Gandhi and mandela powerpoint

  • Published on
    30-Nov-2014

  • View
    1.859

  • Download
    4

DESCRIPTION

 

Transcript

<ul><li> 1. Gandhi and Mandela A Very Short Introduction<br />Authors: Bhikhu Parekh and EllekeBoeehmer<br />By: Stephanie Walker<br /></li></ul> <p> 2. Gandhi October, 2 1869 January, 30 1948<br />Gandhi was the political and spiritual leader of India during the Indian independence movement. He pioneered satyagraha-resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience, a philosophy firmly founded on total nonviolence, which helped India to gain independence, and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. <br />Gandhi first employed civil disobedience while he was a lawyer in South Africa, during the resident Indian community's struggle there for civil rights. After his return to India in 1915, he organized protests by peasants, farmers, and urban laborers concerning excessive land-tax and discrimination. After assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns to ease poverty, expand women's rights, build religious and ethnic amity, end untouchability, and increase economic self-reliance. Above all, he aimed to achieve Swaraj or the independence of India from foreign domination. Gandhi famously led his followers in the Non-cooperation movement that protested the British-imposed salt tax with the 400km (240mi) Dandi Salt March in 1930. Later, in 1942, he launched the Quit India civil disobedience movement demanding immediate independence for India. Gandhi spent a number of years in jail in both South Africa and India.<br />As a practitioner of nonviolence, Gandhi swore to speak the truth and advocated that others do the same. He lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven from yarn that he had spun by hand himself. He ate simple vegetarian food, experimented for a time with a fruitarian diet, and undertook long fasts as a means of both self-purification and social protest. Facts from Wikipedia<br /> 3. The early life of Gandhi<br />Mohandas KaramchandGandhi was born on 2 October 1869 in Porbandar, a coastal town in present-day Gujarat, India. His father, Karamchand Gandhi (18221885), who belonged to the Hindu Modh community, served as the diwan (Prime Minister) of Porbander state, a small princely state in the Kathiawar Agency of British India. His grandfather was Uttamchand Gandhi, fondly called Utta Gandhi. His mother, Putlibai, who came from the Hindu PranamiVaishnava community, was Karamchand's fourth wife, the first three wives having apparently died in childbirth. Growing up with a devout mother and the Jain traditions of the region, the young Mohandas absorbed early the influences that would play an important role in his adult life; these included compassion for sentient beings, vegetarianism, fasting for self-purification, and mutual tolerance between individuals of different creeds.<br />The Indian classics, especially the stories of Shravana and Maharaja Harishchandra from the Indian epics, had a great impact on Gandhi in his childhood. The story of Harishchandra, a well known tale of an ancient Indian king and a truthful hero, haunted Gandhi as a boy. Gandhi in his autobiography admits that it left an indelible impression on his mind. He writes: "It haunted me and I must have acted Harishchandra to myself times without number." Gandhi's early self-identification with Truth and Love as supreme values is traceable to his identification with these epic characters. Facts from Wikipedia<br /> 4. Nelson Mandela<br />Nelson Mandela, born 18 July 1918,]served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999, and was the first South African president to be elected in a fully representative democratic election. Before his presidency, Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist, and the leader of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the armed wing of the African National Congress (ANC). In 1962 he was arrested and convicted of sabotage and other charges, and sentenced to life in prison. Mandela served 27 years in prison, spending many of these years on Robben Island. Following his release from prison on February 11, 1990, Mandela led his party in the negotiations that led to multi-racial democracy in 1994. As president from 1994 to 1999, he frequently gave priority to reconciliation.<br />In South Africa, Mandela is often known as Madiba, an honorary title adopted by elders of Mandela's clan.<br />Mandela has received more than 250 awards over four decades, including the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize.<br /> 5. The early life of Nelson Mandela<br />Nelson Mandela belongs to a cadet branch of the Thembu dynasty, which reigns in the Transkeian Territories of South Africa's Cape Province. He was born in Mvezo, a small village located in the district of Umtata, the Transkei capital. His paternal great-grandfather Ngubengcuka (who died in 1832), ruled as the InkosiEnkhulu, or king, of the Thembupeople. One of the king's sons, named Mandela, became Nelson's grandfather and the source of his surname. However, because he was only the Inkosi's child by a wife of the Ixhibaclan (the so-called "Left-Hand House"), the descendants of his branch of the royal family were not eligible to succeed to the Thembu throne.<br />Mandela's father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, served as chief of the town of Mvezo.However, upon alienating the colonial authorities, they deprived Mphakanyiswa of his position, and moved his family to Qunu. Despite this, Mphakanyiswa remained a member of the Inkosi's Privy Council, and served an instrumental role in JongintabaDalindyebo's ascension to the Thembu throne. Dalindyebo would later return the favour by informally adopting Mandela upon Mphakanyiswa'sdeath.Mandela's father had four wives, with whom he fathered thirteen children (four boys and nine girls).Mandela was born to his third wife ('third' by a complex royal ranking system), Nosekeni Fanny. Fanny was a daughter of Nkedama of the Mpemvu Xhosa clan, the dynastic Right Hand House, in whose umzi or homestead Mandela spent much of his childhood. His given name Rolihlahla means "to pull a branch of a tree", or more colloquially, "troublemaker". Facts from Wikipedia <br />Mandela became the first member of his family to attend a school, where his teacher Miss Mdingane gave him the English name "Nelson". Facts from Wikipediia<br /></p>

Recommended

View more >