European History

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Overview of European History

Text of European History

A Survey of Modern European History: From Joan of Arc to Tony BlairFrom Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

First EditionPublished: May 14, 2006

The current version of this book can be found at http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/European_History

ContentsPREFACE - A BACKGROUND OF EUROPEAN HISTORY ................................................................... 8 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................... 8 FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE ............................................................................................................................ 8 BARBARIANS UNITE ........................................................................................................................................... 9 ROMANESQUE AND GOTHIC A RT .................................................................................................................... 10 PAPAL POWER IN THE MIDDLE AGES .............................................................................................................. 11 SOCIETY IN THE MIDDLE AGES ....................................................................................................................... 12 CHAPTER 01 - THE CRISES OF THE MIDDLE AGES.......................................................................... 14 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 14 NEW BREEDS OF ART ....................................................................................................................................... 14 THE HUNDRED YEARS W AR ............................................................................................................................ 15 THE RISE OF TOWNS AND COMMERCE ............................................................................................................ 16 GROWTH OF NATIONAL MONARCHIES ............................................................................................................ 16 THE BLACK D EATH .......................................................................................................................................... 16 CHALLENGES TO SPIRITUAL AUTHORITY AT THE END OF THE MIDDLE A GES .............................................. 17 CHAPTER 02 - RENAISSANCE EUROPE ................................................................................................. 20 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 20 SOCIAL O RDER AND CULTURAL CHANGE ....................................................................................................... 20 THE BIRTH OF HUMANISM ............................................................................................................................... 20 ARTS ................................................................................................................................................................. 22 THE PRINCE....................................................................................................................................................... 22 NORTHERN RENAISSANCE VS. SOUTHERN RENAISSANCE ............................................................................. 23 THE N EW MONARCHIES ................................................................................................................................... 23

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THE RISE OF COURT LIFE................................................................................................................................. 24 CHAPTER 03 - EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY .............................................................................. 25 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 25 CAUSES OF THE AGE OF EXPLORATION........................................................................................................... 25 PORTUGUESE ROLES IN EARLY EXPLORATION ............................................................................................... 26 OTHER I MPORTANT PEOPLE............................................................................................................................. 26 RESULTS OF THE AGE OF EXPLORATION ......................................................................................................... 27 CHAPTER 04 - CHALLENGES TO SPIRITUAL AUTHORITY ........................................................... 28 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 28 CAUSES OF THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION................................................................................................. 29 KEY PERSONS OF THE REFORMATION ............................................................................................................. 29 CHART OF KEY RELIGIONS .............................................................................................................................. 32 THE COUNTER-REFORMATION ........................................................................................................................ 33 THE SPANISH RECONQUISTA OF 1492 ............................................................................................................. 34 RELIGIOUS QUALMS IN ENGLAND ................................................................................................................... 34 CHAPTER 05 - RELIGIOUS WARS IN EUROPE .................................................................................... 35 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 35 SPANISH CONFLICT WITH THE DUTCH............................................................................................................. 36 THE SPANISH ARMADA .................................................................................................................................... 36 THE D ECLINE OF SPAIN .................................................................................................................................... 37 THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR ............................................................................................................................... 37 CHAPTER 06 - ABSOLUTISM IN EUROPE.............................................................................................. 40 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 40 SOCIAL STRATIFICATION OF THE 1600S AND 1700S ....................................................................................... 40 LOUIS XIV, MODEL OF A BSOLUTISM ............................................................................................................. 40

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THE WAR OF SPANISH SUCCESSION ................................................................................................................ 41 THE BALANCE OF POWER IN FOREIGN POLICY ............................................................................................... 41 THE ECONOMICS OF MERCANTILISM .............................................................................................................. 41 THE RISE OF PRUSSIA ....................................................................................................................................... 42 STUART ENGLAND 1603-1714......................................................................................................................... 42 THE G LORIOUS DUTCH REPUBLIC ................................................................................................................... 44 PETER ROMANOV THE GREAT OF RUSSIA 1689-1723 .................................................................................... 44 BAROQUE ART.................................................................................................................................................. 44 CHAPTER 07 - SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND ENLIGHTENMENT ........................................... 46 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 46 "PARENTS" TO THE AGE OF SCIENCE .............................................................................................................. 46 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION ......................................................................................................................... 46 ROCOCO ART .................................................................................................................................................... 48 THE AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT ........................................................................................................................ 48 ENLIGHTENED DESPOTISM............................................................................................................................... 49 WAR OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION ..................................................................................................................... 51 THE SEVEN YEARS WAR.................................................................................................................................. 51 THE PARTITIONING OF POLAND ....................................................................................................................... 51 CHAPTER 08