Environmental Interdependence Coexisting in an ecosystem
Plant-Herbivore Interaction A relationship between plants and the animals that eat them
Ex. A cow eating grass
Ex. A deer eating leaves from a tree
Predator- Prey Predator- members of a species that capture and eat members of another species2 types of predatorsCarnivoresOmnivores Prey- the members of the species that are captured and eaten Ex. A hawk hunting and consuming a rabbitEx. Lions hunting and consuming a zebra
Competition A relationship in which organisms use the same resources at the same time in the same place so they must compete with each other for the use of the resourcesCompetitive Exclusion The extinction of one species in an area due to competition with another species
Ex. Two male alligators compete for territory and for females. One male will be more dominant than the other and better able to survive.
Ex. Two different species of birds compete with each other for the same nesting space, food source, and water supply. One of the species will be more successful that the other species and the other species will fail .
Cooperation A relationship within certain populations to work together for a common goalEx. Social insects, such as honeybees, termites, and ants (they form colonies and divide the labor) Ex. Wolves form a pack( they work together to hunt and kill prey and rear their young)
Symbiosis Living together
Symbiosis Relationships in which two organisms of different species live together very closely3 types Mutualism Commensalism Parasitism
Mutualism Two different species both benefits from their relationship with each other Ex. Flowering plants and pollinators (the flowers provide the insects with nectar and pollen. In turn, the insect go from flower to flower and help pollinate the plants)
Commensalism Relationship in which one species benefits and the other species in neither helped nor harmed Ex. Barnacles and whales (The barnacles benefit by attaching to the whale and as the whale moves the barnacles can filter feed. The whale is unaffected)
Parasitism Relationship in which one organism benefits at the expense of the other organism Parasite- live in or on another organism Host- the organism that is being weakened by the parasite Ex. Roundworms and dogs (dogs=host, roundworm=parasite)
Group ActivityWhats the Relationship?Each person in the group needs one (1) sheet of paper and something to write with. Number your paper from1-25.Each group will have 12 minutes to read an example of a relationship and identify the type of relationship.
#1Whats the relationship? A wasp lays its eggs on a caterpillar. When the wasp eggs hatch, the larva will eat the caterpillar and kill it.
#2Whats the relationship? Barnacles create home sites by attaching themselves to whales.
#3Whats the relationship? Heartworms develop inside a dogs heart. The worms cause health problems and may result in death.
#4Whats the relationship? Ostriches and gazelles feed next to each other. They both watch for predators and alert each other to danger. Because the visual abilities of the two species are different, they can identify threats that the other animal would not see as readily.
#5Whats the relationship? A flea feeds on a mouses blood and harms the mouse.
#6Whats the relationship? Cow eating grass
#7Whats the relationship? Yucca flowers are pollinated by yucca moths. The moths lay their eggs in the flowers where the larvae hatch and eat some of the developing seeds.
#8Whats the relationship? Dolphins work together to herd herring into a bait ball. The dolphins then take turns eating from the ball.
#9Whats the relationship? A cuckoo may lay its eggs in a warblers nest. The cuckoos young will knock the warblers eggs out of a nest and the warbler will raise the cuckoos young.
#10Whats the relationship? Hermit crabs live in shells made and then abandoned by snails.
#11Whats the relationship? A giraffe eating leaves on a tree
#12Whats the relationship? E. Coli is a bacteria that lives in the gut of humans. The human provides the ideal habitat for e coli reproduction and the e coli provides the extra vitamin K that we use.
#13Whats the relationship? A lion stalks, kill, and eats an antelope
#14Whats the relationship? Mistletoe extracts water and nutrients from a spruce tree. The spruce tree is harmed.
#15Whats the relationship? Termites live in colonies. A king and queen produce young. Workers gather food.
#16Whats the relationship? Zebra mussels and MS River mussels eat the same types of food and live in the same habitat. When zebra mussels are introduced to the habitat, MS river mussels decline.
#17Whats the relationship? Sparrow will build its nest under the nest of an osprey. The smaller birds get protection because other predators will not mess with the osprey.
#18Whats the relationship? an eagle captures and eats a fish from a local pond.
#19Whats the relationship? A wasp lays its eggs on a caterpillar. When the wasp eggs hatch, the larva will eat the caterpillar and kill it.
#20Whats the relationship? an oak tree grows beside a pine tree. Eventually, the oak tree overshadows the pine tree, and the pine tree dies.
#21Whats the relationship? Oxpeckers feed on the ticks found on a rhinoceros. The oxpeckers get a meal and the rhinoceros is helped by the removal of the ticks.
#22Whats the relationship? Honey guide birds alert and direct badgers to bee hives. The badgers then expose the hives and feed on the honey first. Next the honey guide birds eat.
#23Whats the relationship? As bison walk through grass, insects become active and are seen and eaten by cowbirds.
#24Whats the relationship? Two male lions fighting over territory.
#25Whats the relationship? A caterpillar eating a maple leaf