Get Attention - Introduction ... Get Attention - Introduction Establish the Need –The Arguments that

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  •  Get Attention - Introduction

     Establish the Need – The Arguments that

    change is needed

     Satisfy the Need – The Arguments about

    what the change should be

     Visualise the Future – How/Why the

    change will improve the situation

     Call for Action – What you want your

    audience/reader to do

  •  One way is to start with something shocking, startling or controversial. Even humour will work fine, depending on the topic.

    Examples:

     Surprising fact: Did you know that you can get your brain to work smarter by eating blueberries?

     Anecdote: I was driving home the other day, when I saw a tiny dog by the roadside. She was thin and emaciated and shivering. I instantly decided to find it a home. I pulled over and picked it up – and it turned out that the only home I ever want the dog to have is mine. That small dog has changed my life completely.

     Question: When was the last time you educated your employees on safety?

     Relevant to the topic: If your topic is genetically modified foods, you can say something like “Grocery stores are filled with genetically modified foods. The food you have eaten this morning may very well have been genetically modified.

  •  This is where the audience needs to be convinced that there is a problem. You should encourage the audience to feel a need or want – and that things need to change.

    This is accomplished through:  A definite statement of what the need or want/problem is.

     Give examples illustrating the problem. Paint verbal pictures to really get the audience to feel the problem.

     Back up with statistics, examples or testimonies.

     Explain the consequences of not changing and show the audience how this is directly related and important to them.

    Example:

     All across Britain, every school day, teenagers are going into their educational establishments armed with a knife. Parents, teachers and frightened pupils are crying out for action to deal with this problem.

  •  What are different groups arguing is the solution to the problem?

     The audience needs to be told, very directly and clearly, what it is that needs to be done.

     Explain the solution to the problem and how it will deal with the issue.

     Reveal evidence supporting the solution.

     Anticipate counter-arguments and respond by illustrating why the counter-argument should not be a concern.

    Example:

     Politicians are now arguing that a police presence within every school with a history of knife crime is needed. Statistics from the Home Office show that the visibility and speedy response provided by this measure cuts the number of serious incidents by around 75%. Although unpopular with some, this is undoubtedly the way forward.

  •  Present possible future scenarios:

    Positive: Show how much better the situation will be as a result of going with the solution offered.

    Negative: Make the audience understand how bad life would be as a result of not going with this solution.

    Flag up the Contrast

    Example: If the 75% reduction in serious knife crime was replicated across all of Britain’s schools then incidents such as the tragic stabbing of Ann Maguire would be a very rare news story rather than a depressingly inevitable escalation of the current state of schools in our society today.

  •  This is the final call for the audience to take the solution offered. Make it short, powerful and well worded.

    Example:

     The debate has been lost by those who cannot stomach the thought of police in schools, since sadly the figures speak for themselves. We need to immediately put in place these measures, a policeman in every ‘at risk’ school at the very least, and return to a society where disputes in schools between pupils are settled without the need for deadly weaponry.

  •  Having worked through the introductions tasks and having looked at examples you should have an idea what a good introduction should include.

     There is no right or wrong answer but you should hope to: › Make the topic relevant/current

    › Grab the attention with a shocking statement/fact/statistic

    › Explain briefly the topic

    › Establish who is on the two sides of the debate

    › What you are arguing for

     Your challenge is to take the ingredients and present it stylishly.

  •  This essay has been split up and jumbled up

     Put the pieces in the most appropriate order

     Be prepared to justify what you have included and the order

  • Where in the example essay can you spot these ingredients?

     Persuasive Language (WITS)

     Linking Words/Phrases

     Evidence

    › Statistics/Facts

    › Respected Opinions

    › Anecdotal Evidence

     Arguments

     Course of Action

     Counter Arguments

     Summary Statements

  •  There is no set way to lay out a

    paragraph but in each:

    › It should be clear what the argument is

    › There should be evidence to support the

    argument

     You might find the following possible

    structures helpful – your essay could end

    up being a mixture of these three

    possible frameworks

  •  State the argument

     Widen the reader/audience‟s

    understanding of the argument

     Evidence in support of the argument

     Evaluate the argument/Explore the

    counter-argument

     Take it forward/Take it down

  • The „Better Together‟ campaign argue that if Scotland becomes an independent country we will not be able to afford to maintain the same level of public spending without raising taxes. This would mean that either Scotland would be forced to make cuts to services such as Health, Education and Welfare or they would need to raise taxes. They cite the fact that a report by the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) believe Scotland would face an immediate “fiscal gap” where what the National Income is would fall short of what Scotland needs to spend to maintain the current level of public services. This is a very convincing argument, the very fact the report is by an independent body is significant and lands a telling blow on Salmond‟s faltering campaign for independence. „Better Together‟ should make crystal clear to the voters that by voting „Yes‟ they need to prepared to accept further cuts in public spending or submit to paying higher taxes.

  • The „Better Together‟ campaign argue that if Scotland becomes an independent country we will not be able to afford to maintain the same level of public spending without raising taxes. This would mean that either Scotland would be forced to make cuts to services such as Health, Education and Welfare or they would need to raise taxes. They cite the fact that a report by the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) believe Scotland would face an immediate “fiscal gap” where what the National Income is would fall short of what Scotland needs to spend to maintain the current level of public services. The „Yes‟ campaign maintain that these figures don‟t take into account what will happen when the UK‟s overall debt is split up, as this will reduce Scotland‟s interest burden. But the flaw in this argument is that these figures are based solely on what Scotland spends and what it earns, the legacy debt is not relevant. Scotland simply doesn‟t produce enough revenue to continue to offer the same level of public services that they can as part of a strong UK economy.

  •  State the argument

     Widen the reader/audience‟s

    understanding of the argument

     Evidence in support of the argument

     Action the audience needs to take

     The future if they do

  • The „Better Together‟ campaign argue that if Scotland becomes an independent country we will not be able to afford to maintain the same level of public spending without raising taxes. This would mean that either Scotland would be forced to make cuts to services such as Health, Education and Welfare or they would need to raise taxes. They cite the fact that a report by the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) believe Scotland would face an immediate “fiscal gap” where what the National Income is would fall short of what Scotland needs to spend to maintain the current level of public services. Every man, woman, and child (they‟re letting sixteen year olds vote in the referendum) must now, unless they wish to see the public services in Scotland wither and die or they wish to see the economy crippled by high taxes, make it their mission to convince every „Yes‟ or „Undecided‟ voter that they must vote „No‟. Only then can we look forward to the economic prosperity that a strong UK government, growing UK economy and united UK people can provide.

  •  You can use this to explore an argument

    that you don‟t agree with but which you

    feel needs to be addressed and dismissed

     State the argument

     Widen the reader/audience‟s

    understanding of the argument

     Evidence in support of the argument

     Evaluate the evidence/argument

     Push it away