Text of GBOS Update Instruments Personnel New deployment strategy (no SMART-radar and maybe 1 mobile...
• New deployment strategy (no SMART-radar and maybe 1 mobile mesonet)
Instruments and personnel• MIPS (van-trailer, pickup-trailer, car)
– GBOS field coordinator, MIPS operator, Logistical Scientist, GLASS operator
• M-GLASS (2 trucks + 1 support vehicle) – driver and navigator in each truck– driver for support vehicle
• Mobile Probe (MP) vehicle (1 is possible)– Borrow 1 MM from TTY, or build 1 MM at UAH– driver and navigator
Total personnel: 4+6+2 = 12
MIPS - Mobile Integrated Profiling System
915 MHz Doppler Profiler
18 June 2002Deployment 3
MIPS instruments and operating characteristics
• 915 MHz Profiler (z = 60-105 m, t = 30-60 s in clear air, t = 10-20 s in precipitation)– Vh, W, SNR (Z and Cn
2), Doppler spectra, RASS Tv(z)
• 0.905 m lidar ceilometer (15 m - 7.5 km, z = 15– cloud base, ABL, and precipitation properties
• Microwave Profiling Radiometer (to 10 km)– T(z), v(z), c(z), IWV, ICW, cloud base T (t = 2 min)
• Surface instrumentation (1 Hz)– T, RH, p, wind, solar radiation, E field, DSD
New additions to the MIPS• Wide-band satellite COM system (DataStorm, 90
kbit s-1 up, 1 Mbit s-1 down)• Wired and wireless LAN will allow laptop access to
web from any MIPS vehicle parked near the van• Mobile Mesonet (currently working on this)• GLASS sounding system (use of NCAR GLASS)
– launch frequency to be defined– costs of helium– BOC can request special sounding from GBOS if
allowable by travel schedule and logistics
Update on GBOS schedule(all times CDT)
• 0900 - update from BOC
• 1000-1200 - depart to IOD (time needs to be flexible for early systems
• 1400-2000 - setup at IOD and begin of IOP
• Sampling time period– typically in the time interval 1600-0200– may begin earlier if required– 0200 is probably the latest operating time
• 2300-0200 - end of IOPNote: Maximize sampling period to capture ABL evolution.
Data availability from the GBOS
• MIPS products will be uploaded every 30-60 min– wind profiles to 2-4 km (30-60 min frequency)
• wind shear (in any form, including SR helicity)
– T, rv profiles to 10 km (down to 2 min frequency)• CAPE, CIN / stable layer (relative magnitude and height)
– integrated values (every 2 min)• integrated water vapor, integrated cloud water (updated time
– sfc parameters: T, RH, Td, dd/ff, p, solar, E field, rainfall, DSD (if disdrometer can be borrowed)
– in situ soundings from GLASS (if available at MIPS)– transfer to web site (TBD) or by email
GBOS Operating restrictions
• Greater flexibility and shorter deployment time with no SMART-radar
• Open area required for good MIPS, MP and MGLASS measurements– The two M-GLASS need to record surface measurements. Do
they have the capability? Yes
• MIPS needs to avoid ground clutter targets with large cross sections: power lines, towers– small airports may be ideal (but will often need permission)
• MP will require paved roads after rainfall
• MGLASS requires open area for balloon launches
Procedure for location of IOD*• GBOS units will depart for IOD at 1000-1200
CDT, dependent on:– distance to IOD
– rest required (require 10 h rest after each IOP)
– timing of MCS
– aircraft operations schedule
• MIPS scout car (MP) will travel to IOD region to finalize MIPS primary and alternate locations (and identify specific boundary location)
• M-GLASS locations can be located on the fly (Street Atlas will serve as a guide)
*IOD = Intensive Operating Domain
Communications• In transit to IOD. Contact with BOC and other GBOS as needed:
– GBOS to GBOS (VHF radio, NCAR frequency - needs to be verified): experimental configuration and updates on status
– GBOS to BOC (cell phone): weather updates and refinement of IOD location
• During IOP. MIPS contact with GBOS units every 30-60 min– GBOS to GBOS (VHF and cell phone): location, observations, timing
of balloon launch, and MM directions
– MIPS to MM (VHF radio, cell) - Wx reports and guidance to MM
– GBOS to BOC (cell & satellite phone): weather and status
– GBOS to aircraft (VHF, = 122.925 MHz): sfc obs. to a/c; a/c info.
• Post event, travel to motel. Contact with BOC and other GBOS.– GBOS to GBOS (VHF radio): debrief on operations and
observations; likely scenario for next day
– GBOS to BOC (cell phone): FCST updates to pass on to GBOS
GBOS Deployment Considerations
• What is the optimal experimental design for each component, given the measurement capabilities of each platform? Details are being finalized.
• Optimum location of the MIPS and M-GLASS for measurements (generic models for each)– of the pre-storm ABL– within the BE convective region– within the BE stratiform region– in advance of MCVs– within MCVs– within and in advance of large MCS’s
GBOS Considerations (cont.)• What is the optimum location of the MIPS for
measurements within large MCS’s (MCC’s)?– Scientific goals:
• BAMEX goals for embedded lines and bow echoes
• Should GBOS (MIPS) deploy if aircraft don’t fly?– Yes, in cases where subsequent missions won’t be
adversely impacted.– What science can be accomplished?
• QPE in high precipitation events
• Interactions between MCS and nocturnal boundary layer (NBL)
Optimum network design• Dependence on
– boundary characteristics and orientation– MCS structure and orientation
• MIPS and M-GLASS configuration– linear array normal to a boundary will be the norm
• M-GLASS 1 on warm side (30 km south) of boundary
• M-GLASS 2 on cold side side (70 km N) of boundary
• MIPS 20 km N of boundary, ½ way between M-G 1 & 2
• MM patterns (one vehicle)– linear transects 30 km north and south of MIPS
• cycle time: 2 x 50 km / 80 km h-1 = 1.25 h
– park up-track of MIPS during convective line passage
Mobility of the GBOS:
Important for REDEPLOY • MGLASS - May have option to move to new location.
Setup time: 20-25 min• MIPS - Setup time is ~10 min (not including GLASS).
Strongly prefer to set up in daylight conditions in order to stay away from significant ground clutter targets, but can set up in dark conditions if necessary.
• Mobile Probe - Completely mobile, virtually no setup time.
Communications: GBOS - aircraft
• Is the best method to pass GBOS info (sounding release, significant weather) through BOC, who will contact aircraft.– Radio comm will be more timely, and perhaps reliable.– Very brief and occasional contact.– similar with NOAA P-3 in stratiform region
Experimental design configurations:Preliminary
• Pre-storm• Bow Echo convective region
• Bow Echo stratiform region
• In advance of MCV
• Within/near MCV
• Large MCS’s
• Sampling without aircraft
Factors in experimental design
• Setup partly dictated by 404 MHz profiler and 88D locations.– 88D may be important if aircraft coverage is absent
• Flexibility in separation scale of GBOS components, dependent on scale of BE or MCV. Will be determined by GBOS coordinator/BOC. This scale length is needed >1 h prior to set up.
• Sounding release time interval: 1-1.5 h
Notes:Distance between MGLASS1/2 = 50-200 km, MIPS located in between.Sounding release time interval: 1-1.5 hNeed knowledge of storm & MCS motion vector, boundary movement tendency.
Scaled baseline100 - 200 km
MP 40-50 km legPeriod of ~1 h
Pre-storm environment (CBL to NBL)
Sampling of Bow Echo convective region (NBL most common)
Scaled baseline100 -200 km
Notes:MP is stationary and ~5 km up-track. Will sample strength of storm and potential severe attributes such as hail.Sounding launch within, or just in advance of convective updraft.
100 - 200 km
Sampling of Bow Echo stratiform region (NBL most common)
Notes:MP transects 50 km long within stratiform region.
Soundings at different timesin critical locations:- Cold pool behind the line- Just in advance of the line- Within St region- Within conv updraft- Core of comma or incip. MCV- After ppn within wake low and upper RIJ
Environment in advance of MCV (CBL)
Notes:Soundings downshear (900-600 mb) of MCV center, in region where CI is most likely.MP will work boundaries, and/or region of potential CI.Triangle in downshear sector of MCV (triangular shape for w estimation).GBOS will deploy ~2 h in advance of the MCV. Will depend partly on aircraft operations since GBOS will attempt to coordinate with aircraft.
Triangle size 75-150 km
Soundings: simultaneous, w most important in 900-600 mb
Flexibility!Design dependent on 403 MHz profilers and 88D
MP may be withintriangle and locatedfurther S in this case.
Parent MCS outflow boundary
Measurements within/near of MCV
Notes:MGLASS-1 and MGLASS-2 redeploy downtrack if possible.MIPS would redeploy after vortex and precipitation passes over.Would take 1.5-2 h to move to the front of the MCV, assuming 100 km / 20 m/s. If the MCV is moving 10 m/s, then sampling lasts 100 km / 10 m/s = 104 s.Total duration of 2 sampling periods + one redeploy equals about 8-10 h.Potential redeployment on MCS that develops with/around MCV.
Large MCS deployment (NBL most common)
Notes:Length of deployment?300 km / 20 m s-1 = 15,000 s ~ 4 h
Other communication issues• Play book on generic (ideal) experimental design and operations.
• Contingency plans– If a GBOS unit gets “lost”,will call BOC for updates, and MIPS will do the
same. Just prior to deployment, a point to meet at after the IOP will be defined, and later updated.
– BOC and MIPS will monitor Wx and advise GBOS units of wind, tornado, and hail potential. All teams must have an escape vehicle.
• Text pagers (satellite) for MGLASS, MP and MIPS
• After setup, GBOS-GBOS communication every 30 min
• MGLASS1/2 and MIPS will send data & images to BOC independently. MGLASS units will typically send the first sounding (jpg only). MIPS will send all soundings to BOC on the following day.
Possible adverse weather
• Strong wind - park vehicles facing W; secure MIPS van, avoid trees, power lines and buildings
• Tornadoes - need to avoid entirely; plans for evacuation if conditions warrant
• Hail - will protect sensitive equipment and windshields
• Lightning - lightning protection at the MIPS• Flooding - stay in relative high spots
GBOS parking locations
• MIPS - – Requirements: open area without trees and power lines, good
surface, ability to steak down tower
– Potentially good sites: Airports (small are better; airport data base from GPS, other); farmsteads with adequate gravel roads and few trees & buildings; parking lots
– Bad sites: near a busy road with moving clutter; low area; dirt road; trees & buildings in close proximity
• MGLASS– open area for representative surface measurements– location should not be at a low point (to avoid
flooding), but not at a high point either (to avoid lightning)
MIPS set up
• Start generator• Start computers• Mount ceilometer and MPR• Level trailer• Prepare GLASS: He tank, etc.• Set up raingages and disdrometer• Lightning protection• Wind straps
Questions• Define frequencies for MGLASS-1, MGLASS-2, and MIPS? Ned will do this.
• How will data from MIPS and M-GLASS be uploaded to BAMEX web site?– File transfer to web site, e-mail to BOC Science Director, Ops Director, GBOS coord.
• Are M-GLASS navigation tools adequate? Will all GBOS vehicles have access to navigation software?– Topo USA will be used by all GBOS units; MIPS and MP will also have Stree Atlas.
• During what periods and at what intervals will soundings be launched?– 1-1.5 h will be the standard time interval.
• What will be the VHF communication frequencies?– NCAR frequency, provided that the BAMEX domain allows this.
• Will there be GBOS-to-aircraft communication and how will this be done?– At the assigned aircraft frequecy of 122.925 MHz?
• Will GBOS operate if aircraft leave early?– If GBOS is too far downtrack from the MCS?
– If the GBOS is still in the stratiform region when aircraft leave?
– If another MCS forms behind the primary MCS?
Questions• How will GBOS supplies be maintained or refilled (e.g., helium)?
– MGLASS support vehicle will do this for MGLASS. MIPS will refill on down day.
• How and where will GBOS maintenance be done (vehicle or instrument maintenance)?– Will identify location or find repair locations ad hoc.
• What does GBOS do if it is out of position
– near the storm of interest but not in the path?• Move to better location if time allows, sample at present location if time is short.
– near another storm of interest not sampled by aircraft?• Move to better location if time allows, sample at present location if time is short.
• Can we give GBOS adequate severe weather warnings?– Of course -- just don’t forget that we are vulnerable.
• What are restrictions on operating locations?– Requirement for view of horizon is relaxed. Need open exposure for all GBOS units.
• Which BOC members should receive email updates and measurement information from the GBOS, and vice versa?– GBOS coordinator, also email to NOAA P-3
• Define web site to place GBOS near real-time data
• GBOS will need forecast of storm and MCS motion vector
• GBOS units should have satellite phone as backup to cell phone.
• All GBOS reports will be uploaded to BAMEX field catalog web site.– MIPS will have continuous communication (email, web access) once set up.
– Map of GBOS deployment locations
– Text summary of: (a) the event, including observed damage; (b) GBOS operations; (b) MIPS operations; (c) M-GLASS operations; and (d) MM operations.
– Images from GBOS components (t-z sections of 915 moments and winds; MPR T, v and c; time series of MIPS sfc data, E field mill data; MPR integrated vapor and cloud water; GLASS soundings)
• Utilization of special observing networks: Perhaps use as a (weak) constraint for IOD.– Oklahoma surface mesonet
– Iowa-Minnesota surface mesonet
– Norman, OK facilities• Doppler and polarization (?) radar
• lightning mapping array (status?)
– Huntsville region (northern AL) facilities• lightning mapping array
• dual Doppler with 60 km baseline
– WSR-88D dual Doppler pairs
• Timing of glass sondes
• Design for MCV - lagrangian vs eulerian
• GBOS logistics coordinator
• Zebra used to plot locations on top of radar
• Is the NCAR freq. authorized for the BAMEX region?
• Situations when MIPS remains in field for second MCS (MGLASS would go to motel).