GREEN MERIT - AG Web S .MLR 1b “Photography Tips ... Merit Lesson Resource Teaching This Merit

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  • GREEN MERITPHOTOGRAPHY

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    Version 06/2010

  • In This MeritMerit Answer GuideLessons 15Extra Lesson (covers Requirement 6)MLR* 1a Camera PartsMLR 1b Photography TipsMLR 3 Principles of Film ExposureMLR 4 Proper Exposure Exercise*MLR: Merit Lesson Resource

    Teaching This MeritLesson 1 covers Requirements 1 and 2 and part

    of 5.Lesson 2 covers Requirement 3 and part of 5.Lesson 3 covers Requirement 4 and part of 5.Lesson 4 covers part of Requirement 5.Lesson 5 covers part of Requirement 5.Extra Lesson covers Requirement 6.

    Resources

    BooksThere are many great photography books

    available. A good one for general instruction isthe now out-of-print Life Library of Photographyby Time-Life Books. It can be found at usedbookstores, thrift stores, at Internet auction sites,and garage sales.

    HP Photography Books (How to Improve YourPhotography, How to Take Great Pictures WithYour SLR, etc.)The Joy of Photography and More Joy of

    PhotographyThe Kodak Library of Creative Photography (a

    multivolume set)Various handbooks by John Hedgecoe

    InternetBetter PhotoFodors PhotographyKodakPhotography Tips

    Merit Overview

    Photography

    1

  • PHOTOGRAPHY MERIT ANSWER GUIDE

    Merit Answer Guide1. List and identify at least ten parts of an SLR camera.Verify the boys answers in his workbook with MLR 1a Camera Parts.

    1. Pentaprism

    8. Eyepiece

    7. Camera Body

    6. Focus Ring

    5. Lens

    4. Filter Threads

    3. Lens Barrel

    2. Aperture RingSLR DiagramA Outer View

    SLR DiagramB Viewing 2. Lens Assembly

    1. Pentaprism

    8. Eyepiece

    10. Ground Glass

    11. Film

    12. Shutter Curtain(closed)9. Mirror

    13. Lens elements

    SLR DiagramC Exposure

    2. Lens Assembly

    1. Pentaprism

    8. Eyepiece

    10. Ground Glass

    11. Film

    12. Shutter Curtain(open)

    13. Lens elements

    9. Mirror

    2

  • PHOTOGRAPHY MERIT ANSWER GUIDE

    2. Define the following terms:a. Camera body: The box that holds the film in position.b. Lens: The most important part of the camera. The lens focuses the light from the object(s)being photographed onto the film. The total structure is called the lens assembly and consistsof the lens barrel and the lens elements (actual glass lenses).

    c. Aperture: Usually found on the back of the lens. It is a diaphragm or a set of thin metal bladesused to limit the amount of light falling on the film.

    d. Shutter: Most modern single-lens reflex cameras have a fabric shutter called a focal planeshutter or shutter curtain. Other types of shutters are sometimes found in back of the lens, andin the cheapest cameras take the place of the aperture as well.

    e. Viewfinder: The part of the camera that the photographer looks through to aim the camera. Itcan be as simple as a hole through the camera body with only a thin sheet of plastic over eachend of the hole, to a complex viewfinder as found on an SLR.

    f. Light meter: Some cameras are set up for only general exposures and as such have no con-trols over exposure (aperture and shutter settings). Better cameras have controls for how muchlight is allowed to hit the film. Knowing how much light is needed is the job of the light meter.

    g. SLR camera: Single-lens reflex camera.h. Mirror: A mirror that flips between two positions: down and up. When down, the mirror directslight from the lens onto the ground glass. When it is up, it allows light to reach the shutter cur-tain. When the shutter curtain opens, the light hits the film.

    3. Describe and demonstrate the steps in taking a successful photograph.a. Identify the subject. This is perhaps the most difficult and important part of taking a picture.A good photograph either tells a story or shows a single point. (More on this in later lessons.)

    b. Aim the camera and compose the picture in the viewfinder.c. Set the exposure settings if necessary.d. Advance the film lever or dial.e. Focus the lens if necessary.f. Wait for the right moment and trip the shutter.Verify that the boy can demonstrate the proper steps in taking a successful photograph.

    4. Explain the concept of proper exposure of film, relating film speed, aperture, and shutter speed. Film Types: Black and white or color. Print or slide. Daylight or incandescent-balanced, litho-graphic, infrared, etc. Film Sizes: APS (Advanced Photo System), 110, 35 mm, 120, 240, 6x7, etc. Film Lengths: 12 exposure, 24 exposure, 36 exposure, etc. Film Speed: 25 ASA, 100 ASA, 200 ASA, 400 ASA, 800 ASA, etc. Exposure: Film is a material that is very sensitive to light. Too much light and the details of apicture are washed away. Too little light and the details of a picture are lost in shadow. Onlythe right amount of light will allow the film to capture an image that shows the light and darkelements of a scene. How much is just right and how do you obtain just this amount whentaking a picture? First, know the sensitivity level of the film being used. Second, know how much light is avail-able from the scene to be photographed. Third, know how to set the camera so that just enoughof this light is allowed to reach the film. Aperture: The aperture of a camera lens is the opening through which light passes. The size ofthis opening is adjustable and is measured in f-stops. This value is actually the denominatorof a fraction relating the size of the apertures. Therefore, as the f-stop number increases, theaperture and thus the amount of light transmitted by the lens decreases. The f-stops or aperturesettings of a lens usually have values like f-1, f-1.4, f-2, f-2.8, f-4, f-5.6, f-8, f-11, f-16, f-22, f-32, f-45, and f-64. Each value allows one-half as much light through as the value before it. For 3

  • PHOTOGRAPHY MERIT ANSWER GUIDE

    example, f-2.8 admits only half as much light as f-2, but twice as much light as f-4. From thisset of values come the phrases stopping down, and so many stops of light. A lens that iscapable of admitting more light than another lens is said to be faster. That is, a set exposurecan be made faster with that lens at maximum aperture since it can admit more light. Generally,the faster the lens, the bigger in diameter and the more expensive it is. Other things being equal,the price of a lens increases quickly as it gets faster, or has larger maximum apertures. Shutter Speed: This value indicates the time of exposure in seconds or fractions of a second.Common speeds are indicated by the numbers 1,000, 500, 250, 125, 60, 30, 15, 8, 4, 2, 1, andthe letter B. The numerical values are denominators, indicating the fraction of a second shut-ter duration. Thus, 1,000 means the shutter is open for 1/1,000th of a second, 60 means theshutter is open for 1/60th of a second, and so on. The B stands for the word bulb. A shutter seton B, is held open as long as the shutter button is depressed. The relationship between shuttersettings is easier to see than that between aperture settings. One five-hundredths of a second,or a shutter setting of 500 admits light for twice as long as an aperture setting of 1/1,000th, butonly half as long as a shutter setting of 250 or 1/250th of a second. Now for the odd part: a dou-bling of light is called a stop for f-stop. So, a stop of light (or a doubling) separateseach of the shutter settings indicated above. The f stands for focal point. Exposure: A film of a given speed (ASA) requires a certain amount of light for an optimum expo-sure. If the shutter determines how long the light is admitted and the aperture determines therate at which light is admitted, one must control both for a proper exposure. The amount of lightavailable determines the settings of these values for obtaining a proper exposure. Film boxesgive charts for telling a photographer what settings to start with on sunny or cloudy days.Modern cameras have built-in light meters. Most let the user set either the aperture or the shut-ter speed after dialing in the film speed. The cameras light meter then indicates the correctvalue for the other setting. If for a given film speed the recommendation by the table on the filmbox or the light meter is for an aperture of f-8 and a shutter speed of 250 in a certain light, thephotographer can use this set of values to expose the film. If he wants to capture fast action, hemay choose to increase the shutter speed by two stops to 1,000 for an exposure of 1/1000th ofa second. To get the same exposure, he would then need to increase the aperture from f-8 by twostops to f-4.

    5. Take at least twenty-four photographs. Have the roll of film developed or obtain a printed copyof the digital images. Critique your results. Use any FOUR of the following types:a. Snapshotb. Portraitc. Still lifed. Landscapee. Cityscapef. Skyscapeg. Documentaryh. Creative photographyVerify the completion of this requirement.

    6. Learn and demonstrat