

    rather it is a state of mind, a way of working

    and a way of thinking about work.

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    Considering yourself a writer.

    Dont laugh. You begin somewhere, and

    what you call yourself is a good place to start.

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    Professional responsibility for your work.

    The moment you finish writing and sign

    your name to the essay, memo, business

    report or letter, you are accepting responsibility

    for the truth, accuracy and quality of your

    written communication.

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    An open mind to ideas of other people.

    You are becoming professional when you

    admit that you do not know everything about

    writing. Writing is not something you learn

    thoroughly all at once and never have to learn

    again.

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    A desire to improve your writing.

    Give your writing the tinkering and time it

    deserves. Until the clock runs out and the writing

    must go public, look again-and again

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    An ideal work environment.

    Follow certain regular routines and habits.

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    A regular time for work.

    Let writing be a friend to your private thoughts.

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    A regular place to write.

    The setting gives off signals that it is time to get

    down to work.

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    Adequate equipment and resources.

    It is important to stock up before you begin

    writing.

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    8 KEYS TO RESEARCH WRITING

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    1ST: SELECT YOUR TOPIC

    What type of paper do you need to write?

    How do you choose an appropriate topic? Is

    it too broad or too narrow?

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    2ND: SET UP A RESEARCH STRATEGY

    You need to know how to find information

    quickly and effectively in any library. The

    strategy begins with general references and

    takes you through various research materialssuch as books, periodicals and special

    documents.

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    3RD: DEVELOP A PRELIMINARY THESIS

    STATEMENT

    The thesis statement establishes what you

    want to say or prove in your paper. This

    statement ads like a general map guiding

    your research efforts.

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    4TH: CONDUCT IN-DEPTH RESEARCH

    You need to review the major resources

    found in the library, retrieve hard-to find

    information and provide guidelines for

    evaluating the resources you encounter.

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    5TH: TAKE GOOD NOTES

    Learn how to skim materials for keywords

    and concepts. Take notes only on the

    information pertinent to your topic.

    Paraphrase, summarize, outline and quotematerials in your note cards or notebook.

    Establish a note taking system that will be

    invaluable in developing an outline andwriting your first draft.

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    6TH: CHOOSE THE BEST STRUCTURE

    Create an outline

    Select illustrations

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    7TH: COMPLETE THE FIRST DRAFT

    The key to writing first draft is to set your

    critical mind aside and simple write until you

    have completed the paper. Use your outline

    as a guide and keep on writing until youfinish.

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    8TH: REVISE YOUR FIRST DRAFT

    Revision can turn a mediocre or flawed first

    draft into a first-rate work. If you are going to

    put time and effort into a research or report ,

    why not make it the best one possible?

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    SELECTING YOUR TOPIC

    The topic should INTEREST you.

    You should KNOW something about the

    topic.

    There should be ENOUGH INFORMATION

    available on it to complete your paper.

    The topic must have relevance.

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    DONTS IN SEARCH FOR A TOPIC

    Subjects that are too recent.

    Subjects that are too sensitive or highly

    controversial, especially those that advocate

    the adoption or rejection of a proposal that

    call for action.

    Subjects that are hard to investigate because

    they are too narrow.

    Subjects that are uninteresting to you.

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    Subjects based on personal experience,

    subject judgment or personal preference.

    Subjects that are overworked or worn-out

    topics, like euthanasia, divorce, premarital

    sex, abortion and drugs.

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    GETTING STARTED:

    1. List down at least 10 topics that interest

    you.

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    2. From the list of the topic, note the subjects

    that are not to be used. List the remaining

    topics on the chart below and check one or

    more of the criteria that have been met.

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    CRITERIA

    TOPICS INTEREST IN

    THE TOPIC

    AVAILABILTIY OF

    THE DATA ON

    THE TOPIC

    ABILITY

    TO

    HANDLE

    THE

    TOPIC

    RELEVANCE

    OF THE

    TOPIC

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    NARROWING THE TOPIC

    When you narrow a subject or topic, you are

    only choosing to discuss only a portion of all

    the things that can be said about it. It is like

    moving from a wide-angle perspective to aclose-up shot.

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    GENERAL TOPIC TO SOMEWHATRESTRICTED

    TO SUFFICIENTLYRESTRICTED

    Violence Against Women Sexual Harassment Sexual Harassment in the

    Classroom

    Human Rights Bullying Bullying inside the

    Classroom

    Visual Arts Modern Painting in Negros The Surrealist paintings of

    Negrense artist Charlie Go

    Festivals Awareness of Festivals in

    the Philippines

    Awareness of Masskara

    Festival in Bacolod City

    Teachers Problems of College

    Instructor

    Problems Encountered by

    TUPV Instructor in

    Teaching Algebra

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    GETTING STARTED:

    GENERAL TOPICS SOMEWHATRESTRICTED

    NARROWED TOPIC

    1.BOILER

    2. WELDINGS

    3. PUMPS AND PIPES

    4. ENVIRONMENTAL

    ENGINEERING

    5. GENERATOR

    6. HYDRAULICS

    7. SENSORS

    8. WASTE

    MANAGEMENT

    9. ENGINES

    10. TURBINES

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    PREPARING A WORKING BIBLIOGRAPHY

    As you have decided on your topic, work on

    your bibliography. A bibliography is a list of

    books, articles, and other published

    materials. It is included at the end of yourreport, on the last page (or last few pages).

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    BIBLIOGRAPHY: FUNCTIONS

    It helps the reader to verify the services.

    It enables the readers to evaluate the worth

    of the paper according to its range and

    reliability

    It provides the reader with a list of further

    readings on the subject.

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    BOOKS

    Authors name. (Year). Title and subtitle of

    book. Place of publication: Publisher

    Note: Only the authors last name and the first name or

    f i rst and m idd le ini t ia ls are ind icated in the

    Bibl iog raphy. The ti t le of the book should be under lined

    and ital ic ized.

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    PERIODICALS

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    FOR AN ENCYCLOPEDIA:

    Encyclopedia Title, Edition Date. Volume

    Number, "Article Title," page numbers.

    Example:

    The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1997. Volume

    7, "Gorillas," pp. 50-51.

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    FOR A NEWSPAPER:

    Author (last name first), "Article Title." Name

    of newspaper, city, state of publication.

    (date): edition if available, section, page

    number(s).

    Example

    Powers, Ann, "New Tune for the Material Girl." The New YorkTimes, New York, NY. (3/1/98): Atlantic Region, Section 2, p.

    34.

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    FOR A MAGAZINE:

    Author (last name first), "Article Title." Name

    of magazine. Volume number, (Date): page

    numbers

    Example:

    Jordan, Jennifer, "Filming at the Top of the

    World." Museum of Science Magazine.

    Volume 47, No. 1, (Winter 1998): p. 11.

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    ONLINE RESOURCES Internet:

    Author of message, (Date). Subject of

    message. Electronic conference or bulletin

    board (Online). Available e-mail: LISTSERV@e-mail address

    Example:Ellen Block, (September 15, 1995). New Winners. Teen Booklist (Online). Helen

    Smith@wellington.com

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    WORLD WIDE WEB:

    URL (Uniform Resource Locator or WWW

    address). author (or item's name, if

    mentioned), date.

    Example:http://www.boston.com. Today's News, August 1, 1996.

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    LETS PRACTICE

    1. The Careful Writer: A Modern Guide to English

    Usage was written by Theodore M. Bernstein in

    1965. It was published by Atheneum

    Publications, New York.2. In 2001, Mina Roces wrote Reflection on

    Gender and Kinship in the Philippine

    Revolution, 1896-1898,. The article was

    published in the Philippine Revolution of 1896

    of Ateneo de Manila University Press, Quezon

    City

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    3. The article Amy, who knew my Diseace; Apsychosexual Pattern in Defoes Roxana waspublished in 1979 in the ELH: Journal of

    English Literary History,Volume 46, on pages81-96. The writer of the article was Terry J.Castle.

    4. The PTA Today published an article entitled :

    Censorshipthe debate over students right toread. Last Ocotber 1982, Volume 2, frompages 12-15. Melinda Cutright wrote the article