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  • 8/18/2019 Enhancement of UWE Navigation Model.pdf


    International Journal of Software Engineering and Its Applications  

    Vol.8, No.4 (2014), pp.197-212  


    ISSN: 1738-9984 IJSEIA  

    Copyrightⓒ 2014 SERSC 

    Enhancement of UWE Navigation Model: Homepage

    Development Case Study

    Karzan Wakil1, Amirhossein Safi2 and Dayang. N. A. Jawawi2 

    1College of Science & Technology, University of Human Development-Iraq 2 Faculty Of Computing ,University Technology Malaysia, J.B.,Skudai 81300,


    [email protected], [email protected] , [email protected]


    UML-based Web Engineering (UWE) is a web engineering methodology which  provides a systematic approach to development of web applications. It provides a UML extension, defining modeling elements considering the extension mechanisms that are

    offered by UML. Navigation model is presented as a very critical characteristic in all the hypermedia and web methodologies; also homepage one of the most important pages on the web sites, because it is the key to showing the quality of websites. The UWE navigation model defined as a new proposal meaning still now need it to improve, the  problem is elements of the UWE navigation model until now cannot support modules of the homepage especially new modules as Tab, Flash News, Main Menu, Frame, Multi  Data and Application Icons, meaning it has weaknesses, in this paper we enhance the UWE navigation model through defining six elements by using an extension mechanism to fully support homepage development.

    Keywords: UWE, navigation model, enhancement model, web engineering, homepage

    1. Introduction

    UWE is a software engineering method to develop of web applications. Since 1999, web application has been extended constantly [1-3]. UWE is method based on standards. UWE focused on visual modeling together with systematic design and automatic generation, whose objective is to cover the entire life cycle of web application development [4].

    UWE metamodel is a design considered as the conservative extension of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) metamodel, in other words that the modeling elements of the UML metamodel are inherited from the UML metamodel, and they are not modified by adding new features or additions to the modeling elements

    class. Any additional features or relationship if using the metamodel to implement

    then they can be specified in different metamodel modeling element and then define Object Constraint Language (OCL) restrictions on further static semantics and it is equivalent to well-formed rules in the UML specs [4].

    Homepage one of the most important pages on the website because clearly communicates the site's purpose, and show all major options available on the page and the key to showing the quality of website. Solving the usability in homepage help the homepage to elegance, clarity, easy user interface and easy to understand [5-6].

    In this context, UWE, proposed by Koch in her Ph.D. thesis, arises as a tool to support web system modeling with a special focus on systematization and  personalization. UWE extends the UML, considering extension mechanisms defined  by the UML itself, and provides a set of modeling elements and an authoring  process to construct the system models during several modeling steps. UWE

  • 8/18/2019 Enhancement of UWE Navigation Model.pdf


    International Journal of Software Engineering and Its Applications  

    Vol.8, No.4 (2014)  

    198  Copyrightⓒ 2014 SERSC 

    methodology and presents new approaches for improving the navigation model defined by some methodologies. A case study is performed applying the methods  presented in [6-7].

    The problem is that the current UWE navigation model cannot fully support the homepages directly because the UWE navigation model does not have enough

    elements to represent the content of homepages, also it is a design considered as the conservative extension of the UML metamodel, also the metamodel provides a good description to development homepages.

    The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 explains the background work for the UWE metamodels especially navigation model. In Section 3 we selected the case study and analyzed it. Section 4 consists of designing a case study by UWE. In Section 5 we enhance the UWE navigation model. In Section 6 we redesign navigation model for the case study after enhancement. In Section 7 we make comparison and evaluation UWE navigation model. In the last section we present some concluding remarks and points to future works.

    2. Background Work

    In the past few years, some Web Engineering methods have suggested an operation to the development of Web Applications. The significance of the navigation between the application nodes is the meaning of the navigational model which is one of the fields [8].

    Several researchers in the Web Engineering community have exploited metamodeling and UML extensions in defining web models [9-14].

    A “lightweight” UML  profile developed in the last works that are the notation used for design, e.g. (Koch and Kraus, 2002). A UML profile is a UML adjunct  based on the adjunct systems denoted by the UML itself with the benefit of utilizing a conventional notation that does not affect the interchange formats and can be supported by tools without any difficulty. The design features required to design

    various characteristics of web applications, such as navigation, presentation, user task, and adjustment aspects are defined by stereotypes and tagged values and are included in the UWE profile. And showed the package of the navigation model in UWE at Figure 1 [3].

    Figure 1. UWE Navigation Package [3]

  • 8/18/2019 Enhancement of UWE Navigation Model.pdf


    International Journal of Software Engineering and Its Applications  

    Vol.8, No.4 (2014)  

    Copyrightⓒ 2014 SERSC  199 

    UWE Navigation categories, connections and a group of indexes, guided tours and queries are created from the navigation model. The perceptions over the conceptual categories are the navigation categories and connections. Likewise, the user is designed by a user function, user properties and relationships of these  properties to the theoretical categories. Presently, an adjust of the CASE tool

    ArgoUWE is being developed to support the assembly of these UWE design models[4].

    The pioneering work of Conallen [10] uses, in conjunction with the standard UML diagrams, the Web Application Extensions (WAE), which comprise the typical Web artifacts (server pages, client pages, forms and frames). The main advantage of WAE proposal is that its simplicity allows efficiency the design artifacts the Web Interface, as well as to drive the implementation of such as interface. On the other hand, this same simplicity evidences a lack of elements for modeling navigation and representing technology and device independent requirements.

    Although UWE provides a good approach to design web systems, since it  provides stereotypes and methods that allows the designer to model the specific

    features of systems that belong to that application domain as the navigation space and structure, UWE still needs to be improved. Koch, Kraus, and R. Hennicker identified some limitations during the development of our case study, which have to  be fixed in order to make the modeling process as automated as possible which is one of the goals of UWE, according to its author [15-16].

    Carvalho, and Junia 2005, presented here some proposal's to extend UWE method, in order to improve the web navigation project, through this work, they could identify the need of representing the call of methods of a navigation class that is used to achieve the system functionality in the navigation model. They proposed to represent the call of methods of a particular class through the addition of self- relationships that role names are the same of the method signatures. They could also identify the need of representing implicit links that result from relationships of aggregation and inheritance established in the conceptual model. They proposed a new modeling element to represent that kind of links and some new steps in the

    construction methods of the navigation structure model. as shown in Figure 2 [17].

    Figure 2. Pizza Place Navigation Structure Model (First Step)  – Customer View [17]

  • 8/18/2019 Enhancement of UWE Navigation Model.pdf


    International Journal of Software Engineering and Its Applications  

    Vol.8, No.4 (2014)  

    200  Copyrightⓒ 2014 SERSC 

    According to previous works, the navigation model is one of the important models in the process of the developing web applications. However some researcher worked to improve UWE navigation model, but this model need more improvement for development of web applications.

    3. Case Study and Analyses There are many classifications for the typology of web pages and homepages,

    Jackson showed four ways for categorize of web pages according to organizer identity, number of pages, organizer’s goal, and based on measure and success web  pages [18]. moreover Alistair Kennedy and Michael Shepherd classified homepages for three categories are: personal homepage, corporate homepage and organization homepage [19]. We choosing a case study in each of categories as shown in Table 1.

    Table 1. Categories of Homepage with Case Study

    Category Case study

    organization homepage UTM homepage [20]

    corporate homep