EXAM #4 Review Slides Slide 2 Portugal, Iceland, and Japan are examples of nation-states. Slide 3 City-states of Monaco and San Marino. Slide 4 Various colonial powers & their colonies in 1914. Slide 5 European colonies in Africa, 1496-1912. Slide 6 Colonization in South America and the Caribbean, 1496-1667. Slide 7 The areas of the world that were at one time part of the British Empire. Slide 8 Colonial possessions in 2000. Most are islands in the Pacific Ocean or Caribbean Sea. Slide 9 Slide 10 Slide 11 Slide 12 Panmunjeom, Joint Security Area in the DMZ, as viewed from North Korea. Slide 13 States may have disputes over resources such as oil, natural gas, coal, or water. Slide 14 After the break- up of the Soviet Union, 15 new independent states have been established, primarily along ethnic lines. Slide 15 The gerrymandered 12 th Congressional District in North Carolina. Slide 16 Examples of gerrymandered US Congressional Districts: Illinois (left), California (right) Slide 17 Large areas of Russia are not occupied by ethnic Russians, which still causes tensions in some of these areas. The area of the Caucasus is especially volatile with the Chechens and others seeking independence. Slide 18 Slide 19 Percentage of the adult population diagnosed with HIV. Slide 20 1990-2003 Iraq has faced famine conditions since 1990. The Iraq sanctions resulted in high rates of malnutrition. Between 200,000 and 1 million excess deaths. IraqIraq sanctions  1991-1993 Somalian famineSomalian famine 1996 North Korean famine  . Scholars estimate 600,000 died of starvation (other estimates range from 200,000 to 3.5 million). North Korean famine  1998 famine in Sudan caused by war and droughtfamine in Sudanwardrought 1998 ENSO famine in Northeastern Brazil 1998-2000 famine in Ethiopia. The situation worsened by Eritrean-Ethiopian WarEthiopiaEritrean-Ethiopian War 1998-2004 Second Congo War. 3.8 million people died, mostly from starvation and diseaseSecond Congo War 2000-2008 Zimbabwe's food crisis caused by Mugabe's land reform policies ZimbabweMugabeland reform   21st centuryedit21st century 2003- famine in Sudan/Darfur (Darfur conflict)SudanDarfur conflict 2005 Malawi food crisis 2005-06 Niger food crisis 2006 Horn of Africa food crisis 20082008- Myanmar food crisis. The Cyclone Nargis devastated Burma's major rice-producing region. MyanmarCyclone NargisBurmarice  20082008- North Korean famine North Korean famine  20082008- Horn of Africa food crisis Horn of Africa  20082008- Afghanistan food crisis Afghanistan  20082008- Bangladesh food crisis Bangladesh  20082008- East Africa food crisis East Africa  20082008- Tajikistan food crisis Tajikistan  20092009- Kenya food crisis  10 million Kenyans face starvation. Kenya   Slide 21 The ethnic makeup of the Caucasus region. Slide 22 So called wild zones, places where national governments have lost control over local matters and conflicts. Slide 23 The seven provinces that Basque nationalism claims as historical Basque Country span France (light yellow) and Spain (rest of the map). Names in this map are in Basque. Slide 24 Members of the Sudan Liberation Army who fight against local Arab rebels, the Janjaweed (supported by the Sudan government), in the Darfur region of western Sudan. Slide 25 Slide 26 Area claimed by the Tamil Eelam (green) and area controlled (yellow border) before recent offensive launched by the Sri Lankan Army. Percentage of Sri Lankan Tamils by district, 2001 or 1981. Slide 27 Slide 28 NAFTA OPEC Slide 29 European Union Slide 30 NATO (blue) countries and Warsaw Pact (red) countries during the Cold War. Slide 31 Hamas fighters & supporters. Slide 32 Slide 33 Percent of people living in urban areas. Slide 34 Cities having a population of 2 million or more. Slide 35 Slide 36 Megalopolises of the U.S. Slide 37 Concentric Zone Model of urban structure. Slide 38 Slide 39 Sector Model of urban structure where a city grows in a series of corridors out from the CBD.. Slide 40 Multiple Nuclei Model of urban structure. Slide 41 The growth of Chicago, IL which shows aspects of a Peripheral Model of urban structure. Slide 42 Many cities have grown to have several business districts outside of the traditional CBD, such as Atlanta. This is an example of the Urban Realms Model of urban structure. Slide 43 Slide 44 The economic segregation of many cities is illustrated in this view of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The poor, shanty housing is in the foreground, with the luxury apartments near the beach. Slide 45 A low-income area of Cartagena, Columbia. Like in most of Latin America, these areas are usually on the periphery of the city. Slide 46 Lagos has a relatively modern CBD, but large areas of sub-standard housing. Slide 47 Fs, Morocco. The eastern portion is part of the original town, while the area to the west (New Town) was planned & built by the French.