Explosive Lens

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    UNCLASSIFIEDAD NUMBER

    AD383490CLASSIFICATION CHANGES

    TO: unclassified

    FROM: confidentialLIMITATION CHANGES

    TO:Approved for public release, istri utionunlimited

    FROM:Distribution authorized to DoD only;Administrative/Operational Use; JUL 1967.Other requests shall be referred to NavalWeapons Center Corona Laboratories, Attn:Code 235, Corona, CA 91720.

    AUTHORITY31 Jul 1979, per document marking, DoDD5200.10; NAWCWD ltr, 6 Sep 2006

    THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED

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    SECURITYMARKINGThe classified or limited status of this repod appliesto each page, unless otkerwise marked.Separate page printouts MUST ke marked accerdingly.

    THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS INFORMATION AFFECTING THE NATIONAL DEFENSE OFTHE UNITED STATES WITHIN THE MEANING OF THE ESPIONAGE LAWS, TITLE 18 ,U.S.C., SECTIONS 79 AND 794. THE TRANSMISSION OR THE REVELATION OFITS CONTENTS iN ANY MANNER TO AN UNAUTHORIZED PERSON IS PROHIBITED BYLAW.

    NOTICE: When government or other drawings, specifications or otherdata are used for any purpose other than in connection with a defi-nitely related government procurement operations the U. S. Governmentthereby incurs no responsibility, nor any obligation whatsoever; andthe fact that the Government may have formulated, furnished, or in anyway supplied the said drawings, specifications, or other data is notto be regarded by implication or otherwise as in any manner licensingthe holder or any other person or corporation, or conveying any rightsor permission to manufacture, use or sell any patented invention thatmay in any way be related thereto.

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    j~ffoctive ir.1y 967, the Nava O d n w 1uratory. Corona,. c. I1-ll ajthe Nrval Weapons Center Corona 1-.bra-

    CO NF i DE NT I L IEDo

    IWARHEAD STUDIES

    FOR TIE PERMiDlOI 6 8 JUNE 9I O0 EXPLOSIVE LENS WARHlEAD JU

    o ,~. .,u.IGUERF. L. MENZiATU G3 1 1967

    FUZE DEPARTMENT -'LUIiIn addition t siyrequirements which apply to this do:ument ad

    must be met, each transmitta~l outside the Department of Defense. mustihave prior approval of the Commanding Officer. Naval Weapons CenterCorona I.aboratoriest (Code 235), Corou~a, California 91720.

    NOTICE: This cfoctu contains infkmatio affecting the ntt~idefene of the Urilte States within tle nwnintgof the Espicw~gsLawsTitle IS, U. .C., Stchtons M ard M9, t6e tranmisttsionor melationof which in any me ft an unwtoizedpwroon is prohibitedby law.

    SNAVALRDNANCE LABORATORY CORONACOMMA. CALIFORNIA

    I ~~ ~ ~ ~ DWGAE ATFDETA3,,,,,,,,-,,E 8 ULY 1967CONFIDENTIAL" RVA DECLASSIFIEIDSAFTElR 12 YKIARS.,aFZe DiEPRN00.10

    In~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~t 0diintuiyrqieetihapyt hsd~mn n

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    IIIiINAVAL ORDNANCE LABORATORY CORONA

    9. B. JAR1MA . CAPT.. USN T S. ATCHMISON. Ph.D.Ca n-adirso Officer Techaical Diroctoa

    FOREWORD

    "Exploratory atudias on warhheads are currently being concentratedon an airable explosive "fisheye lens" warhead. These studies areatithorized under Project ZFO,19-98-01.C. R. HAMILTON

    Head, Electromechanical Division

    ABSTRACT

    Twenty spherical expiosive lens charges have been fabricated, ofwhich 10 have been sent to Sandia Corporation, where tests will be con-ducted. Flash X-ray photographic equipment will be employed. Tenmore are undergoin.g tests at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Tech-nology to determine their gas profiles and damage-producing capabili-{ ties. Results of a comparison test of a homogeneous spherical chargeand a spherical lens charge are reported. (U)

    STechniques for, and problems cor-,erning, fabrication of cylindricalfisheye lens charges are discussed. (0)

    I

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    I CONFIDENTIAL1. BACKGROUND

    The independent exploratory development work on warheads at theNaval Weapons Center Corona Laboratories (NWCCL), formerly theNaval Ordnance Laboratory Corona, is currently concerned with theaimable explosive "fisheye lens" warhead.

    in March 1965, R. L. Conger of the Research Department describedthe concept (Ref. 1). He postulated that in somewhat the same mannerthat light can be focused by an optical lens, a warhead could be focusedto aim in virtually any direction by firing a detonator on the opposite sideof the warhead from the desired direction of aim. If a warhead wereconstructed with its explosive compositions in the right arrangement,detonation waves from the firing of the detonator would fire all the ex-plosi'vs in the warhead in such a manner that the detonation fronts wouldconverge and focus at the opposite side of the warhead, thue propellingintense jets of the products of detonation in the desired direction of aim.

    Tests conducted by the Research Department verified Dr. Conger'stheory (Ref. 2), and preliminary studies were made on both spherical-lens and cylindrical-lens warhead configurations (Refs. 3 and 4).

    In the fall of 1965 independent exploratory development funds wereallocated to the Fuze Department for investigating aimable warheads.Special instrumentation was set up, and progress on testing the param-eters of explosive fisheye lens warheads was reported in the spring offurther firings were delayed until more suitable charges were available.

    Arrangements for the fabrication of improved explosive lens chargeswere made with the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California(NWC China Lake), formerly the Naval Ordnance Test Station, and withthe Pantex plant of Mason & Hanger-Silas Mason Company, Amarillo,Texas. NWC China Lake was to fabricate ZO cylindrical charges; Pantex,20 spherical charges.

    * By the beginning of this reporting period, Pantex had completed ma-chining ten spherical charges with a 6.2 in. o'itside diameter and ten witha 7.8 in. outside diameter. Table I gives the actual dimensions of theloaded spherical sections, the explosive formulations, and the relativevelocities.

    CONFIDENTIAL

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    II CONFIDENTIALTABLE 1. Diameters and Detonation Ve)ocities

    of the Spherical Charge SectionsVc1oc- Diameter of Each Sphere (in.)Sphere% Explosive ity 6.Z in. Charge 7.8 in. Charge(m/s) Inside Outside Inside Outside

    Center sphere Cast Baritol 4966 0 3.130 0 3.940PressedFirst shell Britoe 5911 3.134 4.360 3.944 5.480Baritol

    Second shell TNT 6844 4.364 5.340 5.484 6.60060% RDX

    Third shell 7915 5.344 6.I00 6.60-. 7.800+ 40% TNT

    The plans of NWC China Lake to fabricate all the sections of ,hecylindrical fisheye lens charges from PBX with varying percentages ofplastic binder (Ref. 6) had to be abandoned because of the inherent r loc-ity of this explosive. The velocities of the five exploi-ive compositionsneeded for the five sections o; the cylindrical charge should increaseprogressively from the core to the outside cylinder and ahoule lie be-tween 4900 and 8000 m/s. Attempts to lower the detonation velocity ofPBX below 6900 m/s were, however, unsuccessful; therefore it becameevident that the center core and the first cylinder would have to be loadedwith explosives other than PBX. Arrangements were subsequently madewit,1 the Chino plant of Aezojet-General Corporation to fabricate thefirst cylinder from Amatol and loatd fhe center void with Baritol. Table 2shows the proposed explosive formulations, velocities. and dimensionsof the five cylindrical sections for both the 6 in. and the 8 in. charges.

    Il. CURRENT WORKSPHERICAL CHARGES

    Pantex has sent to Sandia Onrporation five spherical charges with6.Z in. outside diameter and < Cve with 7.8 in. diameter, Sandia Corpora-tion has agreed to obtain *zomj ete pressure-impulse and velocity mc.as-urements at no cost to the Government (Ref. 7).

    Five spherical charges of each size were also sent to the New MexicoInstitute of Mining and Technology NMT)o d-2terrnine their damage-producing capabilities as compared with those of homogeneous charges

    CONFIDENTIAL

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    -l enNmIEfNTIAL

    ,J 1 a .JL U. ASkXCa . .J A L,l Le . .,AJ6L..1 UJL, L AJL L 96I 3 ". . %& . s aOhave been fired, as well as two spherical homogeneous charges for com-parison. Figure 1 illustrates the "can-gage" arena at NMT and the posi-tioning of the charges in relation to the arena. Figure 2 shows a spher-ical fisheye Itns charge mounted for firing. The sphere was positionedwith the boosceA- and detonator at the bottom, so that upon detonation thefocused products would be directed toward the gages. The charge holderwas designed to eliminate interference with the focused output as muchas possible.

    Figure 3 shows the gas profile of a 7.8 in., 16 lb spherical flsheyecharge at detonation, and Figure 4 shows the gas profile of a sphericalhomogeneous charge of the same size aid weight. Comparison of thetwo photographs indicates that some focusing does occur from the wave-shaping effect of a spherical fisheye lens configuration.

    In both the can-gage arena tests and the current tests with 1I/Z in.thick steel witness plates, the focused mass products did not, howtver,produce as much damage as had been expected in the light of the damageachieved in some preliminary tests conducted by Dr. Conger in 1965with a thin fisheye lena disk charge (Ref. 2). In those tests, a 3/4 lbthin disk charge 6 in. in diameter, 3/4 in. thick, and made up of fivecoaxial rings of explosive confined between two lucite plates (Figure 5)was fired at a 3/4 in.