PHILIPPINE HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
PHASES OF PREHISTORIC PERIOD
FORMATIVE PHASECultural Developments ca. 50,000-500 B.C.
>2 major industries were involved: a. Stone-Tool Making b.
pebble/cobble tools >flake tools B. Polished Stone-Tools (ca.
8,000-500 B.C.) >early polished tools >late polished
PRIMITIVE CULTURE>They use stone in hunting animals like
pygmy elephant (gadya) and rhinoceros.
A. Early Stone-Tools >Cagayan Valley, Northern Philippines
(200,000 years ago) but no human fossils. >pebble/cobble tools
These are made from rolled river stones, they are crudely shaped
into pointed instruments, and used to obtain the marrow of large
bones or breaking up the skull of an elephant for its brain.
>flake tools - They are smaller stones with sharp edges, used
to skin bagged animals or to scrape wooden objects to form digging
sticks or spears.
B. Polished Stone-Tools >early polished tools - Tools during
the early phase of this development included roughly flaked tools,
with ground blades or cutting edges. At this time, only the cutting
edges were polished. Our ancestors found this innovation efficient
and effective in harnessing the environment for survival.
>late polished tools The next to appear were the oval-shaped,
cross-section tools with bodies and blades that were ground and
II. CERAMICS INDUSTRY(ca. 1,500 B.C.) A. Method of Manufacturing
B. Pottery Types C. Jar Coffins
A. Method of Manufacturing >The process of pottery making
involved kneading, molding, drying, and firing. >Fine sand was
plastered around the pots before drying as additional material.
>The whole process was initially done by hand. >Later paddles
made of wood were used to achieve the desired shape.
B. Pottery Types >Some pots are plain, others were decorated,
others were varnished probably with almaciga. >Simple
flat-bottom bowls were common. >Different forms were known,
these included numerous chalice and goblet-like wares.
C. Jar Coffins>Early ceramics, particularly jars, were
associated with burial practices before they were used for other
purposes. >Archeological materials recovered in many parts of
the country reveal two types of burials practices; primary and
Manunggul JarLife after Death >that soul was immortal
III. OTHER ECONOMIC ACTIVITIESA. Foraging and Gathering B.
Hunting and Fishing >use of fire C. Horticulture
A. Foraging and Gathering
B. Hunting and Fishing
> Our ancestors were also >They roamed around great
hunters. the nearby forests, >The most common streams, rivers,
and technique was stalking seashores looking for and ambush. food.
>They were also >It was a simple type fishermen. Their
technique of existence. was simple, they caught >They were part
of fish either by hand or by their surrounding world, spearing with
pointed the original nature sticks. lovers.
Use of Fire >A piece of charcoal was found 30,000 years ago
in the archipelago. >How fire was discovered is not known. But
many archeological sites, dated as early as 5,000 BC, have yielded
empty edible shells mixed with charcoal, indicating the use of fire
in preparing food. In fact, it is apparently due to the use of fire
that other complexities in group life were formed.
C. Horticulture >Archeologists argue that agriculture
developedabout the later part of the Formative Phase. It was during
this time that other plants (like tubers) and animals (like pigs
and chickens) were domesticated for carbohydrates and protein
respectively. >Agriculture was horticultural. Small patches of
soil close to the campsites were planted with edible crops thereby
assuring early men of food, lessening their long tiring travels
>As this took place, the people became semisedentary. They moves
about hunting and gathering only during certain seasons of the