ESRI Cartography: Capabilities & Trends ESRI Cartography: Capabilities and Trends Introduction Cartography

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  • ESRI® Cartography: Capabilities and Trends

    An ESRI White Paper • June 2004

    ESRI 380 New York St., Redlands, CA 92373-8100, USA • TEL 909-793-2853 • FAX 909-793-5953 • E-MAIL info@esri.com • WEB www.esri.com

  • Copyright © 2004 ESRI All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. The information contained in this document is the exclusive property of ESRI. This work is protected under United States copyright law and other international copyright treaties and conventions. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, except as expressly permitted in writing by ESRI. All requests should be sent to Attention: Contracts Manager, ESRI, 380 New York Street, Redlands, CA 92373-8100, USA. The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.

    U.S. GOVERNMENT RESTRICTED/LIMITED RIGHTS Any software, documentation, and/or data delivered hereunder is subject to the terms of the License Agreement. In no event shall the U.S. Government acquire greater than RESTRICTED/LIMITED RIGHTS. At a minimum, use, duplication, or disclosure by the U.S. Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in FAR §52.227-14 Alternates I, II, and III (JUN 1987); FAR §52.227-19 (JUN 1987) and/or FAR §12.211/12.212 (Commercial Technical Data/Computer Software); and DFARS §252.227-7015 (NOV 1995) (Technical Data) and/or DFARS §227.7202 (Computer Software), as applicable. Contractor/Manufacturer is ESRI, 380 New York Street, Redlands, CA 92373-8100, USA. ESRI, the ESRI globe logo, ArcGIS, ArcInfo, ArcObjects, ArcPress, ArcIMS, ArcMap, ArcView, ArcEditor, ArcSDE, ArcCatalog, ArcToolbox, ArcScan, 3D Analyst, ArcGlobe, ArcReader, ArcPad, www.esri.com, and @esri.com are trademarks, registered trademarks, or service marks of ESRI in the United States, the European Community, or certain other jurisdictions. Other companies and products mentioned herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective trademark owners.

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    ESRI Cartography: Capabilities and Trends

    An ESRI White Paper Contents Page Introduction........................................................................................... 1 Requirements ........................................................................................ 2 Capabilities ........................................................................................... 2

    Central Geodatabase, Continuous Data, With Versioning ............. 2 Client–Server Architecture ............................................................. 3 Data Models and Topological Structure ......................................... 4 Data Capture, Management, and Update ........................................ 4 Representation and Symbolization ................................................. 5 Three-Dimensional Cartography .................................................... 6 Labels, Text, and Annotation.......................................................... 7 Stored Cartographic Representations.............................................. 7 Cartographic Editing Tools............................................................. 8 Sheet Layout and Marginalia.......................................................... 8 Graphic Rendering.......................................................................... 8 Printing and Prepress ...................................................................... 9 Production Work Flow.................................................................... 9 Map Series and Atlas Definitions ................................................... 10 Geoprocessing and Generalization for Multiple Products.............. 10 Data Products and On-Demand Maps ............................................ 10

    Case Study: Aeronautical Charts ......................................................... 11 Conclusion ............................................................................................ 12 Note: This is a forward-looking document, and some of the capabilities it describes are still under development. As such, it is intended to give guidance as to likely future direction and should not be interpreted as a commitment by ESRI to provide precise capabilities in specific releases.

    ESRI White Paper i

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    ESRI Cartography: Capabilities and Trends

    Introduction Cartography is the art and science of making maps. To create modern, high-quality cartography requires the use of appropriate technology. This provides efficient processes that amplify our human creative and expressive skills in order to communicate the essential spatial message. ESRI has historic strengths in geography, geographic information system (GIS) technology, spatial data modeling, and data analysis. Many of these applications require the presentation of geographic data as a published map. ESRI® ArcGIS® software facilitates high-quality map generation through a wide range of cartographic and map publishing capabilities. Cartography has been a developing human skill for more than 4,000 years. Over this time, a range of techniques has been evolved to ensure clarity of communication while maximizing the useful map content. ArcGIS embeds much of this accumulated knowledge of how to do good cartography. It releases cartographers from the drudgery of repetitive actions and hence frees them to concentrate on applying their unique human visual abilities for interpretation and design. Many organizations involved in production cartography worldwide already use ESRI® software. The list includes national and regional mapping agencies (both civilian and military) and commercial providers. Examples include U.S. Geological Survey, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), Ordnance Survey in Great Britain, Rand McNally, National Geographic Society, and Automobile Club of America. At the heart of ESRI's cartographic solution is the geodatabase, providing a logical, structured framework to hold the data for cartographic production, and the rules for its consistent presentation. However, in the past some organizations felt that they needed additional tools for the cartographic finishing stage, such as a vector graphics editor like Adobe® Illustrator®, text placement applications, and prepress tools. Hence, ESRI embarked on an ambitious series of projects to provide the best of both worlds. The target is to provide the optimal tools and environment for the production cartographer, centered on the rigor of the geodatabase but allowing artistic freedom where needed. Many of these projects are coming to fruition in ArcGIS 9. This document gives an overview of the cartographic production capabilities of ESRI ArcGIS software and highlights how the products are being enhanced to provide the world's leading solution for database driven map publishing.

    ESRI White Paper

  • ESRI Cartography: Capabilities and Trends

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    Requirements The needs of cartographic customers vary dramatically, but there is a common core of requirements that has emerged over the past few years:

    Capture the starting-point geographic information once into digital form, and store it in an open database so that it can be accessed for multiple purposes.

    Update this master data efficiently, as change happens in the real world.

    Derive paper and digital products from this master data using a maximum of

    automatic procedures to minimize labor costs.

    Store the derived map products in the database.

    Retain the ability for human intervention in the cartographic finishing processes so as to ensure clarity and elegance of the final product.

    Output the map products in the optimal form needed by the target printing, prepress,

    or online distribution system without needing further manual intervention.

    Carry out all these operations in an intuitive, uniform environment, providing WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get) from capture right through to print, thereby avoiding expensive repetitive edits or late corrections.

    Capabilities The ESRI cartographic capabilities described in the following sections address the core

    requirements. The facilities are evolving with ArcGIS 9 and subsequent releases to provide a unique and optimal blend of automated data handling with human overrides.

    Central Geodatabase, Continuous Data,

    With Versioning

    There has been a major push from most cartographic organizations to centralize their data holdings to avoid the fragmentation and inefficiencies of file- and sheet-based data held by departments and individuals. Related to this is the ongoing pressure to move GIS and cartography into the world of enterprise information technology (IT) and hence to take advantage of commodity facilities for backup, data replication, and data management. ESRI has recognized this need and provided the enterprise geodatabase as the central repository for spatial data, handling continuous data without tile edges, in an open relational database such as DB2®, Oracle®, Informix®, or SQL Server™. The use of commodity database technology allows the close integration of spatial data with other business data vital to the enterprise, and it facilitates the production of a wide range of valuable analytical and cartographic products. The data stored in the geodatabase can be versioned to