Gender Mainstreaming-Trainer's Manual

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    Half-Day Interactive Discussion on


    (Different from WomenMainstreaming)



    behind the


    What is gender?

    Matters?Reflect for

    a Moment !

    August 2005


    Discussion on


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    CONTENTSSession 0 Inaugural

    Session Plan 02

    Presentations 05


    1. About Gender Support Programme (GSP) 072. Capacity Development through Gender Mainstreaming Project 083. About Gender Support Programme (GSP) 09

    Session 1 Introduction

    Session Plan 11

    Presentations 14


    4. Overall Discussion Objectives 155. Discussion Agenda 16

    Session 2 Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

    Session Plan 18

    Presentations 24


    6. A Wake-up Call 267. GoP Commitments to Women Development 278. From Medium Term Development Framework 289. Case Study 2910. Examples of Gender Blind Development 3211. Gender Roles and Gender Issues 3312. Gender Equality - The Goal 3613. Gender Mainstreaming as a Strategy towards Gender Equality 37

    Session 3 Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes and Projects

    Session Plan 39 Presentations 44


    14. Gender Mainstreaming in Policies, Programmes and Projects 4715. The Story behind the Numbers 4816. Information is Empowerment 4917. What is Gender Mainstreaming? 5018. Why Gender Mainstreaming is Important? 51

    Session 4 Taking Forward the Gender Agenda

    Session Plan 53

    Presentations 55


    19. Gender Mainstreaming What does it Need 5620. Internal Commitment from Senior Most Leadership 5721. Support from Experts 5822. Strengthening Process by Mainstreaming Gender in Policies,

    Programmes and Projects 59

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    Separate Inserts

    FLY 82

    Count the Fs 83

    How do you explain this? 84

    Feed Back Form 85

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    A Note for the Trainers

    The scope and implementation mechanism of the Gender Mainstreaming Project wasconceptualized and designed through consultation extensive between Planning &Development, donors, Public Sector stakeholders and the civil society. The project isfinancially supported by the governments of Norway and Canada, and technically mentoredby UNDP.

    This Project resides in the Planning and Development Division at the Federal level, and theP&D Departments of the four provinces, AJK and FANA. The Project goal is to build thecapacity of the government officials to mainstream gender in the formulation,implementation, monitoring and evaluation of government policies, plans, programmes andprojects in all areas of development.

    The project has been developed in line with the Governments broader policy initiatives asoutlined in the recently conceived Medium term Development frame Work 2005 -2010, andthe Gender Reform Action Plan (GRAP). A high priority of the Project is to raise theawareness of senior officials and policy makers of the government with regard to gendermainstreaming. It will also build the capacity of professional civil servants, legislators,managers and data managers so that they are able to effectively assist the Government intranslating MTDF goals, specifically the Social Sector Goals into reality. This contribution byP&DDD is critical, given: (i) the continued definition and perceptions of women issues as asectoral concern, rather than realizing that women comprises 48% of the total populationand as such their concern cut across all sectors of national development in all areas ofnational life (ii) the continued absence of gender responsive budgeting and planning in eachMinistry, Division and Department. (iii) the continued absence of social protection institutionsand mechanisms to counter the increasing feminization of poverty. iv) the continued lack ofgender disaggregated operational research and data for planning, programming andresource allocation purposes, which are again critical to achieving progress in meetingMTDF targets and MDGs. v) the continued absence of an enabling legislative frame work,resulting in the continued structural inequalities and discrimination.

    Through its five objectives, the Project addresses diverse, but inter-linked information, skillsand capacity requirements of not just the public sector, but also civil society and legislators.It is these collaborative and synergetic channels between the stakeholders that cometogether to make the Gender Mainstreaming Project unique in its scope and approach.

    This S1 module titled Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming is targeted at thesenior most Government Officials. It will be imparted over 3 to 3.5 hours. The overall trainingobjectives of this half day module are:

    To clarify concepts of gender and establish its relevance for equitable andsustainable development;

    T id li k i h i l h d h ld b i d

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    Session #/Title/Objectives Overview0 Inauguration

    Provide an overview of the GenderMainstreaming in P&DDD Project;

    Establish the significance of this half dayinteractive discussion session.

    This is an important session for informingrelevant stakeholders about GenderMainstreaming Project, and orienting themabout the significance of this initiative.

    1 Introduction

    Provide an opportunity for the participants

    and facilitators/organizers to becomeknown to each other;

    Inform the participants of the objectivesand agenda of the Discussion Session.

    This session is absolutely critical forcreating a harmonious environment that

    allows for effective debate and discussion.

    2 Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

    Provide an opportunity for the participantsand facilitators/organizers to becomeknown to each other;

    Reiterate the key concepts of gender, whyand how gender issues arise, and howgender equality can be attained;

    Provide a rationale for why gender shouldbe mainstreamed in policy, programs andprojects.

    This session builds the rationale for gendermainstreaming, as well as the GenderMainstreaming Project. It is a participatorysession, based on local case studies. This

    session will demand excellent facilitationskills on the part of the trainer who mustmanage the discussion and debate.

    3 Mainstreaming Gender in Policies,Programs & Projects

    Highlight the difference between sex-disaggregated data, gender disaggregateddata and gender analysis, and how criticalit is to obtain the story behind the numbersfor developing effective policies, programsor projects;

    Emphasize the need to incorporate gendersensitivity at each stage of the policy,program and project cycle.

    The session aims to provide rationale forwhy gender should be mainstreamed in the

    formulation, implementation, monitoring andevaluation of government policies, plans,programme and project in all areas ofdevelopment.

    4 Taking Forward the Gender Agenda

    Specify some initial but critical stepstowards mainstreaming gender in policy,programs and project;

    Elaborate steps that will lead towards amore gender responsive

    This session provides some practical ideasfor steps that can be taken by the seniormost officials in each Ministry/Department.

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    The Trainers Manual is in your hands - along with the Trainees Handbook. The materials inthe manual are provided in the form of session plans. The contents of each session plan areas follows:

    1 Objectives Specific objectives of each session are provided at the outset.2 Duration The time required for each session is specified here. The trainer

    should make sure that he/she remains within this time. That willrequire adjustment in terms of discussions, examples quoted,etc.

    3 Methodology This part describes the methodologies that are implied toachieve the objectives of the session. The methodologiessuggested in the module include case studies, case examples,exercises, introspection, presentation, and plenary discussions.

    4 Materials Requirements in terms of special stationary and/or equipmentsare mentioned under this heading. All Handouts and Slideshave been numbered for easy reference.

    5 Steps This section contains detailed step-wise instructions forconducting a session.

    The success of this initiative depends upon the ability of trainers to make the most of thepotential that lies in this module. It is therefore, highly recommended that this manual bedelivered by qualified and credible gender trainers.

    It is imperative that the trainer prepare adequately, both in terms of logistics and the delivery.The attached checklist will assist preparation with regard to logistics (the trainer may workwith the organizers to ensure effective logistics). With regard to preparation for delivery, thetrainer should use the lesson plan, and relate the steps with each Handout and ReferenceMaterial given in the Manual. The trainer must also be absolutely in the know with regard tothe latest gender statistics and any new development in the country in this regard. Thetrainer should also know the reference numbers of all Handouts and Reference Materialgiven in the Participant Handbook so that he/she can comfortably guide the participantsduring the Session.

    An essential periphery of this manual is the CD containing the power-point slides, theposters, and the soft copy of the Handbook and the Manual. It may happen that somematerial may have to be adapted, changed, and updated in a certain PMU. Access to the CDwill facilitate this process.

    Within a week of this training, the trainer will be required to compile a workshop report. Atable of contents for such a report is suggested. An important component of that report is thetrainees profile. The sample registration form attached with this note has been prepared tofacilitate this component.

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    Checklist for Training ArrangementsTraining team

    Facilitator: has overall responsibility for the successful facilitation of this DiscussionSession.

    Secretariat/Administrative Assistant: takes care of administrative issues before thetraining (venue arrangements, stationary ordering, copying/ compiling of materials etc.),manages the secretariat during the training, & handles post-training tasks (collating theevaluation forms, etc.)

    Venue Light, spacious training space: a hall large enough for 25-30 participants, with good

    natural light, comfortable seating, and enough space up-front for arrangement of themulti-media, a white board and a flip chart stand.

    Refreshments: running tea/ coffee so that Discussion Participants can help themselves

    Confirm booking of venue in writing as early as possible & reconfirm all workshoparrangements with the venue shortly beforehand

    Facilitation aidsArrange for:

    Multi-media/Over-head projector & screen

    Flip-chart board/sCheck that all of these are operational at least half hour before start of the session

    Participants Formal invitation letter: this should explain the purpose of the training & outline

    administrative issues venue, timing, etc. It should be sent out as early as possible,since the senior most Government officials require adequate notice

    Participants confirmation: include on the letter a confirmation slip for participants toreturn to you (this could simply state: I confirm I will be attending the training on [date],with name, organization & full contact details)

    Background material: once participants have confirmed, send them a copy of theagenda with information on the venue & timing, along with the GMP brochure and asynopsis of the training (as given in this note)

    Registration: even though the participants may not formally register, it should beascertained that their cards and contact details are taken so that the participant list iscomplete for insertion in the end of activity report

    Stationary bold black markers (90 cut corner)

    flip charts spiral-bound notebooks 25 (i.e., some spare)

    ball points 25

    flipchart paper 1 pad

    2 inch x 2 inch cards (blue and green) 20 each

    Facilitators & participants packages

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    Sample Registration Form





    Tel / Fax


    Trainers Report - List of Contents

    1. Introduction & Rationale for the Activity

    2. Overall structure of the Activity (timing, inauguration, Discussion Session)

    3. Participants Profile

    4. Details of Roll-out

    5. Analysis of Participants Evaluation Forms6. Observations in terms of

    a. Highlights of the day

    b. Low points of the day

    7. Learning for PMU

    8. Recommendations for Follow-up

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    Session-0: Inaugural


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    Session-0: Inaugural



    This session will:

    Provide an overview of the Gender

    Mainstreaming in P&DDD Project; Establish the significance of this half day

    interactive discussion session.

    Duration: 30 minutes

    Methodology:Recitation, Formal Welcome Speech, Key NoteAddress


    Posters on: Gender Mainstreaming Project &

    Information is EmpowermentBanners, one for inside the training room, and the

    other for outside (in the lobby or at the entrance ofthe training center)

    Name cards for Participants/Organizers/Facilitators

    Folders for the ParticipantsProminent Desk cards with participants Name,

    Designation and Ministry/DepartmentMultimedia Projector/ComputerWhite Board/Markers/Flip Chart Paper/VIPP CardsTea and Coffee available throughout the DayBrochure on GSP and GSM for all invitees

    Slides Handouts01. Overall Title Slide02. GMP Project Overview03. GMP Project Goals04. GMP Project Objectives

    01. About Gender Mainstreaming Project(GMP)

    02. Capacity Development through GenderMainstreaming Project

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    Session-0: Inaugural



    Steps Reference


    1. If possible, organize the inaugural event so that a largenumber of people can be invited, including the secretaries(target audience for this training), heads of linedepartments, DCOs, EDOs, and heads of projects. Thiswill be strategic for various reasons: it will effectivelylaunch the Gender Mainstreaming Project, ensuring that

    representatives from various departments are oriented tothe Project; it will also encourage people to attend theevent when they know that others are also doing so.

    2. An effective key note address can encourage people tolook more sympathetically at an issue. It is suggested thatall Project Management Units (PMUs) consider inviting aKey Note Speaker, a woman who has a significant profilein the field of gender, and who commands respect andregard, especially from the bureaucracy.

    3. It is also advisable to invite the media to cover theinauguration, and if possible, the Discussion Session aswell.

    4. On the day of the event, the organizers should considerarriving at the venue at least 2 hours before the officialstart time, and:

    set-up the training hall, including the desk tags forthe participants, the multimedia, checking out thepresentation, putting up the banners and theposters, ensuring the white boards, flip charts,markers and tape are all available, arranging theparticipants folders, and the separate handouts;

    set up the venue where the inauguration will takeplace, ensuring that the registration desk is

    equipped with brochures, and that properarrangements have been made for the participantsnames and contacts to be registered;

    ensure that all arrangements have been made forthe video and photography;

    brief the media professionals and ensure that they


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    Session-0: Inaugural


    Steps ReferenceHandout

    02 GMPProject


    03 GMPProject Goals

    04 GMPProject


    05 Capacity

    Developmentthrough GMP

    06 Projects

    supported byGSP

    07 Overview

    of GSPStrategy

    suggested sequence of activities are as follows:

    Recitation from the Holy Quran

    An overview of the Gender Mainstreaming Projectand the Gender Support Programme (by theProject Director using the prepared slides tointroduce GSP and GMP)

    Address by the Chief Guest (preferably the ChiefSecretary/Chairman P&D). The speech wouldreiterate the Provincial Governments commitmentto gender equality.

    Address by the Key Note Speaker

    Address by the donor representative (optional)

    6. Ensure that the set up is ready for the Discussion

    Session. Inform the Discussion Participants of the precisetime that the Session will commence, and ensure that theDiscussion Session begins on time.

    7. As the Discussion Participants arrive, provide each onewith the folder and the name cards, and direct them totheir seats (where the desk card will already have beenplaced).

    About GSPAbout GMP

    CD thru GMP

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    Session-0: Inaugural

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    Session-0: Inaugural

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    Session-0: Inaugural




    To address the imperatives under the institutional strengthening component, athree year Gender Mainstreaming Project has been initiated. The project is beingsupported by the governments of Norway and Canada.

    This Project resides in the Planning and Development Division at the Federallevel, and the P&D Departments of the four provinces, AJK and FANA. TheProject goal is to:

    Build the capacity of the government officials to mainstream gender in the


    of government policies, plans, programme and project in all areas ofdevelopment.

    ObjectivesThe Project attempts to achieve its Goal through the following objectives:





    Gender sensitization of senior and mid-levelplanning and development (P&D) officials at thefederal, provincial and district levels.

    Developing capacity for gender analysis, planning,monitoring and evaluation.

    Establishing gender disaggregated databases usinginformation and communication technology skillsand competencies.

    Establishing knowledge based networking e-

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    Session-0: Inaugural




    A high priority of the Project is to raise the awareness of senior officials andpolicy makers of the government. The training comprises of four categories, eachwith defined target group as follows:

    senior government professional civil servants working in the top tiers of government legislators managers and data managers

    The S1 & S2 category of training, of which this Session is a part, will be short,sharp sensitization exercises, the purpose of which will be to make the public

    servants more aware of the issues, recognizing that they will not be exercisinggender analysis skills, but will be looking at and examining the results of theexercise of such skills. The S1 & S2 category of training will cover senior officersof all three tiers of government, i.e., federal, provincial and districts.

    Type Type of Training Duration Target Group

    S1 Gender Sensitization day Senior Government Managers

    S2 Gender Sensitization 1 day Professional Civil Servants

    S3 Advocacy/Sensitization 1 day Legislators

    S4 Sensitization 1 day Data Managers

    T1 Gender Analysis 2 days Senior Mid-level advisory staff

    T2 Gender Analysis 2 weeks Officers dealing with basic levelproject proposal/programme

    C1 Computer Skills 4 days Senior-mid level supervisorystaff

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    Session-0: Inaugural



    A SynopsisThe Gender Support Programme (GSP) provides a strategic framework establishinglinkages between governance, poverty reduction and gender equality throughimplementation and monitoring of national priorities in the areas of political participation,economic empowerment, establishing social environment and institutional strengthening.An overview of GSP with regard to projects and thematic scope is as follows:

    Economic EmpowermentWomens Access to Capital and

    ( C )

    Enabling Social EnvironmentGender Justice through MusahilatAnjuman (MA). Interventions build capacity of MA members,enhance public engagement,

    promote womens awareness oftheir rights, and utilize services of

    the MA.

    Political ParticipationWomens Political School, MoWD

    (mega intervention to make women

    Institutional Strengtheningof NCSW (Gender Responsive

    Budgeting, MoF GenderMainstreaming in the Planning

    Process, P&DD Achieving National &Intl Commitments on Gender &

    Poverty Issues, MoWD



    in PDDD





    through gender


    governance and a

    rights-based approach to









    of the NC on

    the Status

    of Women



    GenderJustice thru



    Working Towards

    Achieving the Nationaland International

    commitments onGender and Poverty





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    Session-1: Introduction


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    Session-1: Introduction


    ObjectivesThis session will:

    Provide an opportunity for the participants and

    facilitators/organizers to become known to eachother;

    Inform the participants of the objectives andagenda of the Discussion Session.

    Duration 20 minutes

    Methodology Presentation; Plenary Discussion


    Multimedia projector and screenWhite board and flip chart papersMarkers

    Slides Handouts08. Title Slide Session 109. Introduction10. Discussions Session Objectives11. Discussion Session Agenda

    04. Discussion Session Objectives05. Discussion Session Agenda

    Separate Handouts:

    FLY Exercise

    S i 1 I d i

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    Session-1: Introduction


    Steps ReferenceHandout


    Title Slide


    1. Tell the participants that it is a pleasure to welcome them tothis workshop on Gender Mainstreaming. Highlight that the factthat they have taken time out of their very busy schedules to behere reflects their recognition of how critical this issue is todevelopment.

    2. Initiate a quick round of introductions, requesting names and

    the Ministry/Department that the participant represents. In yourown introduction, highlight your number of years of experience,specific projects undertaken with the Federal/ProvincialGovernments, and international experience, if any.

    Icebreaker:3. Pass out the FLY Handout, asking participants to keep it face

    down till everyone receives it. Ask the participants to then turnover the piece of paper, and read it. Request participants that

    should someone be able to read it, they should NOT say it outloud, just raise their hand.

    4. It is quite likely that most participants will be unable to read theword. Ask those who are able to read it to say it out loud. Thenthrough one-on-one interactions, ensure that everyone is ableto read the word FLY.

    5. Ask participants why most people could not read the word?

    Receive their comments, and conclude by emphasizing thatour perceptions are influenced by our beliefs and assumptions.The black blocks are more prominent (just as men are in oursociety)! Also, since a very young age, we are trained to readblack on white, and not vice versa. Hence when we need tosee the reverse in order to meet an objective, it becomesdifficult and our beliefs and assumptions become a block.

    6. Tell the participants that when we talk about gender

    mainstreaming, we will see that our beliefs and assumptionsplay a critical role in how we plan and implement developmentinitiatives.

    Workshop Objectives & Agenda:7. Share the Discussion Session Objectives with the participants.

    R f t th fi t bj ti d h i th t it i iti l t

    S i 1 I t d ti

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    Session-1: Introduction


    Steps ReferenceHandout



    8. Emphasize that one of the first steps towards gendermainstreaming is to commit to doing it. The ways and meanscan always be found. Re-emphasize that this is a short sessiontherefore it will not be possible to discuss details on the specificways and means for integrating gender. However, someguidelines will be provided as to how, as planners and policymakers, the participants can take the gender agenda forward.

    9. Flash the Discussion Session Agenda, quickly reiterating the

    following: In the first session we will look at why gender matters

    for your work as planners and policy makers; In the second session we will look review the concept of

    gender, look at some case studies and see whatmainstreaming requires;

    In the third session the focus will be on what concretesteps you can take to move this agenda forward.

    Norms10. Inform the participants that before focusing on the first

    objective, you would like to facilitate a quick brainstorming toevolve some norms for the time you will spend together.Remark that research shows that a group performs moreeffectively when members are clear regarding the dos anddonts of group interactions. Obtain responses from theparticipants, and list the same on a flip chart, ensuring that thefollowing norms are covered: be relevant in terms ofcomments and observations; given that the overall session isshort, be concise and brief; keep the mobile phone off;speak one at a time; raise handto provide input; etc.

    11. Direct participants attention to their Handbook, and explain itsorganization, highlighting that it constitutes three sections(Session 1, Session 2, and Session 3). Each section comprisesof: Power Point Slides, Handouts and Reference Material. Tellthe participants that all the material that is going to be

    presented to them is provided in the Handbook. For thepurposes of this workshop, you will let them know when theyneed to turn to it.



    Session 1: Introduction

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    Session-1: Introduction

    Session-1: Introduction

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    Session 1: Introduction



    To clarify concepts of gender and establish itsrelevance for equitable and sustainabledevelopment;

    To provide policy makers with a rationale as towhy gender should be mainstreamed inpolicies, programmes and projects;

    To share strategies for gendermainstreaming.

    Session-1: Introduction

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    Session # Duration Session Title

    Inauguration 30 MinRecitation from the Holy Quran, welcome andround of IntroductionStatement and remarks by Chief Guest

    1 20 Min Introduction

    2 40 Min Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

    3 45 MinMainstreaming Gender in Policies,Programmes & Projects

    4 25 Min Taking forward the gender agenda

    Closing 5 Min Vote of Thanks

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    Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

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    Notes ReferenceHandout


    Session Title


    Wake up Call

    1. Display the session title slide on the screen. Tell theparticipants that this session will focus the need to takegender into consideration when it comes to development.

    2. Highlight that: For over 58 years we have lived with some very shameful

    numbers; In the time that we will sit and talk here together 6 women

    will have died from preventable causes.

    While preparing for this session, ensure that the sources ofdata is well- known to you, and that you have referred to theGender-based Fact Sheet (in the reference material) andother current sources so as to be able to defend the presentedsituation of women in Pakistan. Using appropriate data,emphasize the following:

    Our maternal mortality rates have not improvedsignificantly. Whereas estimates range from 350 to 530, itis only now that a study is being undertaken to determinethe maternal mortality rate (300 in PIHS, 2001-2002 and600 in Mehboob ul Haq (2005) Human DevelopmentReport).

    The mortality rate of women is higher than that of men fornearly all the communicable diseases (PakistanDemographic Survey, 2001).

    The gender disparities in our social indicators arepronounced whether you look at the number of men andwomen dying from communicable diseases or infantmortality rates. We are also one of the few countries in theworld with more men in the population than women.

    Biologically, if men and women receive the requirednutrition and both have equal access to health care, Allahhas made it so that women outlive men. Where this trendis reversed, it is clear that something is going quite wrong!

    06.Wake up Call

    3. Ask participants what can justify our being at the bottom of thepile? Defend the point that this is not simply a question of

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    Notes ReferenceHandout


    Overview ofGoP


    gender inequality. While GEM (Gender EmpowermentMeasurement) measures gender inequality in key areas ofeconomic and political participation and decision-making.

    4. Tell the participants that our government recognizes that wehave to improve our social indicators for men and women. Italso recognizes that this will not happen unless we addressgender disparities. Give the example of a pregnant womanwho is malnourished tell the participants that you are surethey know that 35% of women in Pakistan suffer from anemia ask them who will suffer? Not just her. If a malnourishedwoman has a baby boy, he is likely to be malnourished aswell: he may live or not. If he lives, his mental and physicalcapacities will be affected.

    5. Reiterate that as a nation, Pakistan has made internationaland national commitments. We have promises to keep to thepeople of Pakistan. Using reference notes GoP Commitmentsto Women Development, prepare thoroughly, and referringparticipants to the relevant handouts, highlight the following:

    In the preface to the MTDF the President and PM haveboth stressed that nothing will change unless the needs ofthe marginal and vulnerable sections of the population areaddressed. There is a strong commitment to addressinggender gaps in the MTDF.

    The NPA (National Action Plan) a document that has beenprepared with intensive consultation, details the actionsthat need to be taken to mainstream gender and empowerwomen in twelve critical areas such as poverty healtheconomy, decision-making etc.

    The NPDEW is another comprehensive document inwhich the government has committed to mainstreaminggender in all sectors of national development.

    There are initiatives to implement these policies: GRAPSpropose reforms across all sectors focused on theexecutive arm of the government. DSP supports theimplementation of the GRAPs. GSP involves severalinitiatives including the current one: gender mainstreaming


    GoPCommitmentsto Women



    From MTDF

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    Notes ReferenceHandout

    16.Why Do theDisparitiesPersist?

    17.Case Studies

    was simply a resource constraint or corruption, it would haveaffected both genders equally.

    7. Explain that the reason for gender disparities is that the needsof women, because of their relative invisibility and lower statusin society, are much less known compared to those of men.Refer to the fly icebreaker. If there is time, use the Fexercise. If not, refer to the FLY exercise and emphasize thatjust like we have difficulty seeing the word in white because ofour beliefs and assumptions, similarly we have difficultiesseeing and addressing womens needs and priorities. Thereare also instances, though much fewer, when because of ourbeliefs and assumptions about what women do and what mendo, we fail to include men. If the F exercise has been used,process by asking participants what happened. Most will havemissed out the of, because it seems insignificant, small, andwe pronounce it ovvv rather than offff. Conclude that so ithas been with women. They are not spoken to, not heard, notseen. Almost invisible. And therefore often forgotten. But thedevelopment objectives, as highlighted in the MTDF, and asper our commitments to the MDGs, will not be achievedunless both women and men are equal participants andbeneficiaries to development.

    8. Tell the participants that the debate on the causes and effectof gender disparities can be taken forward more effectively ifwe look at two case studies (Income Generation Project forKalinger and the Pathankot Water Supply Schemes). Usingcolored cards (blue and green), divide the participants into twoequal groups (participants remain seated). Inform theparticipants that each group will be referred to a separatecase study. They should take 10 minutes to both read thecase study and discuss the questions given there with theperson sitting next to them.

    9. Ask the blue Group to turn to Case Study 1 (Income

    Generation Project for Kalinger) and the green Group to turnto Case Study 2 (Pathankot Water Supply Schemes). After 10minutes, ask the blue and green Groups to quickly scan theother case study, so that they may contribute to thediscussion. Give them 5 minutes.

    09.Activity: Case


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    Notes ReferenceHandout


    When waterflows it takesthe path of


    15. In conclusion, remind the participants that we have toremember that unless we make a special conscious effort tomainstream gender, it will not happen.

    16. Highlight further that if no special conscious effort is made,resources will continue to flow as they always have anddisparities will persist.

    17. Inform the participants that the Session on why gendermatters for policy makers has concluded. Tell participants thatthis would now be a good time to have a five minute stretchbreak.


    GenderMainstreamingas a Strategy


    Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

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    Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

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    Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

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    Of the worlds 1 billion poorest people, three fifths are women and girls

    Of the 960 million adults in the world who cannot read, two thirds are women

    Seventy percent of the 130 million children who are not enrolled in school aregirls

    Of the 960 million adults in the world who cannot read, two thirds are women

    70% of the 130 million children who are not enrolled in school are girls

    With notable exceptions such as Rwanda and the Nordic countries, womenare conspicuously absent from parliament, making up, on an average, only16 percent of parliamentarians worldwide

    Women everywhere typically earn less than men, they are concentrated inlow-paying jobs and because they earn less for the same work

    Although women provide about 70 percent of the unpaid time spent for caringfor family members, that contribution to the global economy remains invisible

    Half a million women die and at least 9 million more suffer serious injuries ordisabilities from preventable complications of pregnancy and childbirth

    Source: UNDP Gender Mainstreaming: What it means, How to do it A Resource Kit


    Comparison of Men and Women on Key Social Development Indicators

    Indicator Women MenGDP per capita US$ 776 US$ 1594Literacy rate 27 percent 51 percentGross primary enrolment 64 percent 80 percentCombined primary and secondary

    enrolment ratio

    25 percent 50 percent

    Maternal mortality 340 per 100,000 live births -Labour force participation 11.39 percent 69.1 percentEarned income shares 20 percent 80 percentTop administrative / managerial jobs 3 percent 97 percent

    S Thi t bl h b d f l i l di th Gl b l d S th

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    Policy Environment for Gender Mainstreaming

    International Commitments

    1. MDGs Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 2000)

    2. CEDAW in force on September 3, 1981. Pakistan ratified in 1996.

    National Commitments

    3. MTDF Mid Term Development Framework (2005-10)

    4. NPA by Ministry of Women and Development, September 1998.5. NPDEW by Ministry of Women and Development, 2002

    Major Initiatives

    6. GRAPs National and Provincial GRAPs (2004)

    7. Decentralization Support Program - TA2

    8. GSP - Gender Support Programme (2003-2008)

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    GenderEquality is

    anchored in

    the MTDF


    Reference Message from the President of Islamic Republicof Pakistan General Pervez Musharraf.. because of uneven distribution of its fruits across various

    sections of the population and provinces, and disregard ofequity, marginalized vast segments of the population. Thepoverty situation worsened and it is hardly surprising that theeconomic system supporting these injustices crumbled underits own weight.

    Ensuring equitable development of regions and ethnic groupsis one of the strategic objectives of our planning. We aregiving equal importance to the protection of the rights of every

    citizen, particularly those of children, youth, women andminorities. With the realization that economic growth andsocial stability must go hand in hand, we are striving toestablish a just and sustainable economic system for reducingpoverty and honoring our commitment to transfer the benefitsof economic development to the people of Pakistan.

    Reference Foreword by Shaukat Aziz, PrimeMinister of Pakistan

    Economic growth does not automatically translate into poverty reduction and equitable distribution among persons,genders, ethnicities and regions. Growth will be made pro- poor byresult-oriented investments in womenempowerment, education, health, water supply andsanitation, rural development, livestock, SMEs, speciallytargeted works programmes and an integrated socialprotection strategy for the poor and vulnerable.

    Reference - An Overview:Establish a just and sustainable economic system forreducing poverty and achieving MDGs.Protect the right to development of every citizenparticularly those of children, youth, women and minorities.

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    The water supply scheme for villagePathankot was being designed. Rehman haddeveloped an elaborate system of communityproject dialogues, where 24 dialogues wereorganized, 2 each with 12 mohalla groupsrepresenting the 12 mohallas in the village.Care was taken to ensure that there wasconsensus among the entire communityvillage on the route of the water supplyscheme.

    The separate mohalla dialogues helped towork out the mechanics of compensating,where required, those villagers whose landwas being used for laying down the pipes.The location for installing community tapswere also decided jointly by the projectstechnical team and the mohallarepresentatives. The women were informedby the male members of their families aboutthe water supply scheme. There was an air ofexcitement in the village households.

    Finally the water supply scheme wasinaugurated. About two dozen communitytaps were installed; in public places oftenalongside a mud path and away from anytrees. Essentially there were no washingpads where which women could use forhousehold washing. Those from the

    influential households bought rubber pipesconnected them to the community taps andensured uninterrupted water supply for theirhouses for at least half an hour daily. For therest of the women it was business as usual.They continued their old practice of walking

    Question:What happened? Did the schemesucceed? If not, why? What could havebeen done differently?

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    There was a traditionally functioning credit facility inKalinger. Every two or three months, the women producinglocal embroidery would ask the male members to bring therequired raw material. The male members would alwaysborrow money from the local shopkeeper, Hassan Mia.Hassan, who for years had been the main supplier ofmonthly household requirements sold monthly ration worthrupees 8,000-9,000 to every household. For Hassan, whohad no investment opportunity other than purchasing more

    goods for his shop, had decided that lending money at10% interest to those who were his clients, friends, andfellow villagers borrowers was a wise thing. Hassan hadestablished no payback period. However, generally hisborrowers who would borrow few hundred every threemonths, would return in within 2-3 months.

    Hassans borrowers were comfortable knowing that hewas an understanding and sympathetic lender who had

    demonstrated on many occasions that he wouldunderstand towards those who could not pay the loan backon time. In fact, Hassan would be willing to extendadditional loan even if the previous loan was stilloutstanding.

    Hassans credit facility was considered to be a blessing,particularly after the experience of five of twenty men whohad taken a loan from a World Bank Credit Project. When

    they could not return the loans on time, these five menwere blacklisted by the Project personnel. Their nameswere publicized in the local newspaper and the unioncouncil Chairman received a written complaint againstthem. These five safaid posh men had been humiliated.The village locals had vowed never to take credit from anyoutside source.

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    1. Rural farming women displaced by agriculture technology. Result Loss of income for females Lost opportunity to learn a new skill (assumption that women cannot

    deal with technology)

    2. Aga Khan Education Services (AKES) in the Northern Areas invested infemale schools because government schools for boys existed in the area.The result was because of better quality of teaching; the girls whograduated from those schools had a markedly high standard of educationcompared to boys. One of the undesirable outcomes was a difficulty infinding appropriate marriage proposals for these girls.

    3. A stone wall was built to protect a watershed area near a forest in India.This was an important water source for the people who lived in the nearby

    city. But the wall cut off the local community from their only source offuelwood, leaf litter and fodder. The army was sent to make sure thepeople kept out of the forest. Now the women who collect these forestproducts have to work secretly at night to elude the army guards so ittakes them seven hours instead of three or four to gather a load offuelwood.

    4. Sindhs education policy for rural areas requires that the land for theschools be contributed by the community. More often than not, those who

    are in a position to donate the land are relatively better off, and whose offsprings probably go to private schools. The land which is donated by themis generally is least valuable, and most often located far away from thevillage and therefore inaccessible and unsafe for young girls. Such schoolsconsequently have little impact on the increase in enrollment, and thereforefemale literacy rates, for obvious reasons.

    5. A rice research project in Punjab resulted in new varieties that were fastgrowing and early producers. Plant breeders did not explore other uses of

    the rice plant. The husbands were given the proceeds from the rice crop.Previously, women had made place mats and other crafts from the ricehusks and stalk. With the new varieties, this residue disregarded by theresearchers was no longer useful for crafts, resulting in less off-seasonincome for the women in the family. While the family may have had morerice and the husbands (or other male household head) may have had more

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    GENDER ROLES AND GENDER ISSUESGender refers to the economic, social and cultural attributes and opportunitiesassociated with being a man or a woman in a given society.

    They are about: what a man or woman can or cannot do what a man or woman can or cannot be social, economic and political relations between men and women

    who should do what who has control over decision-making, access to resources and benefits.

    Gender roles are created by societies, they are not biological and they vary from societyto society, from time to time, from place to place, and from age to age. For example:

    generation to generation: Think how different the day in the life ofyour grand-father or grand-mother would have been at your age and youwill appreciate how gender roles have changed!

    . time to time: Our own roles change as we grow from adaughter/son to an adult and a parent. The trap we often fall into whenplanning for development interventions is that we make assumptionsabout the context of development based on our own experience in adifferent context. These assumptions can result in terrible waste ofresources both for the agencies and the local community involved.

    . place to place: Tasks that are intimately related with men in oneplace are the tasks of a woman in another. For example, cutting trees inthe forest for firewood is generally man's work in Finland whereas inPakistan or Tanzania it would be women's work. Farmers in NorthAmerica are assumed to be men whereas most food production in Africais done by women. It is important to understand that these variations takeplace from one country to another, but also within a country from oneregion or a cultural group to another!

    Women and men play multiple roles in society, through which they participate in, andcontribute to, the four domains around which society is organized:

    Reproductive Activities (INSIDE):Recognized as Natural

    Productive Activities (OUTSIDE):Recognized as Work

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    Community Managing Activities(INSIDE/OUTSIDE): Recognized as


    Community Activities(Outside): Recognized as Work

    Roles:Activities in the public sphere of thecommunity, such as participating in afarmers or a womens group,attending religious meetings,organizing social events andservices, community improvement

    tasks, maintenance of scarceresources of collective consumption,i.e. water, fuel, attending to theelderly sick and disabled. It involvesvoluntary time and is important forcommunity organization anddevelopment.

    Roles:Activities at community level wheredecisions are made with regard toaccess to and control over humanand material resources. Wouldinvolve participation within theframework of national or local politics

    generally paid work directly orindirectly (financially rewarding)through STATUS or POWER.

    Once these roles are defined around the four domains, there is generally pressure onboth men and women to conform to these social expectations. This pressure is generallyexerted through the family, media, education, traditions and cultural norms.

    Gender roles change over time in response to many factors social, technological,economic, geographic, and legal. During this process of evolution, some values arereaffirmed, while others are challenged as no longer appropriate.

    Gender issues arise when gender stereotyping prevent men or women from enjoying

    their full potential and human rights! Gender issues emerge when gender roles result in:

    Invisibility of eithergender

    Women and mens multiple roles have to be recognized. If not, one ofthe gender will tend to become invisible or undervalued, e.g. the roles thatwomen play in the reproductive domain; or womens contribution to theproductive domain in terms of farming, management of livestock,mushroom farming, sericulture, etc. is not factored into interventions.Similarly, mens absence from the reproductive domain means that theylose out on care and close bonding; womens absence from the politicaldomain (before devolution) did not allow womens representation indecision making.

    Unequal burdensof work for either


    Men and women often have different needs and priorities due to theirdifferent status and roles in society. Therefore development interventionsaffect men and women differently. Men and women are interested in thoseinterventions that make their lives easier to manage. Unless the needs

    d i i i f b h d dd d h j d

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    Men and women are the agents of change and an integral part of every development

    strategy. The participation of both men and women is essential for effective and efficientdevelopment.

    It is only when gender equality interventions are holistic and focus on macro and microlevels, i.e. on policy, program and project that society will progress and develop as awhole and any meaningful change would become visible. Policy makers mustunderstand that interventions need to be designed so that they may address men andwomens practical needs and strategic interests, as follows:

    Practical Gender Needs (PGNs) Strategic Gender Needs (SGNs)

    Gender needs of women arising fromexisting gender roles

    Gender needs of women which changeexisting roles and status

    Are immediate, concrete and oftenessential for human survival such as forfood, water, shelter, fuel and health care,

    etc. Attention to practical needs canaddress immediate disadvantages andinequality, but can also reinforce thegender division of labour by helpingwomen and men perform their traditionalroles better. Addressing practical needsusually does not change traditionalgender roles and stereotypes.

    Are those needs, that when met, willactually challenge the traditional genderdivision of labor which has relegated

    women to subordination and vulnerableroles in society. Programs addressing thestrategic needs contribute to improvedgender equality. They are more long termand less visible (than practical needs).

    Examples of actions towards PGNs:

    Potable water Housing and household facilities Community health centers/drugstores Labor-saving devices Food processing/preservation

    technologies Pre and post natal care for mothers Day care centers Literacy and skills development Accessible and adequate market

    facilities Provision of credit facilities

    Examples of actions towards SGNs:

    Womens representation in politicalstructures and decision-makingbodies

    Policies/legislations against sexualharassment in the workplace

    Paternity leaves Removal of legal obstacles such as

    discrimination in access to land andcredit

    Training for women and men in non-traditional areas (carpentry forwomen, education for men)

    Men helping more equally with

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    Not equal numbers ..

    but equal recognition and


    Gender equality does not simply mean equalnumbers of men and women or boys and girlsparticipating in all activities. It means that men andwomen enjoy equal recognition and status withina society.

    Not to make them the

    same ..

    but to highlight and value

    similarities and differences

    It does not mean that men and women are thesame, but that their similarities and differences arerecognized and equally valued. It means thatwomen and men experience equal conditions forrealizing their full human potential, have theopportunity to participate, contribute to, and benefitequally from national, political, economic, social andcultural development.

    Not to provide equal

    inputs .

    but to ensure equal


    Most importantly, gender equality means equaloutcomes for men and women. Gender equality isboth a critical human rights issue and an essentialrequirement for equitable, efficient, effective andsustainable development.

    A stork and a bear are both hungry. Who gets to eateffectively depends upon whether the plate is

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    As defined by the United Nations, gender mainstreaming is:

    the process of assessing the implications forwomen and men of any planned action, includinglegislation, policies or programs, in all areas andat all levels. It is a strategy for making womens aswell as mens concerns and experiences an

    integral dimension of the design, implementation,monitoring and evaluation of policies and programs in all political, economic, and societalspheres so that women and men benefit equallyand inequality is not perpetuated.

    Source: The Economic and Social CouncilReport for 1997, United Nations, 1997

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    Session-3(Mainstreaming Gender in Polices,

    Programs & Projects)

    Session-3: Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programs & Projects

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    Session3Gender Mainstreaming in Policies, Programs & Projects

    ObjectivesThis session will:

    Highlight the difference between sex-disaggregated data, gender disaggregated dataand gender analysis, and how critical it is toobtain the story behind the numbers fordeveloping effective policies, programs orprojects;

    Emphasize the need to incorporate gendersensitivity at each stage of the policy, programand project cycle.

    Duration 45 minutes

    Methodology Case Study; Exercise; Presentation; PlenaryDiscussion

    Material/Equipment Multimedia projector and screen

    Slides Handouts23. Title Slide Session 324. How Can Policy Makers and Planners25. Understanding Gender Mainstreaming

    26. Gender Mainstreaming in Policies27. Gender Mainstreaming in 28. Situation Assessment and Analysis29. Story behind the Numbers (Title Slide)30. Case Study31. The question you did not ask32 Gender statistics were collected

    14. Gender Mainstreaming in Policies,Programmes and Projects

    15. The Story behind the Numbers16. Information is Empowerment17. What is Gender Mainstreaming18. Why Gender Mainstreaming is Important

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    Steps ReferenceHandout



    in policies


    mainstreamingin .28.

    Situationassessmentand analysis


    Story behindthe Numbers

    30.Case Study


    The questionyou did not ask


    GenderStatistics werecollected.

    5. Tell participants that it is critical to look briefly at the keyactions which need to be taken at each of the four stages ofthe project, program or policy making cycle. Read out thefour stages.

    6. Ask participants to focus on Stage 1, i.e. SituationAssessment. Ask what questions would need to be askedat this stage to ensure that both gender are adequately

    addressed? Highlight that the first question is: were genderdisaggregated data and gender analysis used in thebackground and justification of the policy, program orproject? Tell participants that through a case study youwould like to highlight the importance of this step.

    7. Introduce participants to the data collected in Vietnam overa period of 9 years (from 1990 to 1999). Point out that thisdata was disaggregated by sex. Ask participants what the

    data tells us? Participants should state that it clearly showsmore men than women have TB. At this stage, the trainershould go along with them. Ask participants what actionthey would take if they were Secretary Health in Vietnam.Allow participants a few minutes to give their suggestions.Then stop them and flash the next slide.

    8. Tell the participants that you would like to share whatactually happened. Tell them that a few people raised a

    pertinent question a question which was not asked whenthe sex disaggregated data was collected. Emphasize thatwhen gender disparity is found in numbers, we need to seewhat the story behind the numbers is. For that we needgender statistics, and more specific information on theissue. This then leads to gender analysis which tells us thecause of the difference and how to address it.

    9. Inform the participants that in the given case, it was

    eventually found that the quoted sex disaggregated datawere misleading. It was also discovered that women whowere suffering from TB were not being diagnosed for anumber of reasons. Depending upon time, select three tofour reasons to elaborate the point.

    14. Gender

    Mainstreaming inPolicies,

    Programmes andProjects

    15. The Story

    behind theNumbers

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    Steps ReferenceHandout






    Strategy andProject






    20. Emphasize that it is very important that objectives specifywhat the program, project or policy hopes to achieve forwomen and what it hopes to achieve for men, otherwise ifyou have only something like community in the objectives,that means you have not analyzed and addressed theneeds of men and women and will have little success inmeeting them.

    21. Remind participants that as they have seen through various

    case studies, working with women require a consciouseffort as they are not as visible or accessible as men.Therefore how women will be included, and how theirneeds are going to be addressed, must be spelt out inadvance.

    22. Further highlight that all these efforts will culminate intonothing unless a budget is set aside for working with menand women. For example, the Barani Area Development

    Project in NWFP has specified that 40% of the budget willbe reserved for women-specific activities.

    23. Also, it is not enough to address only mens and womenspractical needs such as potable water, health centres, etc.Strategic needs that have to do with improving womensposition in society have to be addressed as well. Forexample, womens representation in political structures,policies against sexual harassment, etc.

    24. Now focus participants attention to Project Implementation.Highlight that if one is going to work with men and women,there will be a need to hire both. A Project may have thebest strategies, but if the people who are implementing theproject are not sensitized, it wont work. For example:

    policy for girls schools is that there should be onewithin a 5km radius of the village. In NWFP, the

    government built a school that satisfied therequirement, but which was situated across adeserted stretch of land, so it never got utilized.In AJK, in a World Bank project for elementaryeducation, women and men monitoring officerswere appointed. The men were given motorcycles

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    Steps ReferenceHandout



    in ..

    39.Monitoring &Evaluation


    GovernmentOfficials mustnot assume

    how many girl children and how many boy childrenwere immunized?

    How many women are members of districtmonitoring committees?

    What is the extent of womens participation indecision-making in the district assemblies?

    26. You also need to make sure that both women and men are

    consulted when impact is assessed. When it comes toimpact, one cannot assume that it has had the same impacton both gender. There is a need to look at what the impacthas been on women and men, girls and boys.

    27. So the more consciously we address gender, the better thechances are of having a positive impact on women andmen.

    On this note we end our session on MainstreamingGender in Policies, Programs and Projects.

    17. What is GenderMainstreaming

    18. Why GenderMainstreaming is


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    1. Once upon a time the sex-disaggregated data for a

    National TB Program

    highlighted that significantly

    more men than women arediagnosed with TB, and that

    the Male to Female ratio in

    TB cases has increased

    substantially between 1990

    and 1999.

    Number of TB Cases(sputum smear positive)

    (Source: Viet Nam National TB Program)

    2. The information would have been taken at face value, and interventions would havebeen proposed, had not one person challenged the findings. A question was asked:

    do these differences in notification rates reflect a true difference in TB incidence for

    women and men? Or do they reflect an under-notification or misdiagnosis of the

    disease among women? This indicated the need for gender statistics such as: were

    there differences in clinical symptoms between men and women? How many women

    completed the sputum test regime? Etc.

    3. Gender statistics were collected, followed by gender analysis. A number of gender-related issues emerged as follows:

    a) Differences in clinical symptoms in women and men:

    b) Sputum test regime: women tend not to come back to the clinic to complete

    their sputum test

    c) Quality of sputum produced by men and women

    d) Understanding of and belief about TB

    e) Health-care seeking behavior and TB diagnosisf) Compliance with treatment and recovery after treatment.

    4. This case study highlights the importance of sound gender analysis in ensuring anaccurate understanding of the differences and complexities for women and men










    1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999



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    While sex-disaggregated data are important for telling us if differences exist in relation to a

    particular development issue or problem, the data cannot tell us why the difference exists,

    and in some cases the conventional analysis might in fact be misleading. Generally, a

    combination of biological and social factors is responsible for the difference in sex-disaggregated data. Sound gender statistics and gender analysis can help policy makers

    understand the story behind the numbers, thus making a critical contribution in terms of

    appropriate policies, strategies, and actions.

    Policy makers and planners must recognize the hidden gender-based impediments in

    development. If these are not effectively identified and addressed, the national poverty

    reduction goals cannot be achieved. When information is collected for any policy, programor project, the following must be ensured:

    1. Obtain Sex-Disaggregated Data 2. Obtain Gender Statistics

    Reveals if there are differencesbetween women and men, boys and

    girls on a specific issue.

    e.g. In a community, the literacy ratesfor boys is twice as high as that for girls;

    Information/data on specific issues wherea gender disparity is known to exist.

    e.g. area wise difference, income wisevariations, age differentials, and cultural

    and sub-cultural variances;

    3. Probe for Gender Analytical Information

    The results of gender analysis provides informationabout what the cause of the difference is, and how toaddress it.

    e.g. girls from low income households are expected tostay home and help with domestic responsibilities

    (cleaning caring for siblings) resulting in a lower girl child

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    Gender Mainstreaming is a key strategy to reduce inequalities between women and men.

    The United Nations defines it asthe process ofassessing the implications for women and men ofany planned action, including legislation, policies, or programmes, inall areas and at all levels. It is a strategy for making womens as well asmens concerns and experiences a dimension of the design,

    implementaiton, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmesin all political, economic, and societal spheres so that women and menbenefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated.

    The Economic and Social CouncilReport for 1997, United Nations,1997.

    It means changing the way governments andorganizations work so that the complexities and differences betweenmens and womens experiences, needs andpriorities are equally valued, automaticallyconsidered, and addressed from the outset at alllevels, in all sectors, at all stages of the policy andprogram cycle

    It means that all government officials at alllevels, no longer simply assume that either gender(especially women) will automatically benefit from aproposed policy or program. Rather, it isconsciously thinking about how this will happen.

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    At OrganizationalLevel

    It makes the social

    problem of genderinequality visible.

    It improves thefoundations for all ourprograms and actions.

    It teaches our staff aboutthe different effects onmen and women of ourprograms and activities.

    It improves transparencyand strategic decision-making in ourorganization.

    It makes full use of humanresources, recognizingwomen and men withsimilar capacities andopportunities.

    It leaves room fordiversity, horizontalorientation and a neworganizational paradigm.

    Adapted from Economic and SocialCouncil (ECOSOC). Gender

    At National Level

    Credibility and AccountabilityJust do the math! Men and women are 50% - 50%.

    Governments must be accountable to all of itscitizens.

    Efficiency and SustainabilityEqual inclusion of men and women in all aspects ofdevelopment and society pays off for the country as awhole. It is a matter of the bottom line: economic andsocial efficiency and sustainability.

    Justice and EqualityIt is just right! Democratic principles and basic humanrights demand gender equality.

    Quality of LifeIncreased attention to gender equality issues willimprove the lives of individual men and women. Ifindividuals are happier and healthier, they will also bemore productive, thus contributing to a more efficient

    and prosperous society.

    AllianceGender equality as a pre-requisite for forging formalalliances or partnerships with other nations.

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    Session-4(Taking Forward the Gender Agenda)

    Session-4: Taking Forward the Gender Agenda

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    Taking Forward the Gender Agenda


    This session will:

    Specify some initial but critical steps towardsmainstreaming gender in policy, programs and

    project; Elaborate steps that will lead towards a more

    gender responsive organization/department.

    Duration 25 minutes

    Methodology Presentation; Plenary Discussion; Self Rating


    Material/Equipment Multimedia projector and screen

    Slides Handouts41. Title Slide Session 442. Gender mainstreaming. What does it need?43. Feedback Form Scale44. Feedback Form - Questionnaire

    19. Gender Mainstreaming What does itNeed

    20. Internal Commitment from Senior MostLeadership

    21. Support from Experts22. Strengthening Process by Mainstreaming

    Gender in Policies, Programmes andProjects

    Separate Handouts:Feedback Form

    Session-4: Taking Forward the Gender Agenda

    Reference Steps Reference

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    Slide Handout


    Title SlideSession 4


    mainstreaming.What does it



    Feedback Form -Scale

    1. Display the Session Title Slide on the screen. Tell theparticipants that with this Session we are nearing the endof this Discussion. We have looked at why gendermatters. We have also looked at what is meant by gendermainstreaming. The question is: where do we go fromhere?

    2. Highlight the three interventions that can be taken on animmediate basis by the participants to initiate the process

    of mainstreaming gender in their organizations. Emphasizethat the most critical input is the participants owncommitment. Without it nothing can happen. If thecommitment exists, the expertise can be secured, andprocesses can be re-designed to include the kinds ofquestions we have raised in the previous session.

    3. Ask participants to refer to the Checklist on Commitment,and tick mark those steps they think can be practically

    taken. Tell the participants that there are two copies of thisChecklist. They should tick mark both copies, and tear oneout for the Project, so that the Project has a sense of whatsenior most Government officials find possible to do interms of gender mainstreaming (explain that they will stillhave one copy in their folder).

    4. Ask participants to do a similar rating for the Checklist onSupport from Experts. Again, explain that they have two

    copies of this Checklist. They should mark both copies, andsubmit one to the Project.

    5. Refer participants to the Handout on StrengtheningProcesses. Tell them that the processes listed there havealready been reviewed in detail in the previous session. It isattached so that they may introduce the Checklist withintheir departments to improve the policy, program andproject planning process.

    6. Finally, tell the participants that you would like them to fillout a feedback form. Walk the participants through it. Askthem not to put their names on it.

    7 Thank the participants for their time and their contributions



    What does itNeed


    Commitmentfrom Senior Most



    Support fromExperts


    StrengtheningProcess by

    MainstreamingGender inPolicies,

    Programmes andProjects

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    StrengthenedProcesses by

    Mainstreaming inPolicy, Programme

    or ProjectDocument

    InternalCommitmentfrom Senior





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    Internal Commitment from Senior Most Leadership

    Only senior most management can properly oversee a crosscutting theme like Genderthat overlaps the various management structures and areas of an organization. Theauthority and support of policy makers is essential in communicating the message thatattention to gender equality is important and is expected!

    As Senior Most Management, Do You

    Seek information, give ideas, and get progress reports on thegender mainstreaming process, and gender equality progressin policies and programs?

    Recognize innovations and achievements related to genderequality?

    Integrate gender equality issues and perspectives intospeeches and statements on a range of subjects and notreserve comments on this theme purely for gender and/orwomen-specific occasions?

    Assert what needs to change and how to do it to achievegender equality, especially in the face of resistance towardsgender equality?

    Allocate sufficient resources, financial and human, for thepromotion and support of gender mainstreaming efforts?

    Participate in discussions on gender issues i.e. openingworkshops, chairing panels, sponsoring discussions?

    Extend moral support and lead policy advocacy and dialogueon gender issues, e.g. raising it regularly in discussions withpoliticians and representatives of development organizations?

    Promote measures to develop gender equity within your own

    organizational structures, procedures and culture?

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    Support from Experts

    Stakeholders have a significant impact on the outcome of a policy, program, or project.Reflect a moment on:

    Who are your organizations key stakeholders? Do they include individuals or groupswith a gender perspective?

    Is there an appropriate balance of women and men in all institutions and agenciesinvolved in your planning processes?

    Has gender expertise been mobilized for your organizations planning processes?

    Have the following been brought in to contribute to the Public SectorPolicy, Programme or Project Cycle?

    Gender focal points in other ministries or departments?

    Development partners with a gender equality mandate?

    An umbrella organization of women or gender NGOs?

    Relevant sectoral or special interest NGOs that have aninterest or experience in gender issues?

    Think tanks or policy analysts with experience or expertise in

    gender issues? Academics or researchers from university Gender Studies


    Gender consultants

    Adapted from: UNDP RBEC 2002 GenderMainstreaming in Practice: A Handbook

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    T F G A

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    Strengthening Processs by Mainstreaming Gender in Policies,Programmes and Projects

    1. Situation Assessment &Analysis:

    Has specific and relevantinformation been collected on issuesand differences for men and womenin relation to the specific problem?

    Were women involved in conductingthe needs assessment, and were thewomen of the community asked fortheir opinion on their problems andneeds?

    Has there been an assessment ofwomens position in terms of suchpossible problems as their heavierwork burden, relative lack ofaccess to resources andopportunities or lack of participationin the development process?

    Has a gender analysis been

    conducted to understand the causeof the issues or differences?

    2. Project Goals/Objectives:

    Do the project objectives make clearthat project benefits are intendedequally for women as for men?

    Does the goal seek to correct genderimbalances through addressingpractical needs of men and women?

    Does the goal seek to transform theinstitutions (social and other) thatperpetuate gender inequality?

    Do any of the objectives challengethe existing or traditional sexualdivision of labor, tasks, opportunitiesand responsibilities?

    Have specific ways been proposedto encourage and enable women toparticipate in the projects despitetheir traditionally more domesticlocation and subordinate positionwithin the community?

    Have indicators been developed tomeasure progress towards the

    fulfillment of each objective? Dothese indicators measure the genderaspects of each objective?

    3. Project Strategy:

    Is there need to target genderbalance as a corrective measure?

    Have the women in the affectedcommunity and target group beenconsulted on the most appropriateway of overcoming the problem?

    Is the chosen intervention strategylikely to overlook women in thetarget group, e.g. because of theirheavier burden of work and moredomestic location?

    Is the strategy concerned merelywith delivering benefits to women, ordoes it also involve their increasedparticipation and empowerment, sothey will be in a better position to

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    Are women and men of the affectedcommunity represented equally on

    Are there monitoring methods tocheck the progress in reaching

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    community represented equally onthe management committees?

    Are any additional activities neededto ensure that a gender perspectiveis made explicit (e.g. training ingender issues, additional research,etc)?

    Is there a clear guiding policy formanagement on the integration ofwomen within the developmentprocess?

    Have financial inputs been gender-proofed to ensure that both men andwomen will benefit from the plannedintervention?

    Has management been providedwith the human resources andexpertise necessary to manage andmonitor the womens developmentcomponent within the project?

    5. Project Implementation:

    Are the implementers gender-responsive and aware of the specificgender issues?

    Will both women and men participatein implementation?

    Do implementation methods makesufficient use of existing womensorganizations and networks such aswomens groups?

    Have these partners receivedgender mainstreaming training, so

    that gender perspective can besustained throughoutimplementation?

    6 Monitoring:

    check the progress in reachingwomen? E.g. womens (increased)

    income, occupation of leadershiproles, utilization of credit facilities,participation in project managementand implementation, and influenceover decision making?

    Has a communication strategy beendeveloped for informing variouspublics about the existence,

    progress and results of the projectfrom a gender perspective?

    7. Evaluation:

    Do women receive a fair share,elative to men, of the benefits arisingfrom the projects?

    Does the project redress a previousunequal sharing of benefits?

    Does the project give womenincreased control over materialresources, better access to creditand other opportunities, and morecontrol over the benefits resultingfrom their productive efforts?

    What are the likely long-term effectsin terms of womens increased abilityto take charge of their own lives,understand their situation and thedifficulties they face, and to takecollective action to solve problems?

    Adapted from AstridaNeimanis, GenderMainstreaming in Practice: AHandbook, Part I.

    Reference Material

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    Reference Material

    GoP Commitments to Women Development

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    Policy Environment for Gender Mainstreaming

    International Commitments9. MDGs Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 2000)10. CEDAW in force on September 3, 1981. Pakistan ratified in 1996.

    National Commitments11. MTDF Mid Term Development Framework (2005-10)12. NPA by Ministry of Women and Development, September 1998.13. NPDEW by Ministry of Women and Development, 2002

    Major Initiatives14. GRAPs National and Provincial GRAPs (2004)15. Decentralization Support Program - TA216. GSP - Gender Support Programme (2003-2008)

    1. Gender and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs

    Why Gender Matters to the MDGsThe Millennium Development Goals,or MDGs, are an integrated set ofeight goals and 18 time-bound targetsfor extending the benefits ofglobalization to the worlds poorestcitizens. The goals aim to stimulatereal progress by 2015 in tackling themost pressing issues facingdeveloping countries poverty,hunger, inadequate education, genderinequality, child and maternalmortality, HIV / AIDS andenvironmental degradation. UNDPhelps countries formulate nationaldevelopment plans focused on theMDGs and chart national progresstowards them through the MDG

    reporting process.

    In most developing countries, genderinequality is a major obstacle tomeeting the MDG targets. In fact,

    women. The goal has one target: toeliminate gender disparity in primaryand secondary education, preferablyby 2005, and to all levels of educationno later than 2015. Four indicators areused to measure progress towards thegoal: the ratio of girls to boys inprimary, secondary and tertiaryeducation; the ratio of literate womento men in the 15-to 24-year-old agegroup; the share of women in wageemployment in the non-agriculturalsector; and the proportion of seatsheld by women in nationalparliaments. The existence of aseparate goal on gender equality isthe result of decades of advocacy,research and coalition-building by the

    international womens movement. Itsvery existence demonstrates that theglobal community has accepted thecentrality of gender equality andwomens empowerment to the

    Reference Material

    in the political and economic lives oftheir countries. Much more is needed:full reproductive health rights and

    t i t f l

    Reduce by half the lifetimeprevalence of violence againstwomen.

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    access to services, guarantee of equal

    property rights and access to work,affirmative action to increase politicalrepresentation, and an end to violenceagainst women and girls. To realizethe MDGs, governments and theirpartners must seriously andsystematically engender efforts toachieve allthe goals. But today, thegender focus is largely limited to the

    gender equality, maternal mortality,and HIV/AIDS goals leaving outcritical development issues such asthe feminization of poverty, thepreponderance of female-headedhouseholds among the hungry, andthe lopsided impact of environmentaldegradation on women (particular interms of time spent gathering fuel and

    hauling water).

    Making MDG Reporting Gender-SensitiveGender experts and advocates havesuggested several concrete ways tomake the MDG implementation andreporting process more gender-sensitive. Two complementaryapproaches include adding targetsand indicators to MillenniumDevelopment Goal 3 (on genderequality and womens empowerment),and disaggregating the targets andindicators for the other goals bygender. Both deserve UNDP support.The UN Millennium Project Task Forceon Education and Gender Equality1suggests that national governmentsadd additional targets, beyond theeducation target, under the genderequality and womens empowermentgoal. Recommended targets include: Ensure universal access to sexual

    The task force also suggests thatnational governments add additionalindicators for tracking progresstowards the gender goal. Theirrecommendations include: Completion rates (in addition to

    enrolment rates) for primary andsecondary school;

    Economic indicators such as

    gender gaps in earnings, sex-disaggregated unemploymentrates and occupational segregationby sex;

    Prevalence rates for domesticviolence in the past year.

    Another option is to add at least onegender-specific indicator not just to the

    gender goal, as suggested above, butalso to the set of indicators for all thegoals and targets. A recent UNDPreview of National MDG Reports2argues that adding more indicators foreach and every target, ideal though itwould b