How do we know the good?
Morality as Law Morality as Inner Conviction Morality as Love Morality as Personal Growth Morality as Social Transformation
A woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to produce. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife.
Theoretical Prescriptions/Critiques The nature of the Good The Nature of the Human
Based on the principles practiced by a particular community Fundamental convictions of
Person Criteria of Judgment
the moral agent Character of the moral agent Use of norms Situational Analysis
Etymologically comes from the Greek word for "delight h donismos from h don "pleasure . It is the ethical principle that promotes pleasure as the source of goodness and happiness of a person.
Pain and sadness is the source of goodness. What does not kill me makes me stronger. Friedrich Nietzsche
There norms that are always good and true. These rules are unchanging and must always be followed since they are universally applicable.
Truth, beauty and goodness are always dependent on the time, place and the people involved in a particular idea. Moral Relativism presupposes that there are no universal truths.
The goodness of a human act is based on the most effective and efficient results. Pragmatism stresses
The primacy of practice Anti-reification of
concepts and theories Naturalism and antiCartesianism The reconciliation of antiskepticism and fallibilism
The greatest good for the greatest number of people Morality is based on what is useful to everyone.
Goodness is based on the internal disposition of the person harnessed through good habits. Cardinal Virtues adopted from Plato and Aristotle
Justice Prudence Fortitude Temperance
Chastity Temperance Charity Diligence Patience Kindness Humility
luxuria (extravagance/lust) gula (gluttony) avaritia (avarice/greed) acedia (acedia/discouragement) ira (wrath) invidia (envy) superbia (pride)
From the Greek , deon, "obligation, duty . It is an approach to ethics that determines goodness or rightness from examining the means used by the person.
From the Greek word Telos which means end The goodness of an action depends on the intention and the results of a human act. The ends justify the means.
Preconventional Stage Conventional Stage Social Conformity Punishment Orientation Reward Orientation
Orientation Authority and social-order maintaining orientation
Post-conventional Stage Social Contract
Orientation Universal Ethical Principle Orientation