Flash (photography) The high-speed wing action of a hummingbird hawk-moth is frozen by flash. The flash has given the foreground more illu- mination than the background. See Inverse-square law. A flash is a device used in photography producing a flash of artificial light (typically 1/1000 to 1/200 of a second) at a color temperature of about 5500 K to help illumi- nate a scene. A major purpose of a flash is to illuminate a dark scene. Other uses are capturing quickly moving objects or changing the quality of light. Flash refers ei- ther to the flash of light itself or to the electronic flash unit discharging the light. Most current flash units are electronic, having evolved from single-use flashbulbs and flammable powders. Modern cameras often activate flash units automatically. Flash units are commonly built directly into a camera. Some cameras allow separate flash units to be mounted via a standardized “accessory mount” bracket (a hot shoe). In professional studio equipment, flashes may be large, standalone units, or studio strobes, powered by special battery packs or connected to mains power. They are either synchronized with the camera using a flash syn- chronization cable or radio signal, or are light-triggered, meaning that only one flash unit needs to be synchro- nized with the camera, and in turn triggers the other units, called slaves. 1 Types of flash 1.1 Flash-lamp Main article: Flash-lamp Studies of magnesium by Bunsen and Roscoe in 1859 1909 flash-lamp 1903 view camera showed that burning this metal produced a light with simi- lar qualities to daylight. The potential application to pho- tography inspired Edward Sonstadt to investigate meth- ods of manufacturing magnesium so that it would burn re- liably for this use. He applied for patents in 1862 and by 1864 had started the Manchester Magnesium Company with Edward Mellor. With the help of engineer William Mather, who was also a director of the company, they produced flat magnesium ribbon, which was said to burn more consistently and completely so giving better illumi- nation than round wire. It also had the benefit of being a simpler and cheaper process than making round wire. [1] Mather was also credited with the invention of a holder for the ribbon, which formed a lamp to burn it in. [2] A variety of magnesium ribbon holders were produced by other manufacturers, such as the Pistol Flashmeter, which incorporated an inscribed ruler that allowed the photog- rapher to use the correct length of ribbon for the exposure they needed. The packaging also implies that the magne- sium ribbon was not necessarily broken off before being ignited. An alternative to ribbon was flash powder, a mixture of 1

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Flash (photography)

The high-speed wing action of a hummingbird hawk-moth isfrozen by flash. The flash has given the foreground more illu-mination than the background. See Inverse-square law.

A flash is a device used in photography producing a flashof artificial light (typically 1/1000 to 1/200 of a second)at a color temperature of about 5500 K to help illumi-nate a scene. A major purpose of a flash is to illuminatea dark scene. Other uses are capturing quickly movingobjects or changing the quality of light. Flash refers ei-ther to the flash of light itself or to the electronic flashunit discharging the light. Most current flash units areelectronic, having evolved from single-use flashbulbs andflammable powders. Modern cameras often activate flashunits automatically.Flash units are commonly built directly into a camera.Some cameras allow separate flash units to be mountedvia a standardized “accessorymount” bracket (a hot shoe).In professional studio equipment, flashes may be large,standalone units, or studio strobes, powered by specialbattery packs or connected to mains power. They areeither synchronized with the camera using a flash syn-chronization cable or radio signal, or are light-triggered,meaning that only one flash unit needs to be synchro-nized with the camera, and in turn triggers the other units,called slaves.

1 Types of flash

1.1 Flash-lamp

Main article: Flash-lampStudies of magnesium by Bunsen and Roscoe in 1859

1909 flash-lamp1903 view camera

showed that burning this metal produced a light with simi-lar qualities to daylight. The potential application to pho-tography inspired Edward Sonstadt to investigate meth-ods of manufacturingmagnesium so that it would burn re-liably for this use. He applied for patents in 1862 and by1864 had started the Manchester Magnesium Companywith Edward Mellor. With the help of engineer WilliamMather, who was also a director of the company, theyproduced flat magnesium ribbon, which was said to burnmore consistently and completely so giving better illumi-nation than round wire. It also had the benefit of being asimpler and cheaper process than making round wire.[1]Mather was also credited with the invention of a holderfor the ribbon, which formed a lamp to burn it in.[2] Avariety of magnesium ribbon holders were produced byother manufacturers, such as the Pistol Flashmeter, whichincorporated an inscribed ruler that allowed the photog-rapher to use the correct length of ribbon for the exposurethey needed. The packaging also implies that the magne-sium ribbon was not necessarily broken off before beingignited.An alternative to ribbon was flash powder, a mixture of


Page 2: Flash (Photography)


magnesium powder and potassium chlorate, introducedby its German inventors Adolf Miethe and JohannesGaedicke in 1887. Ameasured amount was put into a panor trough and ignited by hand, producing a brief brilliantflash of light, along with the smoke and noise that mightbe expected from such an explosive event. This could bea life-threatening activity, especially if the flash powderwas damp.[3] An electrically triggered flash lamp was in-vented by Joshua Lionel Cowen in 1899. His patent de-scribes a device for igniting photographers’ flash powderby using dry cell batteries to heat a wire fuse. Variationsand alternatives were touted from time to time and a fewfound a measure of success in the marketplace, especiallyfor amateur use. In 1905, one French photographer wasusing intense non-explosive flashes produced by a specialmechanized carbon arc lamp to photograph subjects inhis studio,[4] but more portable and less expensive devicesprevailed. On through the 1920s, flash photography nor-mally meant a professional photographer sprinkling pow-der into the trough of a T-shaped flash lamp, holding italoft, then triggering a brief and (usually) harmless bit ofpyrotechnics.

1.2 Flashbulbs

Kodak Brownie Hawkeye with “Kodalite Flasholder” and Sylva-nia P25 blue-dot daylight-type flashbulb

The use of flash powder in an open lamp was replacedby flash bulbs; magnesium filaments were contained inbulbs filled with oxygen gas, and electrically ignited by acontact in the camera shutter.[5] Manufactured flashbulbswere first produced commercially in Germany in 1929.[6]Such a bulb could only be used once, and was too hotto handle immediately after use, but the confinement ofwhat would otherwise have amounted to a small explo-sion was an important advance. A later innovation wasthe coating of flashbulbs with a plastic film to maintainbulb integrity in the event of the glass shattering duringthe flash. A blue plastic film was introduced as an op-tion to match the spectral quality of the flash to daylight-balanced colour film. Subsequently, the magnesium wasreplaced by zirconium, which produced a brighter flash.

Flashbulbs took longer to reach full brightness and burnedfor longer than electronic flashes. Slower shutter speeds(typically from 1/10 to 1/50 of a second) were used oncameras to ensure proper synchronization. Cameras withflash synch triggered the flashbulb a fraction of a secondbefore opening the shutter, allowing faster shutter speeds.A flashbulb widely used during the 1960s was the Press25, the (about 1 inch (25 mm) in diameter) flashbulb of-ten used by newspapermen in period movies, usually at-tached to a press camera or a twin-lens reflex camera. Itspeak light output was around a million lumens. Otherflashbulbs in common use were the M-series, M-2, M-3etc., which had a small (“miniature”) metal bayonet basefused to the glass bulb.The all-glass AG-1 bulb was introduced in 1958. Elim-inating both the metal base, and the multiple manufac-turing steps needed to attach it to the glass bulb, cut thecost substantially compared to the larger M series bulbs.The AG-1 (along with the M2) had a faster ignition time(less delay between shutter contact and peak output), soit could be used with X synch below 1/30 of a second—while most bulbs require a shutter speed of 1/15 on Xsynch to keep the shutter open long enough for the bulbto ignite and burn.[7]

1.2.1 Flashcubes, Magicubes and Flipflash

Flashcube fitted to a Kodak Instamatic camera, showing bothunused (left) and used (right) bulbs

In the late 1960s Kodak improved their Instamatic cam-era line by replacing the individual flashbulb technol-ogy (used on early Instamatics) with the Flashcube. Aflashcube was a single-use module with four flashbulbsmounted at 90° from the others in its own reflector. Foruse it was mounted on a swivel mechanism atop the cam-era that also provided an electrical connection to the shut-ter release and a battery inside the camera. After eachexposure, the film advance mechanism also rotated theflashcube 90° to a fresh bulb. This arrangement allowedthe user to take four images in rapid succession beforeinserting a new flashcube.

Page 3: Flash (Photography)

1.4 High speed flash 3

Undersides of Flashcube (left) and Magicube (right) cartridges

“Flip flash” type cartridge

The later Magicube (or X-Cube) retained the four-bulbformat, and was superficially similar to the originalFlashcube. However, the Magicube did not require elec-trical power. Each bulb was set off by a plastic pin in thecube mount that released a cocked spring wire within thecube. This wire struck a primer tube at the base of thebulb, which contained a fulminate, which in turn ignitedshredded zirconium foil in the flash. Magicubes couldalso be fired by inserting a thin object, such as a key orpaper clip, into one of the slots in the bottom of the cube.Flashcubes and Magicubes look similar but are not inter-changeable. Cameras requiring flashcubes have a roundsocket and a round hole for the flashcube’s pin, whilethose requiring Magicubes have a round shape with pro-truding studs and a square socket hole for the Magicube’ssquare pin. The Magicube socket can also be seen as anX, which accounts for its alternate name, the X-Cube.Other common flashbulb-based devices were the Flash-bar and Flipflash which provided about ten flashes froma single unit. The Flipflash name derived from the factthat once half the flashes had been used up, the unit wasflipped over and re-inserted to use the remainder.

1.3 Electronic flash

Electronic flash was developed after flashbulbs, and even-tually superseded them as prices came down; flashbulbsare virtually obsolete. A typical electronic flash unit haselectronic circuitry to charge a high-capacity capacitor toseveral hundred volts. When the flash is triggered by theshutter’s flash synchronization contact, the capacitor isdischarged almost instantaneously through a flash tube,

producing a flash of very brief duration almost instanta-neously (i.e., the flash duration, often around 1/1000 of asecond, is shorter than the fastest practical shutter speed,and full brightness is reached before the shutter has timeto close appreciably). Synchronization of full flash bright-ness with maximum shutter opening was problematicalwith bulbs which took an appreciable time to ignite andreach full brightness; electronic flash does not have thesedifficulties. Electronic flash units are sometimes calledspeedlights or strobes in the USA.Simple electronic flash units are often mounted on or nearthe camera; many inexpensive cameras have an electronicflash unit built in.

Two professional xenon tube flashes

Some lenses have built-in (ring-)flash lights for shadowfree macro photography, but there are also accessory ringflashes available.In a photographic studio, more powerful and flexiblestudio flash systems are used. They usually contain amodeling light, an incandescent light bulb close to theflash tube; the continuous illumination of the modelinglight lets the photographer visualize the effect of the flash.A system may comprise multiple synchronised flashes formulti-source lighting.The strength of a flash device is often indicated in termsof a guide number designed to simplify exposure setting.The energy released by larger studio flash units, such asmonolights, is indicated in watt-seconds.

1.4 High speed flash

An air-gap flash is a high-voltage device that dischargesa flash of light with an exceptionally short duration, oftenmuch less than one microsecond. These are commonlyused by scientists or engineers for examining extremelyfast-moving objects or reactions, famous for producingimages of bullets tearing through light bulbs and balloons(see Harold Eugene Edgerton).

Page 4: Flash (Photography)


A photo of a Smith & Wesson Model 686 firing, taken with ahigh speed air-gap flash. The photo was taken in a darkenedroom, with camera’s shutter open and the flash was triggered bythe sound of the shot using a microphone.

1.5 Multi-flash

A camera that implements multiple flashes can be used tofind depth edges or create stylized images. Such a camerahas been developed by researchers at theMitsubishi Elec-tric Research Laboratories (MERL). Successive flashingof strategically placed flash mechanisms results in shad-ows along the depths of the scene. This information canbe manipulated to suppress or enhance details or capturethe intricate geometric features of a scene (even thosehidden from the eye), to create a non-photorealistic im-age form. Such images could be useful in technical ormedical imaging.[8]

1.6 Flash intensity

Unlike flashbulbs, the intensity of an electronic flash canbe adjusted on some units. To do this, smaller flashunits typically vary the capacitor discharge time, whereaslarger (e.g., higher power, studio) units typically vary thecapacitor charge. Color temperature can change as a re-sult of varying the capacitor charge, thus making colorcorrections necessary. Due to advances in semiconduc-tor technology, some studio units can now control inten-sity by varying the discharge time and thereby provideconsistent color temperature.[9]

Flash intensity is typically measured in stops or in frac-tions (1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 etc.). Some monolights display an“EU Number”, so that a photographer can know the dif-ference in brightness between different flash units withdifferent watt-second ratings. EU10.0 is defined as 6400watt-seconds, and EU9.0 is one stop lower, i.e. 3200watt-seconds.[10]

1.7 Flash duration

Flash duration is commonly described by two numbersthat are expressed in fractions of a second:

• t.1 is the length of time the light intensity is above0.1 (10%) of the peak intensity

• t.5 is the length of time the light intensity is above0.5 (50%) of the peak intensity

For example, a single flash event might have a t.5 value of1/1200 and t.1 of 1/450. These values determine the abil-ity of a flash to “freeze” moving subjects in applicationssuch as sports photography.In cases where intensity is controlled by capacitor dis-charge time, t.5 and t.1 decrease with decreasing inten-sity. Conversely, in cases where intensity is controlledby capacitor charge, t.5 and t.1 increase with decreasingintensity due to the non-linearity of the capacitor’s dis-charge curve.

1.8 Flash LED used in phones

High-current flash LEDs are used as flash sources in cam-era phones, although they are not yet at the power levels toequal xenon flash devices (that are rarely used in phones)in still cameras. The major advantages of LEDs overxenon include low voltage operation, higher efficiency,and extreme miniaturization. The LED flash can also beused for illumination of video recording as well as meter-ing and AF assist.

1.9 Focal-plane-shutter synchronization

Electronic flash units have compatibility issues with focal-plane shutters. Focal-plane shutters expose using twocurtains that cross the sensor. The first one opens and thesecond curtain follows it after a delay equal to the nom-inal shutter speed. A typical modern focal-plane shuttertakes about 1/200 s to cross the sensor, so at exposuretimes shorter than this only part of the sensor is uncov-ered at any one time. Electronic flash can have durationsas short as 50 µs, so at such short exposure times only partof the sensor is exposed. This limits the shutter speed toabout 1/200 s when using flash. In the past, slow-burningsingle-use flash bulbs allowed the use of focal-plane shut-ters at maximum speed because they produced continu-ous light for the time taken for the exposing slit to crossthe film gate. If these are found they cannot be used onmodern cameras because the bulb must be fired *before*the first shutter curtain begins to move (M-sync); the X-sync used for electronic flash normally fires only when thefirst shutter curtain reaches the end of its travel.High-end flash units address this problem by offeringa mode, typically called FP sync or HSS (High SpeedSync), which fires the flash tube multiple times duringthe time the slit traverses the sensor. Such units requirecommunication with the camera and are thus dedicatedto a particular camera make. The multiple flashes resultin a significant decrease in guide number, since each is

Page 5: Flash (Photography)


only a part of the total flash power, but it’s all that illu-minates any particular part of the sensor. In general, ifs is the shutter speed, and t is the shutter traverse time,the guide number reduces by √s / t. For example, if theguide number is 100, and the shutter traverse time is 5 ms(a shutter speed of 1/200s), and the shutter speed is set to1/2000 s (0.5 ms), the guide number reduces by a factorof √0.5 / 5, or about 3.16, so the resultant guide numberat this speed would be about 32.Current (2010) flash units frequently have much lowerguide numbers in HSS mode than in normal modes, evenat speeds below the shutter traverse time. For example,the Mecablitz 58 AF-1 digital flash unit has a guide num-ber of 58 in normal operation, but only 20 in HSS mode,even at low speeds.

2 Technique

Image exposed without additional lighting (left) andwith fill flash(right)

Lighting produced by direct flash (left) and bounced flash (right)

As well as dedicated studio use, flash may be used as themain light source where ambient light is inadequate, oras a supplementary source in more complex lighting situ-ations. Basic flash lighting produces a hard, frontal lightunless modified in some way.[11] Several techniques areused to soften light from the flash or provide other effects.

• Softboxes, diffusers that cover the flash lamp, scatterdirect light and reduce its harshness.

• Reflectors, including umbrellas, flat-white back-grounds, drapes and reflector cards are commonly

used for this purpose (even with small hand-heldflash units).

• Bounce flash is a related technique in which flashis directed onto a reflective surface, for example awhite ceiling or a flash umbrella, which then re-flects light onto the subject. It can be used as fill-flash or, if used indoors, as ambient lighting for thewhole scene. Bouncing creates softer, less artificial-looking illumination than direct flash, often reduc-ing overall contrast and expanding shadow and high-light detail, and typically requires more flash powerthan direct lighting.[11] Part of the bounced light canbe also aimed directly on the subject by “bouncecards” attached to the flash unit which increase theefficiency of the flash and illuminate shadows castby light coming from the ceiling. It’s also possibleto use one’s own palm for that purpose, resulting inwarmer tones on the picture, as well as eliminatingthe need to carry additional accessories.

• Fill flash or “fill-in flash” describes flash used to sup-plement ambient light in order to illuminate a sub-ject close to the camera that would otherwise be inshade relative to the rest of the scene. The flashunit is set to expose the subject correctly at a givenaperture, while shutter speed is calculated to cor-rectly expose for the background or ambient lightat that aperture setting. Secondary or slave flashunits may be synchronized to the master unit to pro-vide light from additional directions. The slave unitsare electrically triggered by the light from the mas-ter flash. Many small flashes and studio monolightshave optical slaves built in. Wireless radio transmit-ters, such as PocketWizards, allow the receiver unitto be around a corner, or at a distance too far to trig-ger using an optical sync.

• Strobe: Some high end units can be set to flash aspecified number of times at a specified frequency.This allows action to be frozen multiple times in asingle exposure.[12]

• Colored gels can also be used to change the colorof the flash. Correction gels are commonly used,so that the light of the flash is the same as tungstenlights (using a CTO gel) or fluorescent lights.

Page 6: Flash (Photography)


3 Drawbacks


No flashLeft: the distance limitation as seen when taking pictureof the wooden floor. Right: the same picture taken withincandescent ambient light, using a longer exposure anda higher ISO speed setting. The distance is no longerrestricted, but the colors are unnatural because of a lackof color temperature compensation, and the picture maysuffer from more grain or noise.

• Using on-camera flash will give a very harsh light,which results in a loss of shadows in the image, be-cause the only lightsource is in practically the sameplace as the camera. Balancing the flash power andambient lighting or using off-camera flash can helpovercome these issues. Using an umbrella or soft-box (the flash will have to be off-camera for this)makes softer shadows.

• A typical problem with cameras using built-in flashunits is the low intensity of the flash; the level of lightproduced will often not suffice for good pictures atdistances of over 3metres (10 ft) or so. Dark, murkypictures with excessive image noise or “grain” willresult. In order to get good flash pictures with sim-ple cameras, it is important not to exceed the recom-mended distance for flash pictures. Larger flashes,especially studio units and monoblocks, have suf-ficient power for larger distances, even through anumbrella, and can even be used against sunlight, atshort distances.

• The extquotedblred-eye effect extquotedbl is an-other problem with on camera and ring flash units.Since the retina of the human eye reflects red light

straight back in the direction it came from, picturestaken from straight in front of a face often exhibitthis effect. It can be somewhat reduced by using the“red eye reduction” found on many cameras (a pre-flash that makes the subject’s irises contract). How-ever, very good results can be obtained only with aflash unit that is separated from the camera, suffi-ciently far from the optical axis, or by using bounceflash, where the flash head is angled to bounce lightoff a wall, ceiling or reflector.

• On some cameras the flash exposuremeasuring logicfires a pre-flash very quickly before the real flash. Insome camera/people combinations this will lead toshut eyes in every picture taken. The blink responsetime seems to be around 1/10 of a second. If the ex-posure flash is fired at approximately this interval af-ter the TTLmeasuring flash, people will be squintingor have their eyes shut. One solutionmay be the FEL(flash exposure lock) offered on some more expen-sive cameras, which allows the photographer to firethe measuring flash at some earlier time, long (manyseconds) before taking the real picture. Unfortu-nately many camera manufacturers do not make theTTL pre-flash interval configurable.

• Flash distracts people, limiting the number of pic-tures that can be taken without irritating them.

• Photographing with flash may not be permitted insome museums even after purchasing a permit fortaking pictures.

• Flash equipment may take some time to set up, andlike any grip equipment, may need to be carefullysecured, especially if hanging overhead, so it doesnot fall on anyone. A small breeze can easily topplea flash with an umbrella on a lightstand if it is nottied down or sandbagged. Larger equipment (e.g.monoblocks) will need a supply of AC power.

4 Gallery

• Front and back views of an Agfa Tully flash attach-ment for AG-1 flashbulbs, 1960

• A package of AG-1B flashbulbs with an AG-1 flashattachment

• Front and back views of aMinoltaAuto 28 electronicflashlamp ca 1978

5 See also

• Air-gap flash

• Battery–capacitor flash

Page 7: Flash (Photography)


• Guide number

• Flash synchronization

• Inverse-square law

• List of photographic equipment makers

• Ring flash

• Flash comparison

• Flash-lamp

• Flashtube

• Through-the-lens metering

6 References

[1] McNeil, Ian (2002). An Encyclopaedia of the History ofTechnology. Routledge. p. 113-114. Retrieved 14August2014.

[2] Chapman, James Gardiner (1934). Manchester and Pho-tography. Manchester: Palatine Press. p. 17-18.

[3] Jayon, Bill. “Dangers in the Dark”. Retrieved 25 July2014.

[4] “Taking instantaneous photographs by electric light”.Popular Mechanics 7 (2): 233. February 1905.

[5] Solbert, Oscar N.; Newhall, Beaumont; Card, James G.,eds. (November 1953). “The First Flash Bulb”. Im-age, Journal of Photography of George Eastman House(Rochester, N.Y.: International Museum of Photographyat George Eastman House Inc.) 2 (6): 34. Retrieved 26June 2014.

[6] Wightman, Dr. Eugene P. “Photoflash 62 Years Ago”.Image, Journal of Photography of George Eastman House(Rochester, N.Y.: International Museum of Photographyat George Eastman House Inc.) IV (7): 49–50. Retrieved4 August 2014.

[7] “AG-1 Flashbulb History”. Photo.net. Retrieved 5 July2013.

[8] Nicholls, Kyle. “Non-photorealistic Camera”. Photo.net.Retrieved 28 December 2011.

[9] “Studio Flash Explained: Flash Duration”. Paul C. Buff,Inc. Retrieved 5 July 2013.

[10] “Einstein – User Manual/Operation Instructions”. Paul C.Buff, Inc. p. 13. Retrieved 5 July 2013.

[11] Langford, Michael (2000). Basic Photography (7th ed.).Focal Press/Butterworth Heinemann. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-240-51592-2.

[12] “Stobe Tips”. Addendum. June 12, 2010.

7 External links• “Flash – Let there be light! extquotedbl. RoieGalitz.

• “Flash Photography with Canon EOS Cameras -Part I”. PhotoNotes.org. 12 December 2010.

• “A Minolta/Sony Alpha Flash Compendium”. Fo-tografie.

• “Photographic Cheat Sheet” PDF (87.2 KB). Gor-don McKinney.

• List of flashbulbs models. David L. Brittain.

• Flash comparison chart. Bart Zieba Photography.

Page 8: Flash (Photography)


8 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

8.1 Text• Flash (photography) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flash_(photography)?oldid=630179597 Contributors: Mark, SimonP, Heron,Michael Hardy, Seer, Egil, Julesd, Samw, Arteitle, Popsracer, Jeepien, Munford, Jerzy, ZimZalaBim, Clngre, ShutterBugTrekker, Giftlite,Smjg, BenFrantzDale, Reub2000, Nayuki, Christopherlin, Sam, Shadypalm88, Deglr6328, Wfaulk, Jpk, Shanes, Femto, Fir0002, Robotje,Hooperbloob, Mtreinik, M7, Cburnett, TenOfAllTrades, Jopxton, Axeman89, Mel Etitis, Mindmatrix, Bellhalla, Pol098, Bluemoose,GregorB, SDC, Mandarax, Nightscream, Kugamazog, The wub, Mahlum, Tezakhiago, Arcimboldo, LeCire, Chobot, Digitalme, YurikBot,Angus Lepper, Ppinheiro, Groogle, Scott5834, Hydrargyrum, Manop, ENeville, JonathanWebley, Janke, Shotgunlee, Bota47, Nikkimaria,Fourohfour, Allens, Katieh5584, Bernd in Japan, Nekura, Chic happens, Crystallina, SmackBot, InverseHypercube, Gnangarra, Unyoyega,CyclePat, Speight, Stifle, Chris the speller, BrownBean, Stevage, Audriusa, Chlewbot, OrphanBot, Sakuyatech, Mosca, AdeMiami, Zea-mays, Stefano85, Dfoy, Mr. Lefty, IronGargoyle, Jec, Dicklyon, EEPROM Eagle, Hiroe, Olivierd, Klimot, Kleptomac, MIckStephenson,Johnnydc, Skrapion, Jana Deenax, Sadharan, Thijs!bot, Vertium, Z10x, Mmelgar, Gushi, Adorama, Scepia, Gigi head, Moogyboy, IrishF-Ball32, Johnscyee, Magioladitis, Doug Coldwell, Tomato Knuckles, GordonMcKinney, GeorgHH, SimonLea, Nono64, J.delanoy, The-greenj, Slow Riot, Futurebobbers, Tiberius47, RenniePet, LCecere, KylieTastic, RJASE1, Idioma-bot, Funandtrvl, TheMindsEye, PhilipTrueman, Hqb, PDFbot, Njn, Falcon8765, Atomicbre, Michael Frind, SieBot, YonaBot, Hertz1888, Mbz1, Lennartgoosens, Jerryobject,MagiCubes, Lightmouse, Rooh23, Whitbywitchuk, Martarius, The Thing That Should Not Be, Arakunem, Joelanders, Jim92065, Gnomede plume, Alexbot, Three-quarter-ten, LarryMorseDCOhio, Aleksd, Lambtron, PhotoSchool, DumZiBoT, XLinkBot, Addbot, Akhuntia,AndersBot, Baffle gab1978, Tassedethe, Lightbot, Jarble, Amirobot, Magog the Ogre, Dmarquard, AnomieBOT, Piano non troppo, King-pin13, Googlere, Ubcule, Qwertyzzz18, Ardara, Ll1324, Fotaun, FrescoBot, Kendaniszewski, Wifione, S.k.o'reilly, Matthias know it all,NameIsRon, John of Reading, WikitanvirBot, Wikipelli, Bob drobbs, Qswags, AVarchaeologist, Gsarwa, Tim Zukas, ChuispastonBot,ClueBot NG, Gratte-papier, DieSwartzPunkt, Iamjforlife, Helpful Pixie Bot, K0 7zQY0oyqcz, Cameraflashes, Vagobot, Soerfm, Cita-tionCleanerBot, Raaraan, BattyBot, DoctorKubla, The Quirky Kitty, Caraval, DavidLeighEllis, Rz2750, Omeddego, The Flashman andAnonymous: 122

8.2 Images• File:1909_Victor_Flash_Lamp.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1d/1909_Victor_Flash_Lamp.jpg Li-cense: CC-BY-SA-2.0 Contributors: http://www.flickr.com/photos/11964447@N02/3169218441/in/set-72157612298623479/ Originalartist: Race Gentry

• File:Brownie_Hawkeye_with_Flash.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Brownie_Hawkeye_with_Flash.jpg License: CC-BY-3.0 Contributors: my photo Original artist: Richard F. Lyon (User:Dicklyon)

• File:Bullet_coming_from_S&W.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/23/Bullet_coming_from_S%26W.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Niels Noordhoek

• File:Commons-logo.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Originalartist: ?

• File:Fill_flash.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d5/Fill_flash.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors:German Wikipedia Original artist: MiZe

• File:Flash-Direct-Indirect.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0d/Flash-Direct-Indirect.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Simon A. Eugster

• File:Flash_-_Speedlight_-_SLR_Flash_-_Studio_picture_2011.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b2/Flash_-_Speedlight_-_SLR_Flash_-_Studio_picture_2011.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0Contributors: OwnworkOriginal artist: Bill Ebbe-sen

• File:Flashcube_on_Kodak_Instamatic.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Flashcube_on_Kodak_Instamatic.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: self-made Futurebobbers Original artist: en:User:Futurebobbers

• File:Flip_Flash.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fd/Flip_Flash.jpg License: CC-BY-2.0 Contributors:• Hanimex_110F_Camera_with_Flip_Flash.jpg Original artist: Hanimex_110F_Camera_with_Flip_Flash.jpg: John Nuttall• File:Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg License: ? Con-tributors: ? Original artist: ?

• File:Macrogl_Stellat.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Macrogl_Stellat.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-2.5Contributors: Uploaded to en.wikipedia.org by Janke Original artist: Janke

• File:Magicube-Modified.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f3/Magicube-Modified.jpg License: CC-BY-3.0 Contributors:

• Magicube.jpg Original artist: Magicube.jpg: Original uploader was Conejo de at de.wikipedia

• File:Parket_flash.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ac/Parket_flash.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contrib-utors: Own work Original artist: Audriusa

• File:Parket_noflash.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cd/Parket_noflash.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0Contributors: Own work Original artist: Audriusa

• File:People_icon.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/37/People_icon.svg License: ? Contributors: OpenCli-part Original artist: OpenClipart

• File:Portal-puzzle.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/fd/Portal-puzzle.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist:?

• File:Question_book-new.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/99/Question_book-new.svg License: ? Contributors:Created from scratch in Adobe Illustrator. Based on Image:Question book.png created by User:Equazcion Original artist:Tkgd2007

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