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Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Südwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] Fig. 1 Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wilhelm Hannibal, Fachhochschule Südwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany [email protected] Friction in Internal Combustion Engines Lecture at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics November 18, 2010 Mean effective pressure p me [bar] Mean friction pressure p mr [bar]

Friction in Internal Combustion Engines - BME - GJTgjt.bme.hu/sites/default/files/vorlesung-hannibal-reibung.pdf · Friction in Internal Combustion Engines Lecture at the Budapest

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  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 1

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wilhelm Hannibal,

    Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen,

    University of Applied Science,

    Iserlohn, Germany

    [email protected]

    Friction in Internal Combustion Engines

    Lecture at the

    Budapest University

    of Technology and EconomicsNovember 18, 2010

    Mean effective pressure pme [bar]

    Mean f

    riction p

    ressure

    pm

    r[b

    ar]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Fig. 2

    1 Introduction

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    4 Influence of Friction on the Fuel Consumption

    3 Methods for Measuring of Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    7 Friction of the Engine Block Components

    6 Friction of the Valve Train Components

    9 Thermo Management

    11 Reduction of Friction Through Variable Valve Train

    Presentation Outline

    10 Reduction of Idle Speed

    12 Trends In The Engine Development to Reduce Friction

    8 Friction of the Auxiliaries

    13 Summary / Outlook

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Optimization of the burning process

    Better Efficiency

    1 Introduction

    Measures to Reduce Fuel Consumption on Combustion Engines

    Reduction of the engines friction

    Reduction of pumping losses

    Source: BMW

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Fig. 4

    1 Introduction

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    4 Influence of Friction on the Fuel Consumption

    3 Methods for Measuring of Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    7 Friction of the Engine Block Components

    6 Friction of the Valve Train Components

    9 Thermo Management

    11 Reduction of Friction Through Variable Valve Train

    Presentation Outline

    10 Reduction of Idle Speed

    12 Trends In The Engine Development to Reduce Friction

    8 Friction of the Auxiliaries

    13 Summary / Outlook

  • Fig. 5Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    The useful power at the output shaft of internal combustion

    engines (effective power Pe) is lower than the internal power

    at the pistons (indicated power Pi).

    The difference is referred to as the friction loss Pr.

    Pr = Pi - Pe

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    Definition of Friction

  • Fig. 6Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    The friction power is the sum of the friction of all engine

    components like piston friction, valve train friction, pump friction

    etc..

    To compare different engines in their efficiency the friction is

    summarized in the mean friction pressure pmr.

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    Definition of Friction

  • Fig. 7Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    Components that Cause Friction

    The friction of a complete engine includes the friction losses or drive powers of the

    individual engines components:

    An engine consisting of:

    Crankshaft main bearing with radial shaft sealing rings

    Connection rod bearings and piston group (pistons, piston rings and piston pins)

    Any mass balancing systems

    Valve train and timing gear

    Auxiliaries, such as:

    Oil pump, possibly with oil pump drive

    Coolant pump

    Alternator

    Fuel injection pump

    Radiator fan

    Vacuum pump

    Air conditioning Compressor

    Power steering pump

    Air CompressorSource: Basshuysen, [2]

  • Fig. 8Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    Friction States

    Depending on lubrication prevailing at the various friction points in the

    engine, different friction states occur. The most important are:

    Solid friction (Coulombs friction)Friction between solids without fluid intermediate layer.

    Boundary frictionFriction between solids with an applied solid lubricant layer without a fluid

    intermediate layer

    Mixed frictionFluid friction and solid friction or boundary friction occur simultaneously; the

    lubricant layer does not completely separate the two friction layers from one

    another, and a certain contact occurs.

    Fluid friction (hydrodynamic friction)A liquid (or gaseous) substance between the two friction layers completely

    separates' the two from one another. In the internal combustion engine, the

    movement of the friction surfaces against one another creates the

    hydrodynamic supporting effect of the intermediate substance.

    Source: Basshuysen, [2]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 9

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    Stribeck Curve

    Co

    effic

    ien

    t of

    fric

    tion

    Starting friction

    = const.

    Boundary friciton

    Mixed frictionLiquid friction

    Breakaway point

    Lower

    operating limit

    Upper

    operating limit

    Sliding speed v

    - - - - - - - Liquid friction

    - - - - - Solid friction

    Source: Affenzeller, [3]

  • Fig. 10Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    The Level of Temperatures at Combustion Engines

    component s temperature is one of the most friction influencing parameters

    180 to 300 C

    to

    to

    to

    180 to 300 C

    115 to 185 C

    80 to 150 CSource: Grebe, [4]

  • Fig. 11Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    Ubbelohe Diagram

    Temperature [ C]

    Kin

    em

    atic v

    iscosity in

    [m

    m2

    / s]

    Engine oil

  • Fig. 12Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    Temperature Scope of Engines Oil Quality

    Temperature

    in C Source: Grebe, [4]

  • Fig. 13Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    The Engines Oil Circuit

    Temperature-

    sensor

    Lubrication

    (camshaft)oil pressure sensor

    Oil pump

    Oil cooler

    With cooling

    Without cooling

    Pressure relief valve

    (opens at 5.4 bar) Pressure relief valve

    (opens at 8 bar)

    Oil pressure and

    oil temperature

    gauge

    Ventilation

    from engine to

    fuel tank

    Ventilation to air filter

    Storing

    tank

    Full flow filter

    Drills

    Oil strainer

    Plain

    oil pan

    Oil pump for the recirculation

    Source: Grebe, [4]

  • Fig. 14Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    Pressure Oil Circuit and Oil Back Flow to the Oil Sump

    Balance shaft

    Oil pump

    gear

    Duocentric

    oil pump

    Plate

    oil cooler

    Oil return line

    Oil filter

    Pressure oil

    course

    Low pressure oil

    course Source: Grebe, [4]

  • Fig. 15Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    Hydro Dynamical Lubrication

    Tightened

    gap

  • Fig. 16Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    Shaft Position over Shaft Speed

    speed = 0 low speed high speed speed =

  • Fig. 17Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    a) Dry friction a) Mixed friction c) Liquid friction

    Liquid

    pressure

    Liquid

    friction

    Dry

    friction

    Lubrica-

    tion oil

    bearing

    forceBearing

    force

    Lubrica-

    tion oil

    Standstill Low peripheral speed High peripheral speedBearing

    Bearing

    journal

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    Shaft Position Depending on Friction Status

  • Fig. 18Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    Influence of the Shaft Bending on the Bearing Pressure

  • Fig. 19Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    Influence of the Bending Geometry on the Bearing Pressure

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Fig. 20

    1 Introduction

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    4 Influence of Friction on the Fuel Consumption

    3 Methods for Measuring of Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    7 Friction of the Engine Block Components

    6 Friction of the Valve Train Components

    9 Thermo Management

    11 Reduction of Friction Through Variable Valve Train

    Presentation Outline

    10 Reduction of Idle Speed

    12 Trends In The Engine Development to Reduce Friction

    8 Friction of the Auxiliaries

    13 Summary / Outlook

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 21

    - The run down method

    - The shutoff method

    - The motoring method

    - The Willians lines

    - The strip method

    - Special measuring method

    - The indication method

    3 Methods of Measuring Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    Overview of Methods

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 22

    3 Methods of Measuring Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    The Run Down Method

    Here the engine is switched off after stabilization at an operating

    point, and the change in speed is measured as a function of

    time. The friction moment or mean friction pressure is then

    calculated using the moments of inertia of the moving masses.

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 23

    3 Methods of Measuring Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    The Shutoff Method

    On multiple-cylinder engines, the fuel supply to one of the cylinder

    is shut off, and this cylinder is then dragged along by the other

    working cylinders.

    The friction loss can be determined from the change in effective

    engine power before and after the fuel shutoff.

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 24

    3 Methods of Measuring Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    The Willians Lines

    The fuel consumption of an engine is plotted on the Y-axis against

    the mean effective pressure pme for various engine speeds.

    The intersections with the negative pme axis are then determined

    by linear extrapolation of the values down to fuel consumption

    zero; these can be roughly regarded as the mean friction pressure

    at the respective engine speeds.

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 25

    3 Methods of Measuring Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    The Motoring Method

    The engine is motored on a

    test rig by an external motor.

    The motoring power

    required to drive the engine

    is regarded as the friction

    loss. With this method either

    the engine can be motored

    at operating temperature

    and measured immediately

    after shutting of the fuel

    supply or it can be

    conditioned via external

    thermostat installations.

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 26

    3 Methods of Measuring Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    The Strip Method

    Strip measurement is a special form of motoring that is used to

    measure the friction losses of the various engine components, such

    as, the friction of the engine, the valve train, and the auxiliary drives.

    The designation derives from the method where the engine is

    dismantled (stripped) step by step on a motoring test rig.

    The friction losses of the individual components are determined from

    the difference between the measured values with and without these

    components. The total friction of the engine is obtained by addition of

    the values for the individual components.

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 27

    3 Methods of Measuring Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    The Indication Method

    This method can be used to

    determine the friction of an

    engine in motoring mode.

    Integration of the measured

    cylinder pressure over a

    working cycle gives the

    indicated work Wi which

    referred to the swept volume,

    gives the indicated mean

    pressure pmi. If the mean

    effective pressure pmecalculated from the torque

    measured at the drive shaft is

    subtracted from this, we

    obtain the mean friction

    pressure pmr.

  • Fig. 28Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    3 Methods of Measuring Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    The Cylinder Pressure Transducer

    Source: Kistler

  • Fig. 29Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    3 Methods of Measuring Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    The Cylinder Pressure Indication; Charge Amplifier

    Source: Kistler

  • Fig. 30Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    3 Methods of Measuring Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    The Cylinder Pressure Indication; Data Post Processing

    Source: Kistler

  • Fig. 31Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    3 Methods of Measuring Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    Example of Cylinder Pressure Measurement Equipment

    Gas meter

    Oscillo

    -scope

    Air

    Exhaust

    silencer

    Oil coolerExternal

    oil pump

    Light barrier

    Voltmeter

    Engine

    speed

    measuring

    Consumption measuring

    Heater

    Radiator Oil filterControl pressure Generator Torque measuring

    P1- meter

    Heater Oil pressureMetering point

    Return flow

    cooling

    Filter

    TankElectric fuel pump

    Flow divider

    Precleaner Air

    meter

    U- bend mano-

    meter

    Fuel injectors

    Thermocouple

    Pressure sensor

    Crank-

    shaft

    mark

    Calming tank

    Source: Hannibal, [1]

    Air filter and flow sensor

    plate

  • Fig. 32Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    3 Methods of Measuring Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    pmi Defect Because of an Incorrect TDC Trigger Signal

    After TDC Before TDCTrigger pulse

    Source: Hannibal, [1]

  • Fig. 33Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    3 Methods of Measuring Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    The Cylinder Pressure Indication; Piston Position Adjustment

    Digital VoltmeterBulb PI Meter

    Oscilloscope

    Engine block

    Piston Stroke Measurement

    Crank shaft mark

    Groove disk

    Phototransistor

    b. TDC TDC a.TDC

    Source: Hannibal, [1]

  • Fig. 34Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    3 Methods of Measuring Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    Example for Oil Temperature Conditioning

    2 Compensation

    reservoir

    1 Engine

    3 Oil pump

    4 Valve

    5 Valve

    7 Coolant reservoir

    8 Feed valve

    9 Discharge valve

    10 Over fall

    11 Oil heating

    12 Manometer

    13 Oil filter

    Source: Hannibal, [1]

  • Fig. 35Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    3 Methods of Measuring Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    Example for Water Temperature Conditioning

    1 Engine

    2 Coolant reservoir

    3 Feed valve

    4 Discharge valve

    5 Over fall

    6 Coolant heating

    7 Water pump

    Source: Hannibal, [1]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 36

    3 Methods of Measuring Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    Special Measuring Method

    Apart from the friction measuring methods described above,

    there are a large number of other methods for determining,

    for example, the friction of individual components during

    operation. Torque measuring flanges can be used to carry

    out measurements on components driven by shafts. For the

    piston group there are various facilities for measuring the

    piston frictional force.

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 37

    3 Methods of Measuring Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    Comparison of the Individual Friction Measurement Methods

    Source: Basshuysen, [2]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Fig. 38

    1 Introduction

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    4 Influence of Friction on the Fuel Consumption

    3 Methods for Measuring of Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    7 Friction of the Engine Block Components

    6 Friction of the Valve Train Components

    9 Thermo Management

    11 Reduction of Friction Through Variable Valve Train

    Presentation Outline

    10 Reduction of Idle Speed

    12 Trends In The Engine Development to Reduce Friction

    8 Friction of the Auxiliaries

    13 Summary / Outlook

  • Fig. 39Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    The mechanical efficiency m of an internal combustion engine

    is defined as the ratio of mean effective pressure pme to mean

    indicated pressure pmi.

    To compare different engines in their efficiency the friction is

    summarized in the mean effective friction pressure pmr.

    At an engine speed of 2000 rpm pmr has values between 0.5

    and 1.4 bar including injection pump and all engine components.

    4 Influence of Friction on the Fuel Consumption

    Comparison between Diesel and Spark Ignition Engines

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 40

    4 Influence of Friction on the Fuel Consumption

    Comparison between Diesel and Spark Ignition Engines

    Complete engine

    Motor, valve train

    loaded oil pump,

    Loaded water pump

    Unloaded alternator

    Motored, full load

    Oil: 15W40

    Oil/Coolant temperature: 90 C

    Spark ignition engine

    Diesel engine (direct injection)

    Mean f

    riction p

    ressure

    pm

    r[b

    ar]

    Engine speed [1/min] Source: Koch, [5]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 41

    4 Influence of Friction on the Fuel Consumption

    Development of the Friction in Four Cylinder SI-Engines

    Mean f

    riction p

    ressure

    pm

    r[b

    ar]

    Model year

    4-cylinder SI engines

    (1.6 to 2.2 liter piston displacement)

    Source: Schwaderlapp, [6]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 42

    4 Influence of Friction on the Fuel Consumption

    Comparison between Diesel and Spark Ignition Engines

    Diesel engine

    Spark

    ignition

    engine

    Re

    du

    ctio

    n o

    f fu

    el co

    nsu

    mp

    tio

    n

    Reduction of friction

    Source: Koch, [7]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 43

    4 Influence of Friction on the Fuel Consumption

    Percentages of Friction losses in the Engine Characteristic Map

    Engine speed [1/min]

    Po

    we

    r [%

    ]

    Source: FEV

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Fig. 44

    1 Introduction

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    4 Influence of Friction on the Fuel Consumption

    3 Methods for Measuring of Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    7 Friction of the Engine Block Components

    6 Friction of the Valve Train Components

    9 Thermo Management

    11 Reduction of Friction Through Variable Valve Train

    Presentation Outline

    10 Reduction of Idle Speed

    12 Trends In The Engine Development to Reduce Friction

    8 Friction of the Auxiliaries

    13 Summary / Outlook

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 45

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    Friction Breakdown of a Modern Car SI Engine

    Source: Koch, [7]

    Mean f

    riciton

    pre

    ssure

    pm

    r[b

    ar]

    Mean f

    riction p

    ressure

    pm

    r[b

    ar]

    Engine speed [1/min]

    Water pump

    and alternator

    Oil pump

    Valve train

    Pistons and piston rods

    Crankshaft

    Oil: SAE 15W40

    Oil/coolant

    temperature: 90 C

  • Fig. 46Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    auxiliaries

    valve train

    piston group

    crank shaft

    Perc

    en

    tag

    e

    [%

    ]

    Engine speed [rpm]

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    Percentage Breakdown of Friction in a Modern Car SI Engine

    Source: Grebe, [4]

  • Fig. 47Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    Percentage Breakdown of Friction in a Modern Car SI Engine

    Oil: SAE 15W50

    Oil/Coolant

    Temperature: 90 C

    Power steering pump

    A/C compressor

    Fuel Pump

    Water pump and alternator

    Oil Pump

    Valve Train

    Pistons and piston rods

    unloaded

    Crankshaft

    Engine speed [1/min]

    Mean f

    riciton p

    ressure

    pm

    r[b

    ar]

    Source: Koch, [7]

  • Fig. 48Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    Friction in Car Engines as a function of Swept VolumeM

    ea

    n fri

    citon

    pre

    ssure

    pm

    r[b

    ar]

    einfgen

    Mean f

    riction p

    ressure

    pm

    r[b

    ar]

    Complete engine

    (stripped)

    motor, valve train

    loaded oil pump,

    loaded water pump

    unloaded alternator

    Oil: SAE 15W50

    Oil/Coolant temperature:

    90 C

    Piston displacment [cm]

    Source: Basshuysen, [2]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 49

    Mean

    fri

    cit

    on

    pre

    ssu

    re

    @ 2

    000 r

    pm

    [b

    ar]

    FEV Benchmark 2009

    Model year

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    pmr Benchmark from Model Year 1998 - 2008

    Source: FEV

  • Fig. 50Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Source: Hannibal, [1]

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    Friction Measurement Results from a 1.8l SI Four Cylinder Engine

    Mean effective pressure pme [bar]

    Mean f

    riction p

    ressure

    pm

    r[b

    ar]

  • Fig. 51Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Source: Hannibal, [1]

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    Friction Measurement Results from a 1.8l SI Four Cylinder Engine

    pm

    r[b

    ar]

    Te

    mp

    era

    ture

    T [

    C]

    Mean effective pressure pme [bar]

  • Fig. 52Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Source: Hannibal, [1]

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    Friction Measurement Results from a 1.8l SI Four Cylinder Engine

    pm

    r[b

    ar]

    Mean effective pressure pme [bar]

    Te

    mp

    era

    ture

    T [

    C]

  • Fig. 53Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Source: Hannibal, [1]

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    Friction Measurement Results from a 1.8l SI Four Cylinder Engine

    Te

    mp

    era

    ture

    T [

    C]

    pm

    r[b

    ar]

    Mean effective pressure pme [bar]

  • Fig. 54Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Source: Hannibal, [1]

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    Friction Measurement Results from a 1.8l SI Four Cylinder Engine

    Mean effective pressure pme [bar]

    Blo

    wb

    yQ

    B[m

    n/

    h]

    Blo

    wb

    yra

    te Q

    BR

    [x100 in %

    ]

  • Fig. 55Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Source: Hannibal, [1]

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    Friction Measurement Results from a 1.8l SI Four Cylinder Engine

    Engine speed [1/min]

    TOil=90 C TWE=80 C

    pm

    r[b

    ar]

    Te

    mp

    era

    ture

    T [

    C]

  • Fig. 56Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Source: Hannibal, [1]

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    Friction Measurement Results from a 1.8l SI Four Cylinder Engine

    Mean effective pressure pme [bar]

    pm

    r[b

    ar]

  • Fig. 57Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Source: Hannibal, [1]

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    Friction Measurement Results from a 1.8l SI Four Cylinder Engine

    pm

    r[b

    ar]

    Tem

    pe

    ratu

    re T

    [C

    ]

    Coolant Temp. TWE [ C]

    Toil=90 C

  • Fig. 58Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Source: Hannibal, [1]

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    Friction Measurement Results from a 1.8l SI Four Cylinder Engine

    Coolant Temp. TWE [ C]

    Toil=90 C

    pm

    r[b

    ar]

    Tem

    pe

    ratu

    re T

    [C

    ]

  • Fig. 59Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    Comparison of Measured Mean Friction Pressures

    Source: Basshuysen, [2]

    Mean f

    riction p

    ressure

    pm

    r[b

    ar]

    Mean effective pressure pme [bar]

    Oil/Coolant temperature = 90 C

    Fired engine, variation of load

    Fired engine, zero load

    Motoring mode

  • Fig. 60Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    Influence of the Oil Viscosity on Friction

    Source: Basshuysen, [2]

  • Fig. 61Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    Oil Pressure and Oil Volumetric Flow in the Lubrication Circuit

    Source: Basshuysen, [2]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Fig. 62

    1 Introduction

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    4 Influence of Friction on the Fuel Consumption

    3 Methods for Measuring of Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    7 Friction of the Engine Block Components

    6 Friction of the Valve Train Components

    9 Thermo Management

    11 Reduction of Friction Through Variable Valve Train

    Presentation Outline

    10 Reduction of Idle Speed

    12 Trends In The Engine Development to Reduce Friction

    8 Friction of the Auxiliaries

    13 Summary / Outlook

  • Fig. 63Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    6 Friction of the Valve Train Components

    Friction for Several Valve Train Concepts

    Mechanical lash adjustment in Comparison

    to roller rocker finger

    Bucket with hydraulically lash adjustment 1.6 l 4V (Gen. 2)

    Friction range hydraulic buckets

    Example for a

    bucket with

    mechanical lash

    adjustmentFriction range roller rocker finger

    Engine speed [1/min]

    Mean

    fri

    cti

    on

    pre

    ssu

    re

    [

    bar]

    Source: Grebe, [4]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 64

    6 Friction of the Valve Train Components

    Bucket Valve Train

    Hollow

    camshaft

    Bucket with

    mechanical lash

    adjustment

    Conical

    valve spring

    Example: GM Powertrain 1,6l 4V Twinport Source: Grebe, [4]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 65

    6 Friction of the Valve Train Components

    Torque at the Camshaft

    Total camshaft torque

    Frictional torque

    Torque

    Camshaft angle [ CA]

    To

    rqu

    e

    [N

    m]

    0 CA

    Torque drives cam

    Source: Grebe, [4]

  • Fig. 66Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    6 Friction of the Valve Train Components

    Comparison of Various Valve Train Concepts

    Source: Koch, [5]

  • Fig. 67Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Camshaft bearings

    Valve guide

    Bucket guide

    EHD contact

    Bucket

    Leightweight

    construction

    Roller bearings

    Engine speed [1/min]

    Me

    an fri

    ctio

    n p

    ressu

    re

    [ba

    r]

    6 Friction of the Valve Train Components

    Breakdown of Friction in the Valve Train

    Source: Speckens, [8]

  • Fig. 68Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    6 Friction of the Valve Train Components

    Influence of Coatings

    Dri

    vin

    g t

    orq

    ue o

    f th

    e c

    yli

    nd

    er

    head

    [

    Nm

    ]

    Engine speed [1/min]

    4Cyl.-4Valve (94) (Bucket)

    Optimised (97) (roll)

    Ion- emplanted (98) (roll)

    Source: Goedeckmeyer, [8]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 69

    6 Friction of the Valve Train Components

    Roller Contact To The Cam at the Levers

    Roller

    rocker

    finger

    Roller

    rocker

    arm

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 70

    6 Friction of the Valve Train Components

    DLC-Diamant Coating

    Hard, diamond like

    surface coating,

    mostly applied in PVD

    (physical vapor deposition).

    Direct influence on the

    friction surface.

    DLC coat- thickness 5 m.

    Approximately 5 %

    reduction of friction

    Source: Grebe, [4]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 71

    6 Friction of the Valve Train Components

    Built camshaft with

    needle bearings.

    Needles run directly on

    the hardened camshaft.

    Valves and valve springs

    unaltered for the measuringSource: Grebe, [4]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Fig. 72

    1 Introduction

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    4 Influence of Friction on the Fuel Consumption

    3 Methods for Measuring of Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    7 Friction of the Engine Block Components

    6 Friction of the Valve Train Components

    9 Thermo Management

    11 Reduction of Friction Through Variable Valve Train

    Presentation Outline

    10 Reduction of Idle Speed

    12 Trends In The Engine Development to Reduce Friction

    8 Friction of the Auxiliaries

    13 Summary / Outlook

  • Fig. 73Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    7 Friction of the Engine Block and its Components

    Friction per Crankshaft Main Bearing Over Main Bearing Diameter

    einfgen

    Main bearing diameter [mm]

    2000 rpm

    Oil: SAE 15W50

    Oil/Coolant

    temperature: 90 C

    Regression curve

    for SI engines

    Regression curve

    for diesel engines

    Regression curve

    for SI R engines

    Main bearing diameter [cm]

    Main

    bearing f

    riction m

    om

    ent [N

    m]

    Source: Pischinger, [9];

    Koch, [5]

  • Fig. 74Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    7 Friction of the Engine Block and its Components

    Friction

    0 180 360 540 720

    -100

    -200

    0

    100

    Dyn

    am

    ic f

    riction f

    orc

    e [

    N]

    Piston ring Package:

    Version B: Basic Version

    Version C: Optimized pretension

    and ring height

    Version C

    Motored, full load

    2000 rpm

    Oil/coolant

    temperature: 90 C

    Dynamic friction force measuring system - PIFFO

    Piston friction force

    Crankshaft angle [degree]

    Version B

    Source: Koch, [7]

  • Fig. 75Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    7 Friction of the Engine Block and its Components

    Friction

    Sum of piston ring surfaces pressure

    Mean friction p

    ressure

    [bar]

    Piston rings variants: 1, 2, 3, 4

    Boundary conditions: Trailed, full load

    Temperature 90 C

    Source: Koch, [5]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 76

    7 Friction of the Engine Block and its Components

    Main Influence Parameter of the Crankshaft Component Friction

    Number of rings

    and tangential

    tension

    Gliding surface

    at the side

    Mass of piston

    and piston rod

    Bearing diameter Source: Grebe, [4]

  • Fig. 77Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    7 Friction of the Engine Block and its Components

    Locations of Friction at the Piston Group

    Piston rings

    Piston rod

    bearing cap

    Piston

    Piston

    pin clip

    Large piston

    rod eye

    Piston rod

    bearing

    Piston rod

    Small piston

    rod eye

    Piston rod bearing

    Piston pin

    Piston rod

    screw

    Source: Grebe, [4]

  • Fig. 78Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    7 Friction of the Engine Block and its Components

    Friction

    Fly Wheel

    Crank Shaft

    Crank Shaft

    Bearing Shells

    Starter Gear Ring

    Shaft Extension

    (Mean Bearing)

    Crank Arm

    Crank bow

    Crank Shaft

    Journal

    Axial bearing disc

    Source: Grebe, [4]

  • Fig. 79Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    7 Friction of the Engine Block and its Components

    Kinematic Situation at the Piston Group

    Piston Lateral

    Force FN

    Combustion

    Pressure p

    Piston Force FK

    Radial Force FR

    r: Crank Radius

    M: Engine Torque

    Connection Rod

    Force FP

    Tangential Force

    FT

    Connection Rod

    Force FP

    Source: Grebe, [4]

  • Fig. 80Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    7 Friction of the Engine Block and its Components

    Friction

    Compression Pressure Combustion Pressure

    DS: Pressure

    SiteGDS: Backpressure Site Axis set off

    TDC

    CA

    CA

    CA

    Source: Grebe, [4]

  • Fig. 81Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    7 Friction of the Engine Block and its Components

    Cylinder Bore Wear; Normal Wear Left, Ahead Time Wear Right

    TDC

    Reversal point

    Region of

    high piston

    velocity

    Source: Grebe, [4]

  • Fig. 82Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    7 Friction of the Engine Block and its Components

    Cylinder Wall

    Lubrication Gap

    Piston

    Hydro dynamical

    Pressure

    Piston

    Lateral

    Force

    Source: Grebe, [4]

  • Fig. 83Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    7 Friction of the Engine Block and its Components

    Influence of Roller Bearing of the Crankshaft

    2000 rpm

    Main bearing diameter [mm]

    Plan bearing

    Roller bearing

    Radial shaft sealRoller bearing

    2000 rpm, 90 C

    Friction T

    orq

    ue

    0.2

    5 N

    m

    pm

    e

    0.1

    bar

    Oil Temperature [ C]

    -72 % -55% -41%

    Source: Grebe, [4]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Fig. 84

    1 Introduction

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    4 Influence of Friction on the Fuel Consumption

    3 Methods for Measuring of Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    7 Friction of the Engine Block Components

    6 Friction of the Valve Train Components

    9 Thermo Management

    11 Reduction of Friction Through Variable Valve Train

    Presentation Outline

    10 Reduction of Idle Speed

    12 Trends In The Engine Development to Reduce Friction

    8 Friction of the Auxiliaries

    13 Summary / Outlook

  • Fig. 85Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    8 Friction of the Auxiliaries

    Friction of the Auxiliaries Necessary for the Engine Operation

    Scatter Range

    Engine speed [min-1]

    Me

    an

    frictio

    n p

    ressu

    re p

    mr[b

    ar]

    Serial gasoline

    engine

    Date: 1/2003-1/2009

    Number of Engines: 53

    Oil: 0W30 15W40

    Temperature: 90 C

    Auxiliaries:

    loaded oil pump

    loaded water pump

    unloaded alternator

    (each incl. drive)

    Source: FEV

  • Fig. 86Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    8 Friction of the Auxiliaries

    Friction of Various Oil Pumps

    Oil: 15W40

    Oil/Coolant

    temperature:

    90 C

    Oil pump

    loaded oil pump,

    control valve

    (active),

    pump drive

    Engine speed [min -1]

    Mean f

    riciton

    pre

    ssure

    pm

    r[b

    ar]

    Source: Basshuysen, [2]

  • Fig. 87Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    8 Friction of the Auxiliaries

    Oil Pressure and Oil Volumetric Flow in the Lubrication Circuit

    Source: Basshuysen, [2]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 88

    Water pump

    Valve train

    Piston group

    Engine speed [1/min]Engine speed [1/min]

    Me

    an

    frictio

    n p

    ressu

    re p

    me

    [ba

    r]

    Oil pump

    8 Friction of the Auxiliaries

    Level of Several Engine Components

    Crank

    shaft

    Camshaft drive

    Engine 1

    Conditioning circumstances

    Lubricant-/Coolant temp. 90 C

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Fig. 89

    1 Introduction

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    4 Influence of Friction on the Fuel Consumption

    3 Methods for Measuring of Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    7 Friction of the Engine Block Components

    6 Friction of the Valve Train Components

    9 Thermo Management

    11 Reduction of Friction Through Variable Valve Train

    Presentation Outline

    10 Reduction of Idle Speed

    12 Trends In The Engine Development to Reduce Friction

    8 Friction of the Auxiliaries

    13 Summary / Outlook

  • Fig. 90Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    1 Engine block

    2 Cylinder head

    3 Mechanical main

    cooling pump

    4 Cooling control

    valve

    5 Cooler

    6 Engine cooling

    van with jalousie

    7 Heating

    recuperator

    8 Additional water

    pump

    9 Check valve

    10 Engine

    electronically

    control unit (ECU)

    9 Thermo Management

    Components of the Control Circuit

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 91

    9 Thermo Management

    Example of a Control Circuit

    Source: Grebe, [4]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 92

    9 Thermo Management

    Water Flow

    Water jacket in

    the cylinder headThermostat

    electrically

    heated

    Water manifoldWater jacket in

    the cylinder block

    Water

    pump

    Transfers in the

    head gasket

    Source: Grebe, [4]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 93

    9 Thermo Management

    Influence on Fuel Consumption in the Test Cycles

    Source: Grebe, [4]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 94

    9 Thermo Management

    Working Principle

    Electrically heated thermostat allows engine characteristics

    controlled opening of the thermostat

    Working Principle

    Part load

    High temperature of the cooling fluid (ca. 105-110 C)

    High oil temperature, as the heat transfer is reduced by the

    cooling water

    viscosity of the oil decreases reduced friction

    Full load

    maximal cooling for the frigid cylinder head

    optimized boundary conditions for the engine knocking

    maximized cylinder charging

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 95

    9 Thermo Management

    Range of 70 % Mechanical Effiency

    4 Stroke SI Engine

    Average mechanical

    efficiency: 70%Source:

    MVEG- Test Circle Relevant Range

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 96

    9 Thermo Management

    Empirical Formula

    effective work on the clutch

    indicated work on the piston

    Empirical Formula (Goetz AG)

    specific fuel consumption [g/kWh]

    lowering specific fuel consumption [g/kWh]

    mechanical efficiency [-]

    mean friction pressure [bar]

    lowering mean friction pressure [bar]

    With an average mechanical efficiency of 0.7

    0.05 bar changing in mean friction pressure (at pmr = 1.5 bar)

    causes 1 % in the efficiency / fuel consumption

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Fig. 97

    1 Introduction

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    4 Influence of Friction on the Fuel Consumption

    3 Methods for Measuring of Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    7 Friction of the Engine Block Components

    6 Friction of the Valve Train Components

    9 Thermo Management

    11 Reduction of Friction Through Variable Valve Train

    Presentation Outline

    10 Reduction of Idle Speed

    12 Trends In The Engine Development to Reduce Friction

    8 Friction of the Auxiliaries

    13 Summary / Outlook

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 98

    10 Reduction of Idle Speed

    Fuel Consumption Potential

    Reducing the idling speed decreases fuel consumption

    Rule of thumb:

    Reduction of 100 1/min results:

    SI engine

    0.04 l/h per 1000 cm cubic capacityDiesel engine

    0.022 l/h per 1000 cm cubic capacity

    Source: Grebe, [4]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 99

    10 Reduction of Idle Speed

    Idle Speed Influence

    Source: Grebe, [4]

    Otto engines

    Diesel engines

    Idle speed [1/min]

    Idle

    fuel consum

    ption

    [l /

    h / 1

    000 c

    m]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 100

    10 Reduction of Idle Speed

    Limits

    Combustion System

    - Otto engine with exterior fuel- mixture generation allows ca. 500 600 1/min

    - fuel direct injection allows lower idling speeds due to more stable mixture

    generation and more accurate admeasurement

    Oil Pump Dimensioning

    - Oil pressure has to be assured ( eventually larger oil pump with higher input

    power)

    Vehicle- Auxiliaries Drive System

    - alternator limits the idling speed reduction

    (further improvements through lower mass inertia, decoupling elements, )

    - control assembly dynamic

    Driveaway of the Vehicle

    - engine speed is necessary for the clutch- in process (clutch modulation)

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Fig. 101

    1 Introduction

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    4 Influence of Friction on the Fuel Consumption

    3 Methods for Measuring of Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    7 Friction of the Engine Block Components

    6 Friction of the Valve Train Components

    9 Thermo Management

    11 Reduction of Friction Through Variable Valve Train

    Presentation Outline

    10 Reduction of Idle Speed

    12 Trends In The Engine Development to Reduce Friction

    8 Friction of the Auxiliaries

    13 Summary / Outlook

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 102

    11 Reduction of Friction Through Variable Valve Train

    Fully Variable Valve Train UniValve of Kolbenschmidt Pierburg AG

    guide

    forked lever

    cam

    roller rocker finger

    HLAintake valve

    spring

    '

    working curve

    eccentric shaft

    Source: Hannibal, [10]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 103

    11 Reduction of Friction Through Variable Valve Train

    Friction of the Variable Valve Train UniValve at Low Speeds

    Source: Hannibal, [10]

  • Fig. 104Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    11 Reduction of Friction Through Variable Valve Train

    Friction of the Variable Valve Train UniValve at Low Speeds

    Source: Hannibal, [4]

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Fig. 105

    1 Introduction

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    4 Influence of Friction on the Fuel Consumption

    3 Methods for Measuring of Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    7 Friction of the Engine Block Components

    6 Friction of the Valve Train Components

    9 Thermo Management

    11 Reduction of Friction Through Variable Valve Train

    Presentation Outline

    10 Reduction of Idle Speed

    12 Trends In The Engine Development to Reduce Friction

    8 Friction of the Auxiliaries

    13 Summary / Outlook

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 106

    - Better analysis methods, usage of data basis

    - Reduction of contact surfaces

    - Usage of roller contacts

    - Downsizing

    - Optimisation of the lubrication system

    - Innovative optimized components like chain tensioners etc.

    - Optimisation of the oil quality

    -

    12 Trends in the Engine Development to Reduce Friction

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Fig. 107

    1 Introduction

    2 Basic Theoretical Views of Friction and Lubrication

    4 Influence of Friction on the Fuel Consumption

    3 Methods for Measuring of Friction at Internal Combustion Engines

    5 Friction Behaviour of Combustion Engines Already Built

    7 Friction of the Engine Block Components

    6 Friction of the Valve Train Components

    9 Thermo Management

    11 Reduction of Friction Through Variable Valve Train

    Presentation Outline

    10 Reduction of Idle Speed

    12 Trends In The Engine Development to Reduce Friction

    8 Friction of the Auxiliaries

    13 Summary / Outlook

  • Fig. 108Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    - The reduction of friction is a main development task for achieving a better

    fuel consumption

    - all engine's components have to be optimized

    - The standard valve train will have roller rocker fingers

    - The best variable valve train system will also be based on a roller rocker

    finger design

    - The downsizing concepts will reduce friction thought a consequent light

    weight design

    - The potential of friction reduction of the engine block components has to be

    a main topic in the engine development

    - The friction reduction of the auxiliaries like optimised oil pumps is also

    significant

    - A high political pressure on the CO2 potential reduction will speed up the

    engines development

    13 Summary / Outlook

    References in Addition to the Sources in the Slides

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 109

    13 Summary / Outlook

    References in Addition to the Sources in the Slides

    [1] Hannibal, W.: Reibungsmessungen an einem schnelllaufenden 4-Takt-Ottomotor. Diplomarbeit, Universitt Hannover, 1986

    [2] Basshuysen, R.; Schfer, F.: Internal Combustion. Handbook, SAE InternationalWarrendale, Pa., 2004

    [3] Affenzeller, J.; Glser, H.: Lagerung und Schmierung von Verbrennungsmotoren: Die Verbrennungskraftmaschine.

    Band 8, Springer- Verlag, 1996

    [4] Grebe, P.: Weiterentwicklung des Ottomotors. Vorlesung an der TU Wien, 2010

    [5] Koch, F.; Hermsen, F.; Marckwardt, H.; Haubner, F.: Friction Losses of Combustion Engines Measurements,

    Analysis and Optimization Internal Combustion Engines Experiments and Modeling. Capri, Italy, 15. - 18. 09.1999

    [6] Schwaderlapp, M.; Koch, F.; Bollig, C.; Hermsen, F.; Arndt, M: Leichtbau und Reibungsreduzierung Konstruktive

    Potenziale zur Erfllung von Verbrauchzielen. 21. Internationales Wiener Motorensymposium, Vienna, 04. 05.05.2000

    [7] Koch, F.; Geiger, U.; Hermsen, F.: PIFFO Piston Friction Force Measurement During Engine Operation. SAE

    Paper 960306, 1996

    [8] Speckens, F.; Hermsen, F.; Buck, J.: Konstruktive Wege zum reibungsarmen Ventiltrieb. MTZ 59, 1998

    [9] Pischinger, R.; Kranig, G.; Taucar, G.; Sams, T.: Thermodynamik der Verbrennungskraftmaschine: Die

    Verbrennungskraftmaschine. Band 5, Springer- Verlag, 1989

    [10] Hannibal, W,; Flierl, F.; Schmitt, S.; Lauer, F.: Schopp, G.; Kleinert, G.: Einsatz teilvariabler und vollvariabler

    Ventilsteuerungen fr unterschiedliche Ottomotorenkonzepte. Vortrag auf der 3. ATZ-MTZ Tagung , Ladungswechsel im

    Verbrennungsmotor, 19. Oktober 2010, Stuttgart

    [11] Goedeckmeyer, S.; Windisch, H.: Reibleistungsmessungen an Zylinderkpfen mittels Drehmomentenmessung mit dem

    Drehmoment-Meflansch; Firma HBM, MSR 06/1998

    Additional References:

    [12] Albers, A.: Konstruktionselemente des Maschinenbaus 2. Vorlesungsskript Universitt Karlsruhe, 2008

    [13] Bartz, W.: Grundlagen der Tribologie. Esslingen, 2002

    [14] Kochanovsky, H.: Der Totpunktfehler bei der Bestimmung des indizierten Mitteldruckes von Verbrennungskraftmotoren.

    MTZ 37 (1976) 1/2

    [15] Ullrich, W.: Einfluss des Totpunktfehlers auf die Bestimmung des indizierten Mitteldrucks. Ingolstadt, 1983

    [16] Szengel, R.: Einfluss konstruktiver Parameter auf die Reibungsverluste der Kolbengruppe eines Hubkolbentriebwerkes.

    Dissertation, Universitt Hannover, 1985

    [17] Paland, E.: Hydrodynamische Gleitlager. Vorlesungsskript Universitt Hannover, 1984

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected] 110

    13 Summary / Outlook

    General References in Addition to the Sources in the Slides

    [18] Huber, K.: Reibungsarmer Verbrennungsmotor. Vortrag KKK, 1996

    [19] Affenzeller, J. : Lagerung und Schmierung von Verbrennungsmotoren - Die Verbrennungskraftmaschine. Springer, 1996

    [20] Koch, F.; Haubner, F.; Schwaderlapp, M.: Thermomanagement beim DI Ottomotor Wege zur Verkrzung des

    Warmlaufs. 22. Internationales Wiener Motorensymposium, Vienna, 26.04 - 27.04.2000

    [21] Koch, F.; Geiger U.: Reibungsanalyse der Kolbengruppe im gefeuerten Motorbetrieb. GfT Tribologie- Fachtagung,

    Gttingen, 5/6 November 1996

    [22] Haas, A.: Aufteilung der Triebwerksverluste am schnellaufenden Verbrennungsmotor mittels eines neuen

    Messverfahrens. RWTH Aachen, Dissertation, 1987

    [23] Koch, F.; Fahl, E.; Haas, A.: A New Technique for Measuring the Bore Distortion During Engine Operation. 21st

    International CIMAC Congress, Interlaken, 1995

    [24] Haas, A.; Esch, T.; Fahl, E.;Kreuter P.; Pischinger, F.: Optimized Design of the Lubrication System of Modern

    Combustion Engines. SAE Paper 912407, 1991

    [25] Haas, A.; Fahl, E.; Esch, T.: lpumpen fr eine Verlustarme Motorschmierung. Tagung Nebenaggregate im

    Fahrzeug, Essen, 1992

    [26] Haas, A.; Kreuter, P.; Maassen, F.: Measurement and Analysis of the Requirement of the Dynamical Bearings in High

    Speed Engines. SIA Nr. 91191, Strasbourg, 1991

    [27] Esch, T.: Luft im Schmierl Auswirkungen auf die Schmierstoffeigenschaften und das Betriebsverhalten von

    Verbrennungsmotoren. Lehrstuhl fr Angewandte Thermodynamik, RWTH Aachen, 1992

    [28] Haas, A.; Stecklina, R.; Fahl, E.: Fuel Economy Improvement by Low Friction Engine Design. Second International

    Seminar Worldwide Engine Emission Standards and How to Meet Them, London, 1993

    [29] Haubner, F.; Klopstein, S.; Koch, F.: Cabin Heating A Challenge for the TDI Cooling System. SIA Congress, Lyon,

    10.- 11.05.2000

    [30] Bolenz, K.: Entwicklung und Beeinflussung des Energieverbrauchs von Nebenaggregaten. 3. Aachener Kolloqium

    Fahrzeug- und Motorentechnik, 1991

    [31] Gorille, I.: Leistungsbedarf und Antrieb von Nebenaggregaten. 2. Aachener Kolloqium Fahrzeug- und Motorentechnik,

    1991

    [32] Henneberger, G.: Elektrische Motorausrstung. Vieweg Verlag, Wiesbaden, 1990

    [33] Fahl, E.; Haas, A.; Esch, T.: Dynamisch belastete Gleitlager im Verbrennungsmotor . Tagung, Technische Akademie

    Esslingen, 1990

  • Copyright: Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hannibal, Fachhochschule Sdwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Iserlohn, Germany, contact: [email protected]

    Thank you very

    much for your

    attention

    Fig. 111

    Friction in Internal Combustion Engines

    Mean effective pressure pme [bar]

    Mean f

    riction p

    ressure

    pm

    r[b

    ar]