Guerilla War History Lesson

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    These slides have been edited for release only to those with AKO access.

    PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING:

    --These edited AKO slides are a rough guide to class flow, and are not afull substitute for the classroom session.

    --They have been redacted for copyright and file-size reasons. Thus they

    lack most of the pictures and other graphics seen in the classroom slides.

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    INFANTRY BOLC-B

    GUERILLA WARFARE HISTORY,

    AND BATTLE ANALYSIS

    MCoE DIRECTORATE OF TRAININGDr. Douglas N. Campbell

    Military History InstructorFt Benning, GA

    Bldg 4, Rooms 3308

    PHONE: 706-626-2402

    E-MAIL: douglas.n.campbell.civ@mail.mil

    mailto:douglas.n.campbell.civ@us.army.milmailto:douglas.n.campbell.civ@us.army.mil
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    Enter Infantry School OES into AKO Search; pick the URL that

    says the same; then select IBOLC folder; then the Historyfolder; & then the Delta Co 7-12 Battle Analysis Guide file (or D

    Co 7-12 BA Source or Guerilla War History Lesson)

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    GUERILLA WARFARE HISTORY

    AND BATTLE ANALYSIS

    TLO: Analyze selected guerilla war campaigns and battles.

    TLO: Write a battle analysis that describes and analyzes a

    selected battle.

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    TRADOC Says

    Topical History: Guerilla Warfare (Insurgency)

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    GUERILLA WARFARE

    TLO: Analyze selected guerilla war campaigns and battles.

    ELO: Define guerilla warfare

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    GUERILLA WARFARE

    --Military or paramilitary operations conducted in enemy-held or

    hostile territory by irregular, predominantly indigenous forces

    (often associated with insurgency)

    --Irregular warfare favors the war of the flea: indirect and

    asymmetric (e.g., unconventional) approaches, though it may

    employ the full range of military & other capacities

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    CONVENTIONAL vs.

    UNCONVENTIONAL WARFARE

    --Conventional warfare implies direct military confrontation

    between regular armed forces, in which the enemys armed force

    or specific war-making power is targeted.

    --Unconventional warfare includes subversion, raids, robberies,

    ambushes, assassinations, sabotage, spying, and rescue

    conducted most often by irregular forces or by specially trained

    regulars.

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    GUERILLA WARFARE

    TLO: Analyze selected guerilla war campaigns and battles.

    ELO: Define guerilla warfare

    ELO: Identify the main currents of guerilla warfare history.

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    GUERILLA WARFARE

    TLO: Analyze selected guerilla war campaigns and battles.

    ELO: Define guerilla warfareELO: Identify the main currents of guerilla warfare history.

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    GUERILLA WARFARE IS NOT NEW

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    GUERILLA WARFARE IS NOT NEW

    Indeed, in analyzing guerilla success or failure, we see repeated

    themes from early through modern times . . . .

    Guerilla Success

    --Will & Popular support

    Algerian citizens support urban guerilla

    war against French Army

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    GUERILLA WARFARE IS NOT NEW

    Indeed, in analyzing guerilla success or failure, we see repeated

    themes from early through modern times . . . .

    Guerilla Success

    --Over-stressed &/or bad govt/army

    Americans

    tar and feather

    British tax collector.

    The French execute Spanish rioters

    and help spark the guerilla war in Spain.

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    GUERILLA WARFARE IS NOT NEW

    Indeed, in analyzing guerilla success or failure, we see repeated

    themes from early through modern times . . . .

    Guerilla Success

    --Charismatic, and/or opportunistic leaders

    Yugoslavias

    TitoIrelands

    Collins

    Carolinas

    Marion

    Cubas

    Castro

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    GUERILLA WARFARE IS NOT NEW

    Indeed, in analyzing guerilla success or failure, we see repeated

    themes from early through modern times . . . .

    Guerilla Success

    --Discipline / organization / prep

    --Intimidation / terror / provocation

    Suicide bombers Tamil leader

    Velupillai Prabhakaran

    Viet Cong cadre

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    GUERILLA WARFARE IS NOT NEW

    Indeed, in analyzing guerilla success or failure, we see repeated

    themes from early through modern times . . . .

    Guerilla Success

    --Favorable environment

    --Sanctuary

    --OUTSIDE HELP

    The Afghan countryside

    Allied commando teams

    help the French Resistance.

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    GUERILLA WARFARE IS NOT NEW

    Indeed, in analyzing guerilla success or failure, we see repeated

    themes from early through modern times . . . .

    Guerilla Success

    --Surprise

    w/light, mobile, flex forces

    --Asymmetric ops; war of the flea

    American Patriot ambush Afghan Mujahedeen ambush

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    GUERILLA WARFARE IS NOT NEW

    Indeed, in analyzing guerilla success or failure, we see repeated

    themes from early through modern times . . . .

    Guerilla Success

    --Mixed forces

    --Timing

    Viet Cong guerillas NVA regulars

    Germans in 1944 Paris face an

    uprising and Allied armies.

    Warsaw Jews must go it

    alone in 1943, and get

    crushed.

    AND COUNTER INSURGENCY (COIN) /

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    AND COUNTER-INSURGENCY (COIN) /

    COUNTER-GUERILLA OPS ARENT NEW EITHER

    RECURRING COIN / COUNTER GUERILLA

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    COIN / C-G Success

    --AIM / focus / will

    --Leadership /

    legitimacy

    --Popular support

    (And if youre using allies, this applies BOTH to you and to the ally.)

    RECURRING COIN / COUNTER-GUERILLA

    THEMES IN HISTORY

    Philippine Defense Minister

    Ramon Magsaysay greets supporters

    as Huk Rebellion subsides, 1953.

    RECURRING COIN / COUNTER GUERILLA

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    COIN / C-G Success

    --Organization (of the whole effort) / discipline

    Briggs, Thompson, and Templarget Britains Malayan COIN effort under control --

    and then get the Malayan Insurgency under control.

    RECURRING COIN / COUNTER-GUERILLA

    THEMES IN HISTORY

    RECURRING COIN / COUNTER GUERILLA

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    COIN / C-G Success

    --Deny aid

    & sanctuary

    -- isolate

    Building the Morice Line

    which cut guerilla traffic in

    Algerian War

    Successful coastal blockade,

    Philippine War

    Successful geographic, ethnic,

    and strategic hamlet isolation,

    Malayan Insurgency

    RECURRING COIN / COUNTER-GUERILLA

    THEMES IN HISTORY

    RECURRING COIN / COUNTER GUERILLA

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    COIN / C-G Success

    --Divide & conquer; oil stain

    Enlisting Filipino scouts

    for the US Army,

    Philippine Insurrection

    British blockhouse,

    Boer War

    U.S. Army Apache scouts

    RECURRING COIN / COUNTER-GUERILLA

    THEMES IN HISTORY

    RECURRING COIN / COUNTER GUERILLA

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    COIN / C-G Success

    --Intell, Surprise

    --Light, mobile, flexible forces

    Seminole guide

    and Army scouts,

    Second Seminole War

    RECURRING COIN / COUNTER-GUERILLA

    THEMES IN HISTORY

    Britains Orde Wingate

    and his Special Night Scouts help

    suppress the 1930s Palestinian Uprising:

    Ambush the ambushers and raid the

    raiders.

    RECURRING COIN / COUNTER GUERILLA

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    COIN / C-G Success

    --Violent force, but judiciously

    --Conciliation

    --Terms

    Petraeus Kilcullen

    Sons of Iraq with US and Iraqi soldiers

    RECURRING COIN / COUNTER-GUERILLA

    THEMES IN HISTORY

    SOME GUERILLA WAR / INSURGENCY READINGS

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    SOME GUERILLA WAR / INSURGENCY READINGS

    --Asprey, Robert. War in the Shadows (encyclopedic history of g-war)--Beckett, Ian. The Roots of Counter-Insurgency--CSI Publications has several works that address insurgency/COIN:

    http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/csi/csipubs.asp --Fall, Bernard. Street without J oy, andTheTwo Vietnams--Galula, David. Counterinsurgency Warfare: Theory and Practice--Hammes,The Sling and the Stone--Horne, Alistair. A Savage War of Peace (Algerian War)

    --Joes, Anthony. Various works (mostly on COIN)--Kilcullen, David. The Accidental Guerilla--Laqueur, Walter. Guerilla Warfare (dated, but still a nice survey)--Marston and Malkasian. Counterinsurgency in Modern Warfare--Moyar, Mark. A Question of Command

    --Nagl, John. Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife--ONeill, Bard. Insurgency and Terrorism--Poole, H. John. Various works (popular guides)

    --Record, Beating Goliath--Taber, Robert. War of the Flea--Van Creveld,The Transformation of War

    SOME AFGHANISTAN READINGS

    http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/csi/csipubs.asphttp://usacac.army.mil/cac2/csi/csipubs.asp
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    SOME AFGHANISTAN READINGS

    --Brooks. Eyewitness to War Volume III: US Army Advisors in Afghanistan(interviews)

    http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/download/csipubs/EyewitnessToWar_Vol

    umeIII_Brooks.pdf

    --Coll, Steve. Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and BinLaden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001

    --Courter, Jeff. Afghan Journal: A Soldiers Year in Afghanistan--Crile, George. Charlie Wilson's War--Feifer, Gregory. The Great Gamble: The Soviet War in Afghanistan--Grau, Lester. The Soviet-Afghan War: How a Superpower Fought and Lost;

    andThe Bear Went over the Mountain: Soviet Combat Tactics inAfghanistan

    --Grau, Lester, and Ali Ahmad Jalali. The Other Side of the Mountain: Mujahideenin the Soviet-Afghan War

    --Jones, Seth. In the Graveyard of Empires: Americas War in Afghanistan

    --Junger, Sebastian. War--Koontz, Christopher, ed. Enduring Voices: Oral Histories of the U.S. Army

    Experience in Afghanistan, 2003-2005http://www.history.army.mil/html/books/enduring_voices/index.html

    SOME AFGHANISTAN READINGS (cont )

    http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/download/csipubs/EyewitnessToWar_Volhttp://www.history.army.mil/html/books/enduring_voices/index.htmlhttp://www.history.army.mil/html/books/enduring_voices/index.htmlhttp://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/download/csipubs/EyewitnessToWar_Vol
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    SOME AFGHANISTAN READINGS (cont.)

    --Loyn, David. In Afghanistan: Two Hundred Years of British, Russian, andAmerican Occupation

    --MacPherson, Malcolm. Roberts Ridge

    --Maley, William.The Afghanistan Wars--Matthews, Matt. An Ever Present Danger: A Concise History of British Military

    Operations on the North-West Frontier, 1849-1947http://www.cgsc.edu/carl/resources/csi/csi.asp#global (scroll down to it)

    --Matthews. We Have Not Learned How to Wage War There (Soviet experience)http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/download/csipubs/MatthewsOP36.pdf

    --Naylor, Sean. Not a Good Day to Die: The Untold Story of Operation Anaconda--Potter. American Advisors: Security Force Assistance Model in the Long War

    http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/download/csipubs/AmericanAdvisors.pdf

    --Rasheed, Ahmad. (Two books)Taliban, and Descent into Chaos--Roe, Andrew. Waging War in Waziristan: The British Struggle in the Land of bin

    Laden, 1849-1947--Rubin, Barnett.The Fragmentation of Afghanistan--Saikal, Amin. Modern Afghanistan: A History of Struggle and Survival--Tanner, Stephen. Afghanistan: A Military History from Alexander the Great to the

    Fall of the Taliban

    SOME AFGHANISTAN READINGS (cont )

    http://www.cgsc.edu/carl/resources/csi/csi.asphttp://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/download/csipubs/MatthewsOP36.pdfhttp://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/download/csipubs/AmericanAdvisors.pdfhttp://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/download/csipubs/AmericanAdvisors.pdfhttp://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/download/csipubs/MatthewsOP36.pdfhttp://www.cgsc.edu/carl/resources/csi/csi.asp
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    SOME AFGHANISTAN READINGS (cont.)

    --Tupper, Benjamin. Greetings From Afghanistan, Send More Ammo--US Army Combat Studies Institute. Wanat: Combat Action in Afghanistan, 2008

    http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/csi/csipubs.asp (and then scroll down), or

    http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/download/csipubs/Wanat.pdf--West, Bing. The Wrong War: Grit, Strategy, and the Way Out of Afghanistan--Woodward, Bob. Obamas Wars--Wright, Donald, et al. A Different Kind of War: The US Army in Operation

    Enduring Freedom, October 2001-September 2005http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/csi/docs/DifferentKindofWar.pdf

    --Wright, Donald, ed. Vanguard of Valor: Small-Unit Actions in Afghanistanhttp://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/download/csipubs/VanguardOfValor.pd

    http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/csi/csipubs.asphttp://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/download/csipubs/Wanat.pdfhttp://usacac.army.mil/cac2/csi/docs/DifferentKindofWar.pdfhttp://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/download/csipubs/VanguardOfValor.pdfhttp://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/download/csipubs/VanguardOfValor.pdfhttp://usacac.army.mil/cac2/csi/docs/DifferentKindofWar.pdfhttp://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/download/csipubs/Wanat.pdfhttp://usacac.army.mil/cac2/csi/csipubs.asp
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    OH BY THE WAY, OTHER SOURCES

    --Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) website and its on-line library

    http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/call/archives.asp

    --US Army Center for Military History (CMH) on-line publications

    http://www.history.army.mil/bookshelves.html

    --US Army Combat Studies Institute (CSI) Press on-line publications

    http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/csi/csipubs.asp

    --US Army History and Education Center (AHEC; formerly Military History

    Institute) holdings

    http://www.ahco.army.mil/site/index.jsp

    GUERILLA WARFARE

    http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/call/archives.asphttp://www.history.army.mil/bookshelves.htmlhttp://usacac.army.mil/cac2/csi/csipubs.asphttp://www.ahco.army.mil/site/index.jsphttp://www.ahco.army.mil/site/index.jsphttp://usacac.army.mil/cac2/csi/csipubs.asphttp://www.history.army.mil/bookshelves.htmlhttp://usacac.army.mil/cac2/call/archives.asp
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    GUERILLA WARFARE

    TLO: Analyze selected guerilla war campaigns and battles.

    ELO: Define guerilla warfareELO: Identify the main currents of guerilla warfare history.

    ELO: Recognize noteworthy guerilla warfare campaigns of the pre-

    modern era

    ELO: Recognize noteworthy guerilla warfare campaigns and

    analyze selected guerilla warfare-related battles of themodern era, 1700s up to ~1900

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    BLACK MINGO SWAMP

    Swamp near Black River

    14 September, 1780

    Marions raid against isolated British

    Loyalist (Tory) outpost

    Patriot militia leaderFrancis Marion

    v. Tory leader John Ball

    ~1,500 Patriot militia

    v. ~800 Tory militia

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    BLACK MINGO SWAMP

    Preliminaries

    --Aggravated locals support Marions rapid, mounted move

    --Night, multi-axis attack

    --Too much noise crossing a bridge

    --Tories alerted; Marion presses the attack.

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    BLACK MINGO SWAMP

    Battle Summary

    14 September 1780

    --Dismounted frontal attack fails against intense Tory fire.

    --Dismounted right-flank attack falters, then rallies.

    --Left-flank mounted attack delivered with vigor.

    --Tories panic and run.

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