1. Economic cosequencesOnly briefly hintedEg.: Fielding mentions to Godbole and Adela that mangoescan now be purchased in England: They ship them in ice-coldrooms. You can make India in England apparently, just as youcan make England in India. (Chap 7)Claim to be in India for the good of the Indians buteconomically exploit them Increase wealth trade system- beneficial entirely to one party
2. Religious Rivalry.......Muslims and Hindus have always beenand continue tobeantagonists in India. In A Passage to India, the relationshipbetween Dr. Aziz, a Muslim, and Dr. Panna Lal, a Hinduunderscores the tension between Muslims and Hindus. Azizand Lal despise each other, and Lal agrees to testify againstAziz at the trial.Throughout the novel, Azizthough deeply insulted by Britishprejudice against Indiansfrequently deprecates Hindus withunfounded generalizations in the same way that the British findfault with the native populace.
3. Of the Bhattacharya family, he says, "Slack Hindustheyhave no idea of society; I know them very well because of adoctor [Panna Lal] at the hospital. Such a slack, unpunctual fellow!" Azizand no doubtmany other Indiansalso object to Christian Converting, asa passage in Chapter 9 indicates.Aziz is lying sick in bed when he could hear church bells ashe drowsed, both from the civil station and from themissionaries out beyond the slaughter housedifferentbells and rung with different intent, for one set was callingfirmly to Anglo-India [the British], and the other feebly tomankind.
4. He did not object to the first set; the other he ignored,knowing their inefficiency. Old Mr. Gaylord and Young Mr. Sorley [Christianmissionaries] made converts during a famine, becausethey distributed food; but when times improved theywere naturally left alone again, and though surprisedand aggrieved each time this happened, they neverlearnt wisdom.
5. Hope.......The final section of the novelwhich takes place inthe Hindu city of Mau, to which Aziz has relocatedoffers hope for a better future. First, Muslim Aziz receives help from Hindu Godbole.Muslims and Hindus are rivals, but Aziz and Godboledemonstrate that traditional antagonists can get alongwhen they treat each other with respect and livetogether as equals.
6. Second, Aziz reconciles with Cyril Fielding andbefriends Mrs. Moore's son, Ralph. However, Aziz cautions Fielding that they will neverhave a lasting friendship until the English leave India.
7. Culture ClashNegative portrayal:Clash between Christian and Hindu beliefsMrs Moores conditioned values and the idea of oneness even good and evilPositive portrayal:Part 3Hindu festival in MauEnacts Lord Krishnas birthJoy & affirmationMystery of Indian spirituality
8. Fieldings response - culture clashDoes not believe in GodNo interest in contrast between Eastern- Western spiritualityBut- chap 23- feels far more at home with Westernarchitecture he encounters in Venice- than Indian temples
9. God & ReligionForster not a religious man/ writerBut Religion major preoccupationIndia: meeting point of 3 worlds historic religions(Islam, Christianity, Hinduism).Corresponds with 3 parts of the book (Mosque, Cave,Temple)
10. For e.g.:Aziz loves cultural & social aspects of the Islamic heritageLess concerned with its theology & religious practiceAware that Moslems minority feels a special kinship withother MoslemsAnglo- Indians nominal reps of ChristianityRonny admits for him Christianity is fine in its place -- But-notlet it interfere with civil dutyMrs Moore Christian in her outlook experience a crisis offaith in the caves
11. Hinduism: main religion of IndiaGodbole- central Hindu figureMost religious characterHinduism (to him) : completeness, notreconstruction.central principal: total acceptance of things as they areForster suggests- most positive spiritual approach tolifeMost representative of the true spirit of India
12. Symbols: The Marabar Caves The Green Bird The WaspMotifs: The Echo Eastern and Western Architecture Godboles Song
13. The Caves .......E. M. Forster modeled the fictional caves in APassage to India on actual caves about twelvemiles from the city of Gaya in the state of Bihar.However, the real caves are known as the BarabarCaves, not the Marabar Caves (Forster's fictionalname for them).
14. A Buddhist ruler of the second century BC, tolerant ofother religions, ordered workers to hew the caves fromrock faces as holy places for monks of the Ajivika religion.There are four Barabar caves.Their smooth interior walls sustain prolonged echoes.
15. The Cave EchoWhat It Means to Mrs. Moore and How It Affects AdelaIn the first of the Marabar Caves, all soundssneezes,whistles, shoutsreturn the same echo: boum, or avariation of it such as ou-boum.This echo appears to mock the Hindu concept thatthe entire universeand everything in itconsists ofa single essence, Brahman (not to be confused withBrahmin or Brahma).
16. Even the human soul, called atma by Hindus, is partof this essence.Thus, a whistle is a sneeze and a sneeze is a soul,since all are Brahmanthat is, all are the sameessence.
17. The echo unnerves Mrs. Moore because she vaguelyunderstands that it represents a force that reduceseverything to samenessa monotonous, empty sameness.Even biblical words that she had lived by become part of theBrahman and thus lose their meaning, as reported by thenarrator in the last paragraph of Chapter 14.Mrs. Moore is attempting to write a letter to her children,Stella and Ralph, when ruminating over her experience inthe cave.
18. [S]uddenly, at the edge of her mind, Religion appeared,poor little talkative Christianity, and she knew that all itsdivine words from Let there be Light to It is finished onlyamounted to boum.Then she was terrified over an area larger than usual; theuniverse, never comprehensible to her intellect, offered norepose to her soul . . .........Thereafter, her experience in the cave haunts her, andshe becomes irritable and depressed.
19. Like the biblical words, her life and everything shebelieves in lose their meaning.India had fascinated her when she arrived in thecountry; now it repels her.Its intriguing mystery has turned into the muddlespoken of by other Britons.
20. No, she does not curse the country andits people as Major Callendar and Mrs.Turton do.Nor does she side with Adela against Azizin the days leading up to the trial. But she can no longer tolerate India; it istoo much for her.
21. She decides to leave. She does not even stay to testify for Aziz.Why should I be in the witness box? she later says to her sonRonny. I have nothing to do with your ludicrous law courts.The narrator then reports Heaslop's thoughts:She was by no means the dear old lady outsiders supposed,and India had brought her out in the open.
22. .......Elderly and in declining health, oppressed by theAsian heat, she dies aboard the ship and becomes partof the vast emptiness of the Indian Ocean........Like Mrs. Moore, Adela Quested is fascinated withIndia when she arrives in the country. But she worries that its unbridled diversity will turnher into just another cynical, disenchanted Anglo-Indian if she marries Ronny Heaslop and becomes aresident of India.
23. However, she sees a glimmer of hope in Indian history, inparticular in the person of the Mogul emperor Akbar (1542-1605), who reigned from 1556 until his death. To unify the populace, he instituted reforms thatcentralized government functions. And, though a Muslim,he promoted dialogue between people of all religionsHindus, Muslims, Parsis, and so onand even attempted toestablish a new religion that combined elements of otherreligions.
24. .......When discussing Akbar with Aziz(Chapter 14), Adela says, [W]asn't Akbar'snew religion very fine? It was to embrace the whole of India.Aziz, acknowledging that Akbar was a greatruler, responds that Akbar's idea of a singleIndian religion was wrong.
25. Nothing embraces the whole of India, nothing, nothing,and that was Akbar's mistake. Adela then says, I hopeyou're not right.There will have to be something universal in this countryIdon't say religion, for I'm not religious, but something, orhow else are barriers to be broken down.
26. She ends up saying that without a unifying force she wouldfind it difficult as an Anglo-Indian to avoid becoming likethem [Mrs Turton and Mrs. Callendar]........Later, when she enters one of the upper caves alone, shescratches a wall and hears the echo.
27. It is at this moment, she later reports, that Aziz attacks her.She fights back with her field glasses, escapes the cave, racesthrough a field of cactuses that tear her skin and embedneedles in it, and returns with Miss Derek to Chandrapore.
28. She is disoriented, in a state of shock. Afterher recovery, she repeatedly hears the echo.But unlike Mrs. Moore, she has no clue asto its meaning.When she asks the old woman what itmeans, Mrs. Moore replies, If you don'tknow, you don't know; I can't tell you.
29. .......Unable to understand the sound, she becomeslike the other English men and women who cannotunderstand Indians.She even begins to question her own perceptivenessand begins to realize that she has falsely accused Aziz.
30. But Ronny and the others, who are using her as aninstrument to punish the Indians, persuade her that she wasright about Aziz.At the trial, however, she musters the courage to admit shewas wrong and drops the charges. She too then leaves India........The departure of Miss Quested and Mrs. Mooreforeshadows the historical British exit from India in 1947,which Forster may have seen as inevitable.