EU MEMbEr StatES on thE road towardS MorE Policy coherence for DeveloPment (PcD)
Enhancing Policy Coherence: Making Development Work Better aims to contribute to poverty reduction by enhancing policy coherence for development (PCD) through awareness raising among different stakeholders.
Project Partners Instituto Marqus de Valle Flr (IMVF) Evert Vermeer Foundation for international solidarity (EVF) Glopolis, Prague Global Policy Institute Eesti People to People (People to People Estonia) Cape Verdian Platform of NGOs
This publication was produced in the framework of the project Enhancing Policy Coherence: Making Development Work Better is a project co-financed by the European Union. The views expressed in the website and publications do not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission
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Fernanda FariaEuropean Centre for Development Policy Management (ECDPM)
Twenty years on since the Maastricht Treaty called on the European Union (EU) to improve the coherence of European policies for development, making it a legal requirement, Policy Coherence for Development (PCD) remains a somewhat distant and unclear target in the EU, and particularly across Member States as the contributions to this publication clearly illustrate. A shared responsibility of EU institutions and Member States as stressed in the Treaty of Lisbon in 2008 (Art. 208), reinforcing the 2005 European Consensus on Development, EU Member States are therein recognised and given an important role in advancing the European PCD agenda. Progress has undoubtedly been made over the last two decades in advancing the PCD agenda within the EU. Critical to the evolving path of Policy Coher-ence for Development in EU foreign policy were commitments to internation-al agendas on aid effectiveness and to the principle of do no harm of which the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been a strong promoter, influencing many of its members. The pressure and awareness role played by many Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and research institutions, highlighting the lack of coherence and concerns over negative impacts of EU development and relevant policies on developing countries, also played an important role to advance PCD in the EU. Increas-ingly, PCD appears not only as critical to maximise EU development efforts, but also an argument to make the best possible use of ODA funds, which some Member States will feel tempted to lower in the current context of deep financial crisis. Furthermore, at a time when the EU is being challenged by an increasing presence of emerging economies in Africa and elsewhere, PCD is also about the credibility of the EU, and reducing the gap between develop-ment objectives and effective accomplishments of EU policies for develop-ment. Much more is now known about the impact in developing countries of different policy areas (e.g. trade, security, environment, migration, agriculture or fisheries, among others). Many Member States have made explicit policy commitments to PCD in their national strategies, adapted relevant legislative frameworks, and established institutional or administrative mechanisms to enhance PCD. Nevertheless, many of those responsible for policy-making and implementation in the EU Member States, European institutions and non-state actors concerned struggle with the clarity and reach of the concept of PCD.
4As often mentioned in ECDPM contributions to the debate1, PCD is a moving target and one that requires much more than just subscribing to international commitments, establishing PCD mechanisms, promoting knowledge about the impact of development and non-development policies in developing countries and interlinking different policy areas. These are all important but, as illustrated in this publication, per se they are not sufficient to align external and internal policies with development objectives and reconcile or mitigate legitimate conflicts of interests between different policy areas and actors, each with its priority objectives. That is not likely to happen as a result of an administrative exercise only, or out of promoting knowledge and sensitisation about PCD among the different actors involved.Promoting PCD in the EU will depend also, and above all, on a clear and firm political decision in Member States and on the active involvement of political actors in the monitoring and management of tensions and dilemmas inherent to a PCD process. That, too, is not in itself a guarantee to achieving policy coherence in development efforts. There is, furthermore, a risk that PCD processes become too much in-ward looking, when PCD is first and foremost about the intended and unintended impact of European policies (internal and external) on developing countries. As such, political decisions on PCD must also be informed by the views of those most directly affected, i.e. the govern-ment and societies of the developing countries concerned. Member States representations in the country (like EU delegations) can and should play a role in the dialogue with the local actors and, together, assess and monitor policy coherence for development.This publication is a testimony to the efforts being made by some EU Member States and a welcome contribution to the sharing of experiences within the EU. It is also a good reminder of how much progress is yet to be accomplished if policy coherence is to become an effective target in the decision-making and implementation of European development policies.
1 ECDPM contributions on PCD can be found in the website: www.ecdpm.org
5what is Policy coherence for DeveloPment (PcD)?
Some thoughts and definitions
Policy Coherence for Development means working to ensure that the objectives and results of a governments development policies are not undermined by other policies of that same government which impact on developing countries, and that these other policies support develop-ment objectives where feasible.Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
The EU seeks to build synergies between policies other than development cooperation that have a strong impact on developing countries, for the benefit of overseas development (policy coherence for development). Making development policy in isolation will not bring sufficient results.DG Development, European Commission
The EU has always been one of the key promoters worldwide of the concept of Policy Coherence for Development (PCD) aimed at strength-ening synergies and weeding out inconsistencies between non-aid policies and development objectives. The main incentive has been the knowledge that limiting policy incoherence and strengthening syner-gies among EU external and internal policies will enhance the overall efficiency of development cooperation and will also lead to increased development benefits in developing countries. EU 2011 Report on Policy Coherence for Development
6 on the role of eu Member States and developed countries
The Member States constitute the third relevant level for promoting PCD because of their decision-making role in the Council and their responsibility for implementing policies which may in turn affect development objectives, like in the areas of migration or security. Moreover, Member States should ensure that their own policies, developed at national level, are also PCD-compatible.EU 2011 Report on Policy Coherence for Development
The EC and the EU Member States should work together to raise awareness, strengthen their staff and organisational capacity and use more effective and ambitious PCD mechanisms. ().The Council underlines that political ownership of the PCD agenda and awareness of development objectives in all relevant parts of the EU institutions and Member States is crucial for success. The Council therefore invites incoming Presidencies, Member States, the Commission and the General Secretariat of the Council, within the scope of their respective competencies, to take work on the PCD work programme forward in order to ensure ownership by all relevant stakeholders and taking into account human rights ().EU Council Conclusions on PCD, November 2009
We, Ministers of OECD Countries () reaffirm our strong commitment to PCD and stress its importance in achieving the internationally-agreed development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration (MDGs). We resolve to continue our efforts to ensure that development concerns are taken into account across relevant policies inter alia through improved impact analyses and better policy co-ordi-nation both at country level and within the OECD, taking into account in particular the impact on the international development objectives of our environmental, agricultural, fisheries, economic and financial policies, as well as our policies in the areas of trade, migration, security, energy, science and technology.Ministerial Declaration on PCD, OECD, June 2008
7Governments have to give more careful consideration to the cumula-tive and inter-related impacts of policies and regulatory regimes. From a governance perspective, there is the need to ensure that in any given sectoral area of interest as noted in the 2008 OECD PCD Declaration policies are both vertically and horizontally coherent. ().The PCD institutional framework requires: political commitment, co-ordination, analysis and monitoring. These three building blocks provide a framework for considering and promoting approaches towards greater policy coherence for development. In establishing them, governments may also have to adopt measures to improve policy making processes, foster cultural changes in the public service and reconcile policy priorities and budgeting imperatives.Recommendation of the Council on Good Institutional Practices in Promoting Policy Coherence for Development, OECD, April 2010
We call for increased efforts at all levels to enhance policy coherence for development. We affirm that achievement of the Millennium Development Goals requires mutually supportive and integrated policies across a wide range of economic, social and environmental issues for sustainable development. We call on all countries to formu-late and implement policies consistent with the objectives of sustained, inclusive and equitable economic growth, poverty eradication and sustainable development. Keeping the promise: united to achieve the Millennium Development GoalsOutcome Document United Nations (UN) General Assembly Resolution, September 2010
In the framework of the project Enhancing Policy Coherence: making development work better, the partners in this project have been very actively striving for more PCD within their respective Member States. PCD cannot only be dealt with on the EU level, instead it are the Member States who can play a catalysing role when it comes to putting PCD high on the political agenda and stimulating the setting up of institutional PCD mechanisms both on the European level as well as within the individual Member States. In this publication an overview is provided on the latest developments around PCD within the Czech Republic, The Netherlands, Portugal and Estonia. Some of the issues addressed include: what kind of institutional mechanisms have been established and to what extent are the national parliaments aware of the importance of PCD and how are they involved?; Besides is civil society involved in actively pushing forward the PCD agenda? The PCD agenda within the European Union has been progressing quite steadily since the European Commission, the Council and the Parliament jointly committed to the concept in the 2005 European Consensus on Devel-opment2. Today PCD has a strong legal basis within the Treaty of Lisbon, in which Article 208 states that; The Union shall take account of the objectives of development cooperation in the policies that it implements which are likely to affect developing countries. Furthermore three Commission biannual progress reports have been pub-lished so far (2007, 2009 and 20113), the European Parliament (EP) has passed a resolution on PCD in 20104, which led to the establishment of a PCD standing rapporteur within the European Parliament (EP) namely Member of the European Parliament (MEP) Birgit Schnieber Jastram who is currently preparing the next EP PCD report. And a PCD working programme5 has been created by the Commission as requested by the Member States and five PCD priority areas (migration, climate change, security, trade & finance and food security) have been decided upon. The Commission Communication of 12
2 European Consensus on Development. page 6 http://ec.europa.eu/development/icenter/repository/european_consensus_2005_en.pdf
3 Please see; http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/what/development-policies/policy-coherence/index_en.htm 4 REPORT on the EU Policy Coherence for Development and the Official Development Assistance plus concept (2009/2218(INI)) Committee on Development Rapporteur: Franziska Keller5 COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT Policy Coherence for Development Work Programme 2010- 2013 accompanying the COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS A twelve-point EU action plan in support of the Millennium Development Goals Brussels, 21.4.2010 SEC(2010) 421 final
October 2011, Increasing the Impact of EU Development Policy: an Agenda for Change further underlines a focus on PCD, highlighting in particular issues relating to security and migration, and stating that the future Multi-Financial Framework should reinforce PCD. These PCD developments could not have been realised without the support of the Member States. Awareness around the concept of PCD among Member States is therefore crucial to the advancement of the European PCD agenda, as are national PCD commitments and mechanisms to effectively implement national development cooperation programmes. Among civil society organisations within...