Faculty As Adult Learners: Effective Faculty Development. Suzanne James, Ph.D. David Binder, MBA. Rapid Growth of Community Colleges. Every state is faced with an enrollment boom Classroom space is at a premium - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Faculty As Adult Learners: Effective Faculty DevelopmentSuzanne James, Ph.D.David Binder, MBA12Rapid Growth of Community CollegesEvery state is faced with an enrollment boomClassroom space is at a premiumWaiting lists have developed for on-ground programs; online programs are increasingPresident Obamas proposed plan will lead to the number of grads increasing by five million in 2020.3Rapid Growth of Community CollegesAlmost 40% of 18-24 year olds in 2008 were in collegeRise was largely driven by communitycollege enrollments (Lewin, 2009) 79% of entering students plan to earn associate degree, butonly 45% meet the goal in 6 years (Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2006)
Meeting the Challenge through Professional DevelopmentThis is a period of shrinking budgets and increasing enrollmentsResources must be focused on practices that workProfessional development must be directed at staff, faculty, administrators, and governing boardsFocus here is on faculty development45Faculty and Effective TeachingFaculty are the heart and soul of the American community college (Hardy, 2006) Real teaching is what community colleges do and student learning is the goal. (Twombly, 2005)Because of this, the norms of what defines quality are different for community colleges because their focus is teaching. (Twombly, 2005)56Faculty and Effective TeachingThere exists a problem in attracting and retaining qualified faculty (Jacobson, 2004)
Need to attract, develop, and retain excellent community college faculty has never been greater (Waiwaiole & Noonan-Terry, 2008)
Increasing need for effective faculty, both online and on-ground (Waiwaiole & Noonan-Terry, 2008)
7Faculty and Effective TeachingQuality of faculty is single most defining element in institutional success (Palmer, Dankoski, Smith, Logio, Butkiewicz & Bogdewic, 2011)
Faculty shortage leads to increased use of part-time (adjunct) faculty67% of CC faculty are part-time (Grappa, 2007)
Faculty typically receive little or no formal training in teaching (McShannon, Hynes, Nirmalakhandan, Venkataramana, Ricketts, Ulery , & Steiner, 2006)
Faculty and Effective Teaching33-90% of faculty at CCs spend little or no time facilitating group discussion or assigned in-class writing.33% of faculty at CCs report spending most of their time lecturing.Two-thirds of CC students report that memorization of materials is the focus of the class.Center for Community College Student Engagement (2006)89Professional Growth and DevelopmentPart-time faculty (adjuncts) often have multiple jobs and resort to expediency to accomplish their job (Brewster, 2000)
Adjuncts (and some full-time faculty) may not have well developed teaching skills need development
Inclusion in faculty development events may lead to satisfaction and less faculty attrition
Importance of Faculty DevelopmentRetention of adjuncts benefits the institution.Rapidly expanding student population can be servedAdjuncts bring flexibility to schedulingAdjuncts benefit the institutional budgetBut, part-time faculty who face poor training and low pay do not develop institutional loyalty1011Professional Growth and DevelopmentDiverse populations in community colleges require particular understanding and teaching skillsMentorship programs are effectiveOnline adjuncts need trainingTraining in the modalityTraining in the pedagogy (Miller & King, 2003)Effective training is rare (Ko & Stevens, 2004)
12Professional Growth and DevelopmentRegardless of the course modality, the most important variable for course success is the instructor (Miller & King, 2003).
Effective faculty development addresses faculty as adult learners (Lawler & King, 2001)
Principles of adult learning must be incorporated, including opportunities for reflection (James & Binder, 2010)13Community College Faculty DevelopmentFugate & Amey (2000) found: Typical community college faculty development includes:faculty orientationmaster teacher workshopsBrown bag sessions on teaching and learningvideo conferences on learningTypical institutional resources:Educational technology center/departmentCenter/Department/Institute for Teaching and LearningCommunity College Faculty DevelopmentPankowski (2004) reported:Faculty report lack of training on pedagogyOnly 20% received training in active learning and student collaborationMore recent studies have tended to confirm these and similar issues (Haber & Mills, 2008)
14Community College Faculty DevelopmentBarrett, Bower & Donovan (2007) looked at teaching styles of community college facultyTeacher-centered focused on transmission of knowledge as in lectureLearner-centered classes had shared participation of faculty and learnersHigher student retention in learner-centered environment.Center for Community College Student Engagement. (2010): Effective teaching and meaningful learning: They are the heart of student success. (p.4)Community College Faculty DevelopmentKey findings from the 2010 CCCSE report:Instructors must be given the opportunities necessary to learn more about effective teaching strategies and to apply those strategies in their day-to-day work.Any effective strategy for dramatically increasing college completion must include a substantial commitment to professional development for individual faculty members and for college teams.
Center for Community College Student Engagement. (2010), p. 16-1716Community College Faculty DevelopmentKey findings from the 2010 CCCSE report:Professional development can help more faculty members become skilled and comfortable using more engaging teaching strategies. Given that about two-thirds of community college faculty members teach part-time, opportunities to expand instructors skills and collaborative faculty efforts must be extended to include all faculty.
Center for Community College Student Engagement. (2010), p. 17
Principles of Adult LearningActive involvementOpportunities for dialogueRegular feedbackIncorporation of life experiencesRelevancyApplication immediacyCreation of a social environmentOpportunities for reflection19Principles of Adult LearningPrinciples of adult learning must be incorporated into faculty development, including opportunities for reflection (James & Binder, 2010)
20Programs Incorporating the PrinciplesAdjunct Faculty Certification Course (Sinclair Community College Ohio) Five sessionsProvides toolbox of presentation techniquesKnowledge of campus and policiesPeer reviews of teachingMentoring from other facultyProvides immediate application, regular feedback, social networks, relevancy, and opportunities for dialogue
21Programs Incorporating the PrinciplesThe Learning Loft (Eastfield College TX)Provides high tech space for faculty to developtechnology skillsProvides opportunities for collaborationProvides opportunities for immediate feedbackProvides one-on-one training and support in curriculum developmentFaculty can earn professional development credits for their time
22Programs Incorporating the PrinciplesCREOLE (Creating Optimal Learning Environments Florida State College at JacksonvilleFaculty development provided onlineFrequent feedback given in the programStipend paid to faculty for completionUpon completion, faculty eligible to be paid at the same per credit hour rate as full-time faculty
23Programs Incorporating the PrinciplesThe Classroom Research Initiative The Lone Star College System (TX)Faculty explore how to use data to design their own classroom experiencesCenters on individual data analysisProvides individual action plans for facultyResults are shared with colleaguesRelevancy for faculty is a key
2425ReflectionsFaculty development is ongoing. Faculty development is a process, not a one-time event (Reach, 1994). It starts with orientation but does not end there. McGregor (2002) states "positive change in pedagogy comes through a sustained faculty development program that focuses on learning outcomes" (p. 724).High performing CCs invest in faculty development. Effective teaching is not intuitive; it is a learned skill. Both full-time and adjunct faculty need faculty development.
ReflectionsWhat does good teaching look like at your institution? It is not I know it when I see it. Define intended outcomes from faculty development; measure results. Think in terms of Demings Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle. Good teaching comes from intentional development of faculty in how to teach well.Steal good ideas from others, most institutions will share if asked; share your successes with others.
26ReflectionsCarrots work better than sticks, but mandating activities may be necessary. Reward/acknowledge continuing development progress for emphasis and reinforcement. Stipends/CE credits/Certificates each can work. Consider formal presentation of recognitions at institutional meetings. Include in institutional announcements about faculty accomplishments.
27ReflectionsEnhance the status of your best teachers through role recognition: peer mentor/master teacher/advanced facilitator, etc.; whatever fits your institutional culture. Consider them to conduct your peer observations/reviews.Reward/reinforce desired behavior; show that good teaching is both desired and valued.
Remember: Faculty are adult learners too
28Fodder for Discussion Briefly describe a successful faculty development experience at your institution:
Why was it successful?What did it attain? What did you learn from this?2930For more informationFor more information about effective faculty development contact:
Thank you31ReferencesAllen, I. E. & Seaman, J. Online Nation: Five Years of Growth in Online Learning. Retrieved Novemb