Four Pillars Zone

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  • 1. Production Zone Presented by: Simon Rayment, Pandor

2. Agenda

  • What is AV
  • The Importance of AV
  • AV Parts
  • Tech Terminology

3. What is AV ?

  • In reference to the event planning and production industry, AV means audio visual
  • This term is generally used to refer to the production elements (equipment, creative work, and technicians) that are combined to present or display content at an event.

4. Where AV came from

  • Radio and television allowed the creation of a pop culture suddenly pop icons had greater followings than ever
  • These large groups of fans wished to personally witness their icon in action either by hearing or seeing them doing what made them famous

5. Where AV came from

  • Events such as Woodstock and performers such as the Beatles and Elvis drive technology to create equipment for large audience applications.
  • Simultaneous to the development of these technologies, the business world was changing

6. Where AV came from

  • The advent of the computer and the computer report created an environment in which data could be readily created and examined.
  • As more of this information became available, celebrating successes or examining problems became possible in real time

7. Where AV came from

  • Through the 1970s and 1980s, projection technologies increased allowing for larger displays in higher light environments.
  • The wide acceptance of Microsoft Office (which includes Power Point) gave every staff the ability to create and present their information easily and effectively

8. Where AV came from

  • The combination of greatly improved sound systems, a readily available stream of information, software that enabled easy creation of content, and the ability to have these presentations displayed on large screens have all driven the industry to its current position.

9. Where AV came from

  • AV is no longer an accessory or afterthought at an event, but has become a focal point of the function

10. The Importance of AV


11. 12. AV Parts

    • Speakers
    • Microphones
    • Consoles, Amps, Processing
    • Screens
    • Cameras
    • Computers
    • Conventional
    • Intelligent
    • LED
    • Stages
    • Rigging
    • Drape


  • An audio system is created by combining several pieces, each with a specific task.A basic audio system includes the following:
    • A SOURCE microphone, instrument, CD player, MP3 player, etc.
    • PROCESSING mixers, equalizers, compressors, effects, etc.
    • AMPLIFICATION amplifiers that take the processed signal and turn it into electrical power
    • SPEAKERS devices that are made up of paper or plastic and magnets that vibrate to create sound waves when they are supplied with power from the amplifiers.

14. Types of Audio Systems

  • Main PA or simply PA
    • This system is directed at the audience to so they can hear it. PA originally meant public address.
  • Monitors
    • This system is typically directed at the stage area to enable performers to hear specifically what they wish to hear to enable optimum performance.
  • Delays
    • This system is to enhance the Main PA in large spaces.It is called a delay due to the fact that the audio signal to this system is delayed to allow the sound waves to be in phase with those of the Main PA.

15. Feedback and Sound Check

  • Feedback is a loop through the audio system that is created when a microphone can hear the speakers either directly or by a reflection of the sound off the floor, stage, wall, set pieces, or ceiling.
  • The sound check time is primarily used to find the frequencies that will cause feedback and eliminate them through the use of an equalizer.After feedback is eliminated, the tone of the sound is adjusted, and other processing done per the request of the performer.


  • Although more complicated and variable than audio systems, video systems are comprised of the same basic elements:
    • A SOURCE camera, playback device, computer
    • PROCESSING switcher, media server
    • SIGNAL DISTRIBUTION DA (distribution amplifier), signal router
    • DISPLAY(S) projection screens, LCD screen, plasma, LED array, or a combination of any number of these

17. Video System Elements

  • Although there are many ways to configure video systems, the most common elements would include:
    • SCREEN + PROJECTOR to allow the audience to see content
    • CONFIDENCE OR PREVIEW MONITOR to allow the presenter to know what is on the screen and/or what is coming up next
    • IMAG literally stands for image magnification and typically refers to the use of cameras and a switcher to allow the audience to see the activities that are happening on the stage
    • VTR literally stands for video tape recorder but typically refers to the video playback and record devices

18. Video Misconceptions

  • To record an event simply put a tape in the video camera and press record
    • Recording video requires access to many elements of production most importantly lighting, but also audio.To achieve a professional result, the lighting and audio must be set up and monitored at a much higher level than simply for a live event.

19. Video Misconceptions

  • I can let the AV company know about my presenters needs when they arrive
    • Strangely a very common misconception, but something as simply as a missing $2 adapter can make it impossible to see or hear a presentation off a laptop.Do they require a DVD player?Is there audio on their Powerpoint?Do they need to switch between computer and video signals?Do they have a computer, or just a jump drive?There are many potentially disastrous pitfalls with this assumption.


  • A lighting system is one which provides light not only for functionality, but for dcor, effect, and entertainment.It includes:
    • A LAMP the source of the light
    • DIMMING the device that determines the brightness of the source
    • CONSOLE tells the dimmer what intensity to make the lamp.For fixtures with additional mechanical features, the console would control the pan, tilt, shutter, colour, gobo, and other features depending on the light

21. Types of Fixtures Three Groups

  • CONVENTIONAL FIXTURES these are the oldest and most reliable fixtures.They are simply a lamp in a housing to control their intensity, a dimmer is required.
    • Par Can - a dirty light that is mostly seen in entertainment applications.Creates uneven light, but is cost effective and reliable.
    • Leko a spot light that can be focused.Often used to light lecterns or for projecting gobos.
    • Fresnel a wash light most often used to light large areas such as stages or sets.Commonly requested by video crews to provide the lighting required for recording.

22. Types of Fixtures Three Groups

  • INTELLIGENT FIXTURES have built in features that could include the ability to dim, strobe, shutter, pan, tilt, adjust colour, gobos, and more.Although very versatile, they are expensive and less reliable than conventional lighting.
    • Scanners have a mirror off which the light is reflected.Moving the mirror creates the effect of the light beam moving.These fixtures have a variety of colours and gobos.
    • Moving Head these fixtures use motors to physically move the part of the light that contains the lamp and the mechanics.They have a much greater range of motion than scanners, and are available in much more powerful varieties for a cost.

23. Types of Fixtures Three Groups

  • LED FIXTURES the newest type of fixture to be available.They are exceptionally efficient, produce little or no heat, are very rugged, and are most often available in arrays that allow colour control.Literally hundreds of types of fixtures and applications
    • Available in tubes, blocks, tiles, strings, and arrays.
    • Although typically n