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Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad Abbasi 201 2 WHAT IS GRAMMAR? Grammar is a set of rules followed by native speakers of a language while using their language. Why is it important to learn? Word, being the unit of English language makes grammar learning more necessary for ESL students. Moreover, mastering grammar becomes even more significant language area for the non-native speakers of target language. Hence, learning grammar especially for academic purposes, is as important to master as a holy scripture to learn and practice a religion duly. If an ESL student makes innumerable grammatical errors in his speech (written/spoken) that will result into his failure in all grammar-centered tests. As grammar is directly or indirectly involved with almost all the other areas and skills in a languages, it becomes utmost significant to familiarize with grammatical rules, especially in English Language. Grammatical inaccuracy may change the meaning of the text altogether, So ESL students, especially those who are taught through GTM of teaching must be expert in using apt grammar. SENTENCES A group of properly ordered words with complete sense is called a sentence.

English Grammar and Its Basic Concepts

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English Grammar and Its Basic Concepts

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Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2WHAT IS GRAMMAR? Grammar is a set of rules followed by native speakers of a language while using their language. Why is it important to learn? Word, being the unit of English language makes grammar learning more necessary for ESL students. Moreover, mastering grammar becomes even more significant language area for the non-native speakers of target language. Hence, learning grammar especially for academic purposes, is as important to master as a holy scripture to learn and practice a religion duly. If an ESL student makes innumerable grammatical errors in his speech (written/spoken) that will result into his failure in all grammarcentered tests. As grammar is directly or indirectly involved with almost all the other areas and skills in a languages, it becomes utmost significant to familiarize with grammatical rules, especially in English Language. Grammatical inaccuracy may change the meaning of the text altogether, So ESL students, especially those who are taught through GTM of teaching must be expert in using apt grammar.

SENTENCESA group of properly ordered words with complete sense is called a sentence. KINDS OF SENTENCES: (1) Assertive OR Declarative: This type of sentence makes a statement or assertion. E.g. Man is mortal. Grapes are not sour but sweet. Interrogative: This type of sentence asks a question. E.g. Who is this man? Why did not you come early?

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Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2(3) Imperative: When a command or request is expressed in a sentence such sentence is called Imperative sentence. E.g. Please give me my MCAT book. Dont move (4) Exclamatory: A sentence that expresses strong feeling. Eg. What a pleasant weather. Its horrible. Optative: A sentence that expresses a wish or pray. E.g. may you live long! If only you had been present!

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STRUCTURE OF SENTENCE: Remember that when we make a sentence; We refer to some person, thing action, quality, quantity or number. We say some thing about that person, thing Hence, it is clear that we must have a subject to speak about and we must have something to say about that subject. Every sentence has two parts: The part about which we speak is called SUBJECT, and what ever we speak about subject is called PREDICATE.1. 2.

Topic

Subject

+

Predicate (V + O)

Details

OR: Subject +

Predicate Verb + Object

Verb + Object or anything else are the parts of predicate.

VERB TENSETense shows the time of a verbs action/sate of being. The table below defines and illustrates the tense forms for a regular verb in the active voice.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2PRESENT: Action that is occurring now, occurs habitually, or is generally true. Simple Present I +V1 You/we/they +V1 He/she/it/singular noun +V1 s/es PAST: Action that occurred before now. Simple Past I/he/she/it +V 2 You/we/they +V 2 FUTURE: Action that will occur in future. Simple Future I/you/he/she/it/they/we will + V1 PRESENT PERFECT: Action that began in the past and is linked to the present. Present Perfect I/we/you/they/plural nouns have + V3+.... He/she/it/singuar noun has +V3. PAST PERFECT: Action that was completed before another past action. Past Perfect I/you/he/she/it/we/they had+ V3 Present progressive I am +V ing You/we/they /plural nouns are +V ing He/she/it/singular noun is +V ing Past Progressive I/he/she/it was +V ing. You/we/they were +V ing. Future Progressive I/you/he/she/it/they will be+ V ing. Present Perfect Progressive I/we/you/they have been +V ing. He/she/it has been +V ing.

Past Perfect Progressive I/you/he/she/it/we/they had been +V ing

FUTURE PERFECT: Action that will be completed before another future action. Future Perfect Future Perfect Progressive I/you/he/she/it/we/they will have +V3 I/you/he/she/it/we/they will have been V ing.

Using the Present TenseThe present tense has several distinctive uses. 1) Action Occurring Now: She understands the problem. We define the problem differently.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 22) Habitual or Recurring Action: Banks regularly undergo audits. The audits monitor the banks activities. A General Truth: The elephant never forgets. The earth is round. Discussion of Literature, Film, and so on: Huckleberry Finn has adventures we all envy. In that article the author examines several causes of crime. Future Time: Next week we draft a new budget. Funding ends next week.

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Using the Perfect TensesThe perfect tenses generally indicate action completed before another specific time or action. The present perfect tense also indicates action begun in the past and continued into the present. The dancer has performed here only once. (The action is completed at the time of the statement). Critics have written about the performance ever since. (The action began in the past and continues now.) The dancer had trained in Asia before his performance. (The action was completed before another past action.) NOTE: With the present perfect tense, the words since and for are followed by different information. After since give a specific point in time. We have been rehearsing for the play since Monday last. After for, give a span of time: We have been rehearsing for over a week now.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2Using the Progressive TensesThe progressive tenses indicate continuing action. The economy is improving. Last year the economy was stagnating. Economists will be watching for signs of growth. The government has been expecting an upturn. Various indicators had been suggesting improvement. By the end of this year, investors will have been watching markets nervously for nearly a decade. NOTE: Verbs that express unchanging states (especially mental states) rather than physical actions do not usually appear in the progressive tense. These verbs include adore appear believe belong care hate have hear know like love mean need own prefer remember see sound taste think understand want

FAULTY: She is wanting to study ethics. REVISED: She wants to study ethics.

Sequence of Verb TensesSequence of tenses means relation between the verb tense in a main clause and the verb tense in a subordinate clause or phrase. The tenses need not be identical as long as they reflect changes in actual or relative time: He had left before I arrived. (The verbs are in clear sequence) Here are some of the difficulties in the tense sequence.

Tense Sequence with the Past or Past Perfect TenseWhen the verb in the main clause is in the past or past perfect tense, the verb in the subordinate clause must also be past or past perfect. The researchers discovered that people varied widely in their knowledge of public events. The variation occurred because respondents had been born in different decades. None of them had been born when the play was first staged.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2EXCEPTION: Always use the present tense for a general truth: The earth is round. Most understood that popular presidents are not necessarily good presidents.

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICEA sentence is in the active voice when the subject performs the action of the verb: Shakespeare wrote that play. A sentence is in the passive voice when the subject receives the action of the verb. The play was written by Shakespeare. A passive verb always consists of a form of be plus the past participle of the main verb. You may add a phrase beginning with by after the verb in a passive voice sentence.

Plays are performed by actors. Songs have been sung by performers.

Only a transitive verb (on that takes an object) may be used in the passive voice.

FORMULAE OF TENSESINDEFINITE TENSE Affirmative Present: S + V (1st + s, es, ies + O He eats an apple. Past: S + V (2) + O He ate an apple. Future: S + will/shall + V + (1st) + O He will eat an apple. Negative Present: S + do/does + not + V1 + O He does not eat an apple. Past: S + did + not + V1 + O He did not eat an apple.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2Future: S + will/shall + not + V1 + O He will not eat an apple. Interrogative Present: Do/does + S + V1 + O Does he eat an apple? Past: Did + S + V1 + O Did he eat an apple? Future: S + will/shall + not V1 + O Will he eat an apple? CONTINUOUS TENSE Affirmative Present: S + H/v (is, am, are) + V (4th) + O I am winding the clock. Past: S + H/v (was, were) + V (4th) + O I was winding the clock. Future: S + H/v (will be) + V (4th) + O I will be winding the clock. Negative Present: S + is, am, are + not + V (4th) + O I am not winding the clock. Past: S + was, were + not + V (4th) + O I was not winding the clock. Future: S + will + not + be + V (4th) + O I will n be winding the clock. Interrogative Present: Is, am, are + S + V (4th) + O Am I winding the clock? Past: Was, were + S + V (4th) + O Was I winding the clock? Future: Will + S + be + V (4th) + O Will I be winding the clock? PERFECT TENSE Present: S + H/v (has, have) + V (3rd) + O Past: S + H/v (had) + V (3rd) + O Future: S + H/v (will have) + V (3rd) + O PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2Present: S + H/v (has been, have been) + V (4th) + O + Since/for Past: S + H/v (had been) + V (4th) + O + Since/for Future: S + H/v (will have been) + V (4th) + O SINCE shows the fixation of time. For example: morning, afternoon, night, evening, many, some, name of days or months. FOR shows the duration of time. For example: 5 minutes, 6 days, 2 hours, 3 weeks. OR Since is used for a specific time 1998, January, last week, one month ago. For is used for general periods of time 2 hours, 3 days, 1 month.

ACTIVE VOICE AND PASSIVE VOICEIn the active voice the subject acts.Subject = Actor The city Transitive verb in active voice Controls Direct object rents

In the passive voice the subject acts.(Optional) Subject = Object of Action

Transitive verb in passive voice are controlled are controlled. by

by the city.

actor

Rents Rents

Generally prefer the active voice. Use the passive voice when the actor is unknown or unimportant. WEAK PASSIVE The Internet is used for research by many scholars, and its expansion to the general public has been criticized by some.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2STRONG ACTIVE Many scholars use the Internet for research, and some have criticized its expansion to the general public.

The passive voice is useful in two situations: when the actor is unknown and when the actor is unimportant or less important than the object and the action. The Internet was established in 1969 by the US Department of Defense. The network has now been extended internationally to governments, universities, foundations, corporations, and private individuals.

PRACTICE EXERCISE SUBJECTIVE VERBSThe principal asked that the coach should be present when the award was given. 2. The terrorists demand that the airline provides a plane will not be met by the deadline. 3. It is not necessary that you must take an entrance examination to be admitted to the university. 4. If he was to go to the party, he would be welcome. 5. It is requested that a report of the proceedings be prepared and copies should be distributed to all members. 6. He insisted that they would give him a receipt. 7. He complied with the requirement that all graduate students should write the thesis. 8. I propose that the vote is secret ballot. 9. He regretted not having followed his advisors recommendation that he dropping the class. 10. He ignored the suggestion that he gets more exercise.1.

VERBS REVIEW EXERCISEA Choose the letter that contains the correct expression.A good counselor would rather that the patients will make their own decisions after being helped to arrive at a general understanding of the alternatives. (a) will make (b) makes (c) making (d) made1.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2In 1970, the Canadian scientists George Kell proved that warm water freezes more quickly than cold water. (a) proved (b) proving (c) proves (d) prove2.

The service often lets students extend their visas if they will fill out the appropriate papers. (a) will fill out (b) filled out (c) are filling out (d) fill out3.

Psychologists believe that incentives make us want to increase our productivity. (a) make us want (b) make us to want (c) makes us want (d) make us wanting4.

Would you please dont smoke? (a) dont smoke? (b) (c) wont smoke? (d)5. 6.

didnt smoke? not smoke?

Fainting is not uncommon in elderly people who stand up suddenly. (a) Fainting (b) Faint (c) Faints (d) The faint

1.8 MORE ABOUT MODIFIERSAdjectives and adverbs are modifiers that describe, restrict, or otherwise qualify the words to which they relate.

FUNCTIONS OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBSAdjectives modify nouns Pronouns Adverbs modify verbs Adjectives Adverbs Phrases Clauses Sentences : : : : : : : : serious student ordinary one warmly greet only three people Quite seriously Nearly to the edge of the cliff just when we arrived Fortunately, she is employed

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2 ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICEACTIVE: PASSIVE: A verb is said to be in Active voice when it indicates that the subject is the doer of an action. A verb is said to be in Passive voice when it shows the subject as the receiver of an action. This is labeled as Passive because the person or thing denoted by the subject is not active. In Active, subject comes first while in Passive, object comes first.

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PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE Use 3rd form of verb with by. Helping verb will be in present continuous. Eg: He writes a book. A book is written by him. Eg: I know him personally. He is known to me personally. Eg: Please walk to the right. You are requested to walk to the right. PAST INDEFINITE TENSE Use 3rd form of verb with by. Use helping verb of past continuous. Eg: My mother gave me this pen. This pen was given to me by my mother. Eg: Did I blame you? Were you blamed by me? FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE Use 3rd from of verb with by. Use helping verb of Future Continuous. Eg: The wind will knock at the door. The door will be knocked at by wind. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE Use 3rd form of verb with being. Helping verb will remain same. Eg: He is buying the books. The books are being bought by him. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE Use 3rd form of verb with being. Helping verb will remain same. Eg: We were enjoying picnic. Picnic was being enjoyed by us.

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Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 26) PRESENT PERFECT TENSE Use 3rd form of verb with been in addition to the same helping verb. Eg: She has lost her watch. Her watch has been lost by her.

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PAST PERFECT TENSE Use 3rd form of verb with addition of been in addition to the same helping verb. Eg: She had attended a party. A party had been attended by her. NOTE: 1) If the sentence begins with who, it will be converted into by whom. Eg: Who seeks admission? By whom the admission is sought? 2) Those sentences which do not have subject will take let and be or someone. Eg: Open the door. Le the door be open. Eg: My heart has been broken. Someone has broken my heart. The sentences which have going will keep going with an addition of to be in the passive form. Eg: She was going to break your toy. Your toy was going to be broken by her.

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ERRORS IN USING TENSESRULE 1: Example:RULE 2: We always use present indefinite tense when we are referring to universal truth. He said that the earth revolves round the sun.

Any action which regularly or habitually done, is written in present indefinite tense. Examples:- He always tells lies. He generally meets him. I often meet him. RULE 3: Example:Double will are not used in the same sentences; once present tense will be used. I will meet you when you come back.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2RULE 4: If the action is in the present we make use of present continuous tense. Examples:- I am going just now. He is coming to meet you. RULE 5: When action continues for some time perfect continuous tense is used. Examples:- He has been working since morning. He has been playing for two hours. I have been thinking about it for many months. RULE 6: Example:RULE 7: Past perfect tense is used when there are two actions, both in past tense and one earlier than the other. The patient had died when the doctor came. The had left their house before he came.

Any sentence in which the wish is used or its sense is given must take one of these four verbs (i) had when the man repents over the past. (ii) were when we wish for something impossible at present (iii) would when we refer to future, (iv) could when we refer to possibility. Examples:- I wish I were a bird. (wishing impossible) I have failed, I wish I had worked harder. I wish I would get what I want. They are free today, I wish they could accompany you. RULE 8: Example:RULE 9: RULE 10: If many things are done at the same time, same verb is used. I came, I saw, I conquered. I met him, talked to him and followed him. Past tense must be followed by past tense unless it is universal truth. Perfect continuous tense should be used when work continues for a long time.

CASE OF NOUNS AND PRONOUNSNOUNSA noun names a person, thing, idea, place, or quality. There are five classes of nouns:

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 21. Proper Nouns A proper noun names and particular place, person, or thing. The writers chief problem with proper nouns is recognizing them in order to capitalize them. Atlanta, Mr. Jones, the Commissioner of Education, Form 1040 Common Nouns A common noun names a member of a class or group of persons, places, or things. Hope, banana, education, form Collective Nouns A collective noun, singular in form, names and group or collection of individual. The chief problem with collective nouns is determining the number of the verb to use with the collective noun. For this reason, it is discussed at length in the section on agreement of subject and verb. Committee, jury, council, task force

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Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 24. Concrete Nouns A concrete noun names a particular or specific member of a class or group. Apple, not fruit; typist, not personnel Abstract Nouns An abstract noun names a quality, state, or idea. Justice, truth, objectivity

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PRONOUNSPronouns stand in place of nouns. There are six classes of pronouns: 1. Personal Pronouns The personal pronoun shows which person (first, second, or third) is the subject. Personal pronouns are troublesome because of their many forms; they change form to indicate number, person, and case. The personal pronouns are: I, me, mine (my, you, yours (your), he, him, hi, she, her, hers, (her), it, its, and their plurals (we, you, they, etc). 2. Relative Pronouns The relative pronouns serves two purposes: (1) it take the place of a noun in the clause it introduces, and (2) like a conjunction, it connects its clause with the rest of the sentence. Who, whom, which, that, what, whoever, whomever, whichever, whatever The relative pronoun has the same number, person, and case as its antecedent. 3. Interrogative Pronouns The interrogative pronoun is the same in form as the relative pronoun, but different in function. The interrogative pronoun asks a question. Who Whom What Which refer to persons refers to things refers to persons or things

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2As adjectives, which and what may be used. . . . . which book? . . . . what time? 4. Indefinite Pronouns The indefinite pronouns listed here are singular, as are most indefinites: another, anyone, each, either, everyone, no one, nothing. . . . 5. Demonstrative Pronouns The demonstrative pronouns (this, that, these, those) point out or refer to a substantive which has been clearly expressed or just as clearly implied. They may be used as pronouns: These are the letters he wants. or as adjectives: Bring me those letters. 6. Reflexive Pronouns The reflexive pronouns are compound personal pronouns: Myself, yourself, yourselves, himself, themselves, ourselves, herself, itself A reflexive pronoun emphasizes or intensifies a meaning. It is not set off by commas. I myself will see that it is done. The director himself gave the order. I will take it to him myself. A reflexive pronoun often appears as the direct object of a verb; its antecedent, as the subject of the verb. I taught myself how to type. He hurt himself when he fell. I can, however, be the object of a preposition, He finished the assignment by himself. He was beside himself with joy.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2The indirect object of a verb, I bought myself a new suit yesterday. Or a predicate nominative. I am just not myself today. In formal usage, the reflexive pronoun is not used where the shorter personal pronoun can be substituted for it with no change in meaning. Not: Both the Director and myself endorse the policy. But: Both the Director and I endorse the policy. Avoid the following pronoun errors: The use of hisself for himself. The use of theirselves for themselves. The use of myself instead of the personal pronoun me or I in such constructions as The secretary and myself were assigned to do this work.ORDER OF PRONOUNS Pronoun order is the order in which pronouns should appear in a statement. I have been looking into the rules myself, and have come up with only one so far, and it seems logical. 2-1 3-1 2-3-1 This is how I understand it. 2. Use the second person pronoun (i.e. you) first if it appears in a sentence. The person being addressed always comes first. For example: I am sorry that you and my mother have been so bored this evening. 3. The third person pronoun (he, she, it, they) should come after the second person pronoun, as in the above example, but before any first person pronoun. She and I have been talking just now and have hit upon the solution! 1. The first person pronoun (I) comes last in the sequence, even if there are more than just two pronouns.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2We think that you, she, and I should get out to the movies more often

ADJECTIVE:It is a word that qualifies a noun or pronoun. It adds something to the meaning of a noun or pronoun. It is also called a Noun Modifier and Pronoun Modifier. KINDS OF ADJECTIVE1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Adjectives of Quality Adjectives of Quantity Adjective of Number Proper Adjective Demonstrative Adjective Interrogative Adjective Distributive Adjective

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Adjectives of Quality It states kinds quality or state of a person, place or thing. Example: A rich man, a large room, black cat, fresh milk etc. Adjectives of Quantity Such words which show quality of things it shows us how much of thing is meant. Example: Some corn, much tea, a little water, enough rice etc. Adjective of Number Such adjectives show that how many or in what order persons or things are taken. Example: Twelve months, sixty minutes, Tenth class, all men, many boys, few girls, most people etc. Proper Adjective The adjectives which are formed from proper noun are called Proper Adjectives. Example: Pakistani, America, African etc. Demonstrative Adjective Demonstrative Adjectives point out some thing or person. Example: This, that, these, those such etc.

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Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2(6) Interrogative Adjective Interrogative Adjectives are used to ask questions. Example: Which, what, whose. Distributive Adjective These adjectives show that things or person named in the sentence are taken singly or separately or in separate lots. Example: Each boy, every men, either of the pens, neither of the shirts etc.

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ADJECTIVEPOSITION & ORDER OF ADJECTIVES(a) (b) Usually comes before Noun. Example: a big town, a blue car We usually dont use AND between two adjectives. Example: a beautiful new car Except: when last adjectives are of colour. Example: a white & black cat Opshacom: This spelling helps remembering the Order of Adjectives. Opinion Beautiful Wonderful Fantastic Expensive Shape Age Colour Long New Black Old New Black New Origin British American Japanese Material Plastic Leather Noun Pen Novel Jacket Radio

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Article A A A An

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2IntroductionIn English, it is common to use more than one adjective before a noun for example, He's a silly young fool, or She's a smart, energetic woman. When you use more than one adjective, you have to put them in the right order, according to type. This page will explain the different types of adjectives and the correct order for them.

1. The basic types of adjectivesOpinion An opinion adjective explains what you think about something (other people may not agree with you). For example: silly, beautiful, horrible, difficult A size adjective, of course, tells you how big or small something is. For example: large, tiny, enormous, little An age adjective tells you how young or old something or someone is. For example: ancient, new, young, old A shape adjective describes the shape of something. For example: square, round, flat, rectangular A colour adjective, of course, describes the colour of something. For example: blue, pink, reddish, grey An origin adjective describes where something comes from. For example: French, lunar, American, eastern, Greek A material adjective describes what something is made from. For example: wooden, metal, cotton, paper

Size Age Shape Colour Origin Material

Purpose A purpose adjective describes what something is used for. These adjectives often end with -ing. For example: sleeping (as in sleeping bag), roasting (as in roasting tin)

2. Some examples of adjective orderOpinion a silly Size Age young Shape Colour Origin English Material Purpose man

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2

ADJECTIVETick the correctly ordered set of adjectives1) Andrea had a ____________ in her hair yesterday. A) Nice yellow bow B) Yellow nice bow C) Nice bow of yellow She lost a ______________. A) small white cat B) white small cat C) small cat of white I bought ___________ oranges. A) great some big B) big great some C) some great big We met _____________ people at the conference. A) decent people Pakistani B) Pakistani decent people C) decent Pakistani people The clown was wearing a ____________ hat. A) big yellow green B) big yellow and green C) yellow and green big The cookies that you _____________. A) smell delicious baked B) baked smell delicious C) delicious smell baked Is it ____________? A) cold getting outside B) getting cold outside C) outside getting cold The course you are ____________. A) taking sounds interesting B) sounds interesting taking

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Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2C) interesting sounds taking

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My uncle wore a _________ to the wedding. A) tie of blue silk B) blue tie of silk C) blue silks tie Have you met that _________ next door? A) cute boy new B) new boy cute C) cute new boy He has watched _______________ film. A) a/an (British, new, fantastic) B) a/an (new, British, fantastic) C) a/an (fantastic, new, British) I have purchased _____________ briefcase. A) a/an (leather, brown, Italian) B) a/an (brown, Italian, leather) C) an/a (Italian, brown, leather) He has ____________ bicycle. A) a/an (beautiful, red, Pakistani) B) a/an (red, Pakistani, beautiful) C) a/an (beautiful, Pakistani, red) Ali has ___________ jacket. A) a/an (impressive, black & white) B) a/an (impressive & black & white) C) a/an (impressive & black, white) I am having _____________ monitor. A) an/a (costly, latest, Sony) B) an/a (latest, Sony, costly) C) an/a (latest, costly, Sony)

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Adjective Test # 11)

Adjective of Quantity and NumberMany C) Few

I ate __________ rice. A) Some B)

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 22) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) He showed __________ concerned. A) Some B) Many He has __________ cars. A) Some B) Many C) C) C) Few Both A & B Little Much Both A & B

___________ dogs have odd behavior. A) Much B) Many

There are ___________ books in the bag. A) No B) Little C) You have ____________ sense. A) No B) Little C)

We had __________ knowledge about English. A) Many B) More C) Much They have __________ question to solve. A) Many B) More C) He thinks ____________ times before acting. A) Many B) More C) He has ___________ time today. A) Many B) More C) Much Much Much Much Much

There are __________ students in this class. A) Many B) More C) There is ___________ air in this class. A) Many B) More C)

Adjective Test # 21) 2) 3)

Distributive & Emphatic AdjectivesEach, their

___________ boy must take ________ turn. A) Each, his B) All, their C)

England expects _________ man to do _______ duty. A) Every, his B) All, their C) Each, their __________ word of it _________ false. A) Every, are B) All, are C) Each, is

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 24) 5) ___________ pens _____________ mine. A) Either, is B) Either, are C) ___________ pen _____________ mine. A) Either, is B) Either, are C)

Each, are Each, are

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 26) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) On either sides ____________ a narrow lane A) are B) is Neither accusation ___________ true. A) are B) is Neither claims ________________ right. A) are B) is I saw it with my __________ eye. A) very B) own C) myself myself myself myself myself

He was beaten at his ___________ game. A) very B) own C) Mind your ___________ business. A) very B) own He is his ____________ master. A) very B) own C) C)

That is the ___________ thing we want. A) very B) own C)

It is the __________ suggestion that help me out. A) very B) own C) myself Either Pakistan or India __________ the right to vote. A) have B) has Either Pakistan or other nuclear powers ________ the right to vote A) have B) has

COMPARE THE FOLLOWING ADJECTIVESAdjective Test # 3 Late-Later-Latest/Latter, Last

Late, Later & Latest(recent): Refer to Time 1) 2) He is __________ than I expected. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest D) Last

I have not heard the _______________ news.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2A) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) Latter B) Later C) Latest D) Least Last Last Last Last Last

The ______________ chapter is lacking in interest. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest D) The _____________ chapters are lacking in interest. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest D) The _____________ chapter is clearly written. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest Ours is the ___________ house in the street. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest Our house is built with the __________ model. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest D) D) D)

The majority accepted ____________ proposal than the last one. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest D) Last The _________ part of the book shows sights of hurry. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest D) I prefer the ____________ preposition to the former. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest D) Is there any __________ news than last weeks? A) Latter B) Later C) Latest D) Last Last Last

The ___________ time I saw him, he was in high spirits. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest D) Last Today is the __________ day for receiving tenders. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest D) Last

I am quiet __________ today, but Ahmed came ________ than me. A) Late, Later B) Later, Later C) Latest, Late D) Last, Latest The ________ Mogul Emperor came to an ignominious end. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest D) Last

Adjective Test # 4

Elder, Eldest/Older, Oldest

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2Elder & Eldest: are used only for pronouns not for animals/things, and are confined to members of family. Elder is not used with than. Older & Oldest: are used of both persons and things and they shows the age. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) John is my _____________ brother. A) Elder B) Older C) Tom is the son of mine. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest Eldest Eldest D) D) D) D) D) D) D) Oldest Oldest Oldest Oldest Oldest Oldest Oldest

He is ____________ than his sister. A) Elder B) Older C)

Rahman is the ___________ boy in the class. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest This is the ___________ temple in Calcutta. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest I have an ____________ sister. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest

Rehman is _________ than Hari by two years. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest

His ____________ brother is in the Indian civil services. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest D) Oldest She is the _____________ of the two sisters. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest The nephew is ____________ than his uncle. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest D) D) Oldest Oldest Oldest

Rustum is the ___________ of my uncles five sons. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest D)

He is the __________ member of the School Committee. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest D) Oldest That is Kamran, Ahmeds ___________ brother. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest D) Oldest

The ____________ mosque in the town is near the railway station.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2A) 15) Elder B) Older C) Eldest D) Oldest

Mr. Ali is the _____________ European resident of England. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest D) Oldest

Adjective Test # 5

Father, Further / Nearest, Next

Far-Farther-Farthest: means more distant or advanced Nearest: denotes Distance Further: means additional. Next: denotes Position. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) Karachi is __________ from Sakkar than Hyderabad. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest D) After this he made no __________ remarks. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest I must have a reply without _________ delay. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest Bombay is the seaport __________ to Europe. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest Alis shop is the __________ to the Post Office. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest My uncle lives in ___________ house. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest Ali is sitting ____________ to Ahmed. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest No ____________ reasons were given. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest D) D) D) D) D) D) D) Next Next Next Next Next Next Next Next

I am the __________ who will claim for the highest share. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest D) Next This is the ___________ Post Office of my house. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest The pillar-box is ___________ to my house. D) Next

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2A) 12) 13) Farther B) Further C) Nearest Nearest D) D) Next Next

His house is ____________ to mine. A) Farther B) Further C)

The ____________ railway station is two miles from here. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest D) Next

Adjective Test # 11) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12)

Adjective Quantity and NumberMany C) C) C) C) C) C) Few Few Both A & B Little Much Both A & B Much Much Much Much Much

I ate __________ rice. A) Some B)

He showed ___________ concerned. A) Some B) Many He has __________ cars. A) Some B) Many

_____________ dogs have odd behavior. A) Much B) Many There are __________ books in the bag. A) No B) Little You have ____________ sense. A) No B) Little

We had __________ knowledge about English. A) Many B) More C) They have __________ questions to solve. A) Many B) More He thinks ___________ times before acting. A) Many B) More He has ____________ time today. A) Many B) More There are ___________ students in this class. A) Many B) More There is __________ air in this class. C) C) C) C)

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2A) Many B) More C) Much

Adjective Test # 21) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13)

Distributive & Emphatic AdjectivesEach, their

____________ boy must take __________ turn. A) Each, his B) All, their C)

England expects ___________ man to do __________ duty. A) Each, his B) All, their C) Each, their ____________ word of it ____________ false. A) Every, are B) All, are C) ____________ pens ______________ mine. A) Either, is B) Either, are ____________ pens ____________ mine. A) Either, is B) Either, are One either sides ___________ a narrow lane A) are B) is Neither accusation __________ true. A) are B) is Neither claims ____________ right. A) are B) is I saw it with my ____________ eye. A) very B) own He was beaten at his ___________ game. A) very B) own Mind your ___________ business. A) very B) own He is his ____________ master. A) very B) own That is the ___________ thing we want. A) very B) own C) C) C) C) C) myself myself myself myself myself C) C) Each, is Each, are Each, are

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 214) 15) 16) It is the __________ suggestion that help me out. A) very B) own C) Either Pakistan or India __________ the right to vote. A) have B) has Either Pakistan or other nuclear powers ________ the right to vote A) have B) has myself

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2 COMPARE THE FOLLOWING ADJECTIVESAdjective Test # 3 Late-Later-Latest/Latter, Last

Late, Later & Latest(recent): Refer to Time 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) He is __________ than I expected. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest D) D) Last Least Last Last Last Last Last

I have not heard the _______________ news. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest

The ______________ chapter is lacking in interest. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest D) The _____________ chapters are lacking in interest. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest D) The _____________ chapter is clearly written. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest Ours is the ___________ house in the street. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest Our house is built with the __________ model. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest D) D) D)

The majority accepted ____________ proposal than the last one. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest D) Last The _________ part of the book shows sights of hurry. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest D) I prefer the ____________ preposition to the former. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest D) Is there any __________ news than last weeks? A) Latter B) Later C) Latest D) Last Last Last

The ___________ time I saw him, he was in high spirits. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest D) Last Today is the __________ day for receiving tenders.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2A) 14) 15) Latter B) Later C) Latest D) Last

I am quiet __________ today, but Ahmed came ________ than me. A) Late, Later B) Later, Later C) Latest, Late D) Last, Latest The ________ Mogul Emperor came to an ignominious end. A) Latter B) Later C) Latest D) Last

Adjective Test # 4

Elder, Eldest/Older, Oldest

Elder & Eldest: are used only for pronouns not for animals/things, and are confined to members of family. Elder is not used with than. Older & Oldest: are used of both persons and things and they shows the age. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) John is my _____________ brother. A) Elder B) Older C) Tom is the son of mine. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest Eldest Eldest D) D) D) D) D) D) D) Oldest Oldest Oldest Oldest Oldest Oldest Oldest

He is ____________ than his sister. A) Elder B) Older C)

Rahman is the ___________ boy in the class. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest This is the ___________ temple in Calcutta. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest I have an ____________ sister. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest

Rehman is _________ than Hari by two years. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest

His ____________ brother is in the Indian civil services. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest D) Oldest She is the _____________ of the two sisters. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest The nephew is ____________ than his uncle. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest D) D) Oldest Oldest

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 211) 12) 13) 14) 15) Rustum is the ___________ of my uncles five sons. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest D)

Oldest

He is the __________ member of the School Committee. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest D) Oldest That is Kamran, Ahmeds ___________ brother. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest D) Oldest

The ____________ mosque in the town is near the railway station. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest D) Oldest Mr. Ali is the _____________ European resident of England. A) Elder B) Older C) Eldest D) Oldest

Adjective Test # 5

Father, Further / Nearest, Next

Far-Farther-Farthest: means more distant or advanced Nearest: denotes Distance Further: means additional. Next: denotes Position. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Karachi is __________ from Sakkar than Hyderabad. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest D) After this he made no __________ remarks. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest I must have a reply without _________ delay. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest Bombay is the seaport __________ to Europe. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest Alis shop is the __________ to the Post Office. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest My uncle lives in ___________ house. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest Ali is sitting ____________ to Ahmed. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest D) D) D) D) D) D) Next Next Next Next Next Next Next

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 28) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) No ____________ reasons were given. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest

D)

Next

I am the __________ who will claim for the highest share. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest D) Next This is the ___________ Post Office of my house. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest The pillar-box is ___________ to my house. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest His house is ____________ to mine. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest D) D) D) Next Next Next

The ____________ railway station is two miles from here. A) Farther B) Further C) Nearest D) Next

Adjective Test # 6

Little, A Little & The Little / Few, A Few & The Few

Little: Not much (i.e. hardly any) (for uncountable) A Little: Some but not much (for uncountable) The Little: Not much, but all there is. (for uncountable) Few: Not many (i.e. hardly any) (for countable) A Few: Some (for countable) The Few: Not many, but all there is (for countable). PRACTICE TEST 1) 2) 3) 4) He is seriously ill and there is ___________ hope of this recovery. A) little B) a little C) few D) a few It is said _____ knowledge is a bad thing. A) little B) a little C) the little She didnt eat much but drank _________ water. A) little B) few C) a few D) D) few the few

___________ people know as much about computers as Bill Gates does. A) little B) few C) a few D) the few

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 25) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) Your help does me ________ good when the whole system goes down. A) little B) few C) a few D) the few __________ grain they had was damaged by sea water. A) little B) a little C) the little D) few

________ precaution is necessary in handling that machine. A) little B) few C) a few D) the few _________ care could have prevented the catastrophe. A) little B) few C) a few D) the few ____ knowledge of French that he has, is likely to be very useful to him. A) little B) a little C) the little D) few __________ public libraries that we have, are not well equipped. A) little B) few C) a few D) the few _______days that are left to him he spends in solitude and meditation. A) little B) few C) a few D) the few Many Pakistani study English, but only _________ study French. A) little B) few C) a few D) the few Give me _________ minutes more to complete my task. A) little B) few C) a few D) the few In _________ words he expressed his gratitude to his friends. A) little B) the little C) a few D) the few How he arrived here, I saw him there __________ minutes ago. A) little B) the little C) a few D) the few

Adjective Test # 71) 2) 3)

Almost, Almost All, Most of

__________ people in the world want to lead a better life. A) almost B) almost all C) most of D) none of them _________ the students have to work their hardest to pass entry test. A) almost B) almost all C) most of D) none of them I like summer _________ the time, but August is really too hot! A) almost B) almost all C) most of D) none of them

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 24) 5) 6) I ________ had a bad accident yesterday. I have to drive more carefully. A) almost B) almost all C) most of D) none of them The cat ___________ scratched my leg, but I shooed it away. A) almost B) almost all C) most of D) none of them Are __________ Americans English speakers? A) almost B) almost all C) most of D) none of them

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 27) I learned __________ of my English by watching movies and listening to music. A) almost B) almost all C) most of D) none of them We had _________ arrived in the city when it started to snow. A) almost B) almost all C) most of D) none of them Did _______ you remember to bring extra water for our hike today? A) almost B) almost all C) most of D) none of them Something terrible happened! I was flying in a plane and it _______ crashed! A) almost B) almost all C) most of D) none of them

8) 9) 10)

Adjective Test # 81) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

Some, or Any

Im sure I made _________ mistakes on them exam. A) Some B) Any My friend didnt make ________ mistakes on the exam. A) Some B) Any I should have studied _________ more last night. A) Some B) Any I have __________ money so I will give you a treat. A) Some B) Any that is very kind of you because I dont have _________ money. A) Some B) Any No, I dont have _______, but I wish I did. A) Some B) Any Do you know ________ good restaurant in Vancouver? A) Some B) Any Would you like to have ________ coffee with your meal, Sir asked the waiter? A) Some B) Any Yes, Id like _______ please, I replied. A) Some B) Any

9)

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 210) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) Do you have __________ newspapers left, I asked? A) Some B) Any No, I dont have _________ he replied. A) Some B) Any But I will have ________ more this evening, he added. A) Some B) Any I went to the butcher, but I dont buy ______ meat. It was so expensive! A) Some B) Any Please come to see me ________ time when you are free. A) Some B) Any Thank you. Maybe I will come __________ time on Saturday? A) Some B) Any I have to cigarettes left so I will go to the store to buy ___________. A) Some B) Any If they have ___________ Cuban cigars, please buy one for me. A) Some B) Any Then you must give me __________ more money. A) Some B) Any

Adjective Test # 6

Little, A Little & The Little / Few, A Few & The Few

Little: Not much (i.e. hardly any) (for uncountable) A Little: Some but not much (for uncountable) The Little: Not much, but all there is. (for uncountable) Few: Not many (i.e. hardly any) (for countable) A Few: Some (for countable) The Few: Not many, but all there is (for countable). PRACTICE TEST 1) 2) He is seriously ill and there is ___________ hope of this recovery. A) little B) a little C) few D) a few It is said _____ knowledge is a bad thing.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2A) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) little B) a little C) the little D) D) few the few

She didnt eat much but drank _________ water. A) little B) few C) a few

___________ people know as much about computers as Bill Gates does. A) little B) few C) a few D) the few Your help does me ________ good when the whole system goes down. A) little B) few C) a few D) the few __________ grain they had was damaged by sea water. A) little B) a little C) the little D) few

________ precaution is necessary in handling that machine. A) little B) few C) a few D) the few _________ care could have prevented the catastrophe. A) little B) few C) a few D) the few ____ knowledge of French that he has, is likely to be very useful to him. A) little B) a little C) the little D) few __________ public libraries that we have, are not well equipped. A) little B) few C) a few D) the few _______days that are left to him he spends in solitude and meditation. A) little B) few C) a few D) the few Many Pakistani study English, but only _________ study French. A) little B) few C) a few D) the few Give me _________ minutes more to complete my task. A) little B) few C) a few D) the few In _________ words he expressed his gratitude to his friends. A) little B) the little C) a few D) the few How he arrived here, I saw him there __________ minutes ago. A) little B) the little C) a few D) the few

Adjective Test # 71)

Almost, Almost All, Most of

__________ people in the world want to lead a better life.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2A) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) almost B) almost all C) most of D) none of them

_________ the students have to work their hardest to pass entry test. A) almost B) almost all C) most of D) none of them I like summer _________ the time, but August is really too hot! A) almost B) almost all C) most of D) none of them I ________ had a bad accident yesterday. I have to drive more carefully. A) almost B) almost all C) most of D) none of them The cat ___________ scratched my leg, but I shooed it away. A) almost B) almost all C) most of D) none of them Are __________ Americans English speakers? A) almost B) almost all C) most of D) none of them

I learned __________ of my English by watching movies and listening to music. A) almost B) almost all C) most of D) none of them We had _________ arrived in the city when it started to snow. A) almost B) almost all C) most of D) none of them Did _______ you remember to bring extra water for our hike today? A) almost B) almost all C) most of D) none of them Something terrible happened! I was flying in a plane and it _______ crashed! A) almost B) almost all C) most of D) none of them

8) 9) 10)

Adjective Test # 81) 2) 3) 4)

Some, or Any

Im sure I made _________ mistakes on them exam. A) Some B) Any My friend didnt make ________ mistakes on the exam. A) Some B) Any I should have studied _________ more last night. A) Some B) Any I have __________ money so I will give you a treat.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2A) 5) 6) 7) 8) Some B) Any

that is very kind of you because I dont have _________ money. A) Some B) Any No, I dont have _______, but I wish I did. A) Some B) Any Do you know ________ good restaurant in Vancouver? A) Some B) Any Would you like to have ________ coffee with your meal, Sir asked the waiter? A) Some B) Any Yes, Id like _______ please, I replied. A) Some B) Any Do you have __________ newspapers left, I asked? A) Some B) Any No, I dont have _________ he replied. A) Some B) Any But I will have ________ more this evening, he added. A) Some B) Any I went to the butcher, but I dont buy ______ meat. It was so expensive! A) Some B) Any Please come to see me ________ time when you are free. A) Some B) Any Thank you. Maybe I will come __________ time on Saturday? A) Some B) Any I have to cigarettes left so I will go to the store to buy ___________. A) Some B) Any If they have ___________ Cuban cigars, please buy one for me. A) Some B) Any Then you must give me __________ more money. A) Some B) Any

9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18)

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2

ONE-WORD SUBSTITUTIONS1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

Child with parents A person who creates disorder or lawlessness A thing that cannot be avoided A man who does not believe in existence of God Talking badly against sacred / pious things / personalities One who is a great lover of books The life history of a man written by himself The life history of a man written by another A man who works in the same department One who has power seeing everything Government by the people Government by one person Government by the nobles A ladys purse A speech made without any preparation In perfect balance A man filled with extreme ideas of religion One who believes in fate A person who does not know how to read or write Something that comes and goes with the season When more than one thing happen at the same time A person who hates mankind A person who hates woman Belonging to the Middle Anges A medicine that induces sleep A person who studies a language Power of knowing the though of others Favoring own relatives and friends in every way One who is all-powerful One who is present everywhere A child born after the death of his father One who things positively One who things negatively A person who loves and works for human beings Medical examination of a dead body Property inherited from ones father or ancestors The word that is no longer in use Act of speaking to oneself when all alone A person who can speak many languages Amount paid to a person for work done

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 241. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75.

Man whose wife is dead A person qualified for something A man having feminine qualities of attitudes and manners A group of singers with all basic musical instruments Any work or book that appears after its writers death. Scientific study of a language A person who believes in One God. An office for which salary is not paid A disease which ends in death Incapable of being corrected That which cannot be solved or dissolved That which cannot be defended One who eats human flesh Government by officials A medicine to counteract the effect of poison A person who easily trust others A building in which dead bodies are kept A person who continuously talks A medicine that kills germs A person who is indifferent to please and pain One who is very easily made angry Worship of idols Animals who live in water Animals who live in flocks A thing which cannot be imitated That which is contrary to law One who can use his left and right hand in writing The murder or murderer of ones children The murder or murderer of ones brother The murder or murderer of ones father The murder or murderer of ones mother The murder or murderer of the king Incapable of being explained One who walks on foot A person gradually recovering from illness.

VERBThere are three kinds of verb: VERB

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2VERB TO BE AM, IS, ARE WAS, WERE WILL BE, SHALL BE TO SHOW Status: Possession: Place: Relation: VERB T HAVE HAS, HAVE HAD WILL HAVE SHALL HAVE TO SHOW ACTION VERB EAT WATCH GO SEE

He is my brother He has a new car. He is in the class. He has a cute brother.

Action Verb: It is that category of the verb, which shows the complete action. KINDS OF ACTION VERB: 1) Regular Action Verb: These verbs take D, ED, & IED in their ends to make their 2nd and 3rd form. Irregular Action Verb: These verbs have no fix formula to make their 2nd and 3rd form.

2)

FORMS OF ACTION VERB:Present Form Past Form Past Participle Present Participle

PromiseRegular Verbs Watch

Carry Go Irregular Verbs Come Cut MODEL VERBS

Promised Watched Carried Went Came Cut Key Points

Promised Watched Carried Gone Come Cut

Promising Watching Caring Going Coming Cutting

CAN: Example: COULD: Example: MAY:(a)

Usually expresses Ability or Capacity. I can swim. / He can arrive there in five minutes. Is used as past equivalent of Can. I could swim yesterday. Is used to express Permission.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2Example: (b) Example: (c) Example: MIGHT:(a) Example: Example: Example: (b) Example: (c) May I come in please. It is used to express Possibility in affirmative sentences. It may rain today. It is used to express With or Pray. May you live happily & long! Is used as past equivalent of May. He said I might go (Permission) I thought he might be at home (Possibility) I wondered whether it could be true (Possibility) Might is used to express a degree of dissatisfaction or reproach. You might pay a little more attention to your appearance.

MIGHT & COULD are used as less positive versions of MAY & CAN Example: I could/might attend the party (less positive & hesitant than: I can/may attend the party) Might/Could I borrow your pen? (Less positive & hesitant than: Can/May I borrow your pen?) SHALL:(a) It is used with First Person i.e. I & We: Example: I shall call you. Example: We shall wait for you. (b) It is used with second & third person to express. 1. Command Example: He shall not enter my house again. 2. Promise: Example: You shall have a holiday tomorrow. 3. Threat: Example: You shall be punished for this. SHOULD:(a) It is used as past equivalent of Shall. Example: I expected that I should get a first class. (b) It is used for Advise. Example: You should work hard to pass entry test. (c) Example: (d) Example: It is used to express duty / obligation. We should obey our parents. It is used (In clause of condition) to express a supposition that may not be true If it should rain, he will not come.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2WOULD:(a) It is used as the past equivalent of Will. Example: I would come yesterday, but I didnt. MUST:(a) Example: (b) Example: It is used to express Necessity/Obligation. WE must obey the law It is used to express Fixed determination. I must have my way in his matter.

SOUGHT (To):(a) It is used to express moral obligation/desirability. Example: We ought to love our country (b) It is used to express Strong Probability (chance/possibility) Example: Ali ought to win. The film ought to be a great success. USED TO:(a) It is used to express Discontinued habit (Past habitual activity). Example: I used to play cricket when I was in college. NEED TO: It is used to express Necessity/Obligation. Example: I need to write a letter to VC. HARE TO: It means (to be brave enough to). It is generally used in negative and interrogative. It does not take with third person singular. Example: He doesnt dare to touch my stuff again.(1) MODALS

The modal helping verbs or modal auxiliaries include can, could, may, and might, along with several two-and three-word combination, such as have to and be able to. Modals convey various meanings, with these being most common. ABILITY: can, could, be able to POSSIBILITY: could, may might, could/may/might have + past participle The equipment could fail. The Equipment may fail. The equipment might fail. (Present) (Present or Future) (Present or

Future)

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2

The equipment may have failed.

(Past)

NECESSITY OR OBLIGATION: must, have to, had to, will have to

The lab must purchase the equipment. The lab has to purchase the equipment. The lab had to purchase the equipment. The lab will have to purchase the equipment.

(Present (Present (Past) (Future)

or or

Future)

Future)

PERMISSION: may, can, could

The lab may spend the money. The lab can spend the money. The lab could spend the money.

(Present (Present or Future) (Present

or

Future)

or

Future, more tentative)

The school then announced that the lab could spend the money.

(Past) INTENTION: will, shall, would

The Lab Will Spend the money

(Future)

Shall we offer advice? (Future. Use shall for questions requesting We knew we would offer advice. (Past)

opinion or consent.)

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2REQUEST: could, can, would

Could I use your phone, please? Could (or can or would) you please obtain a bid?

ADVISABILITY: should, had better, ought to, should have + past participle

You should obtain three bids. You had better obtain three bids. You ought to obtain three bids. You should have obtained three bids.

(Present (Present (Present (Past)

or or or

Future)

Future)

Future)

PAST HABIT: would, used to In years past we would walk to work.

We used to walk to work.

VERB PRACTICE 1

MODEL VERBS

From the choices provided after each sentence select the verb that would correctly complete the sentence 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) You are a talented student. You ________ pass this test. A) Can B) Might C) Must Ali is the student of his semester, so he _________ appear in exams. A) Must B) Ought to C) Should Every Muslim ________ perform prays five times in a day. A) Must B) Ought to C) Should __________ God bless you all. A) May B) Ought to C) Should

Europeans thought that Muslims __________ remain claim while seeing the blasphemous cartoons published. A) Can B) Might C) Must

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 26) 7) 8) I am sorry I ________ attend your class yesterday. A) Cant B) Couldnt C)

Wouldnt

You seem to be having trouble there. _______ I help you? A) May B) Can C) Shall I dont have money to buy lunch. _________ you lend me a couple of dollars? A) May B) Could C) Can That ice is dangerously thin now. You _______ go ice-skating today. A) Mustnt B) Might not C) Shouldnt Its way past my bedtime and Im really tired. I ______ go to bed. A) Should B) Can C) Could He ______ have committed this crime. He wasnt even in the city that night. A) Might B) Shouldnt C) Couldnt John is late today. He _______ miss his bus. A) Should B) Might C) Would

9) 10) 11)

12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19)

Im really quite lost. _______ showing me how to get out of here? A) Would you mind B) Would you be C) Must you be That bus is usually on time. It _______ be here any time now. A) Might B) Can C) Ought to Its the law and they _________ follow it. A) Might B) Could C) Have to Must Have Should

Villa is teacher here, so she _________ teach here. A) Has to B) Can C) _________ you speak any foreign languages? A) May B) Can C)

Liz _________ get tired of her job. It was so boring. A) Might B) Must C)

The time of Alis class is 12. It 12.30, so he ______ be in his class now. A) Might B) Must C) Can

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 220) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) Take an umbrella. It ________ rain later. A) Has to B) Need Jack __________ go to hospital yesterday. A) Must B) Had to You look tired. You ________ go to bed. A) Should B) Ought to You _________ do it. Ive already done it. A) Must not B) Need not ___________ it be true? A) Must B) _________ we stay or leave? A) Will B) May Would

C) C) C) C) C) C)

Might Need Are to Ought not Can Shall

Jane was so tired. She _________ have worked days and nights. A) Should B) Must C) Need I _________ to the doctor yesterday. A) Had to gone B) Must had gone C) Had to go Must not Seeing Didnt have to Have not to Give Give

I am happy that I _______ wake up early on Sunday. A) Dont have to B) not have to C) You ought _________ the movie. A) See B) To see I __________ work yesterday. A) Not had to B) Didnt had to You _________ eat the whole meal. A) Must not to B) Have dont to Would you please __________ me that book? A) To give B) Giving Would you mind _________ me that book? A) To give B) Giving You _________ more careful. C) C) C) C) C)

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2A) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) Ought to been B) Ought to C) C) Ought to be Must Could be Could be

It __________ snow tomorrow. A) Can B) May

He ________ in yesterday, as it was his first test. A) Has to be B) Had to be C) You ________ her. A) Has to be B) Had to be C)

He _________ not to ask me such this, as I am his boss. A) Ought B) Dares C) Needs You ________ not to right since I will give you handouts. A) Out B) Dare C) Need We were ________ call you but you called A) Out to B) About to C) Need to

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2Used to do or Be used to Quiz41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) My mother _________ cook on Sunday. A) Used to B) Is used to Didnt you use to ________? A) Swim B) Is swimming C) C) C) C) C) C) C) C) C) C) both of them Swimming Watched Used to be Have Take Use to Did, use Got up Uses

I dont use to __________ this much TV. A) Watch B) Watching You _________ noisy child. A) Use to B) Used to

Ali used to __________ my best friend. A) Been B) Be I used to __________ 10 cigarettes a day. A) Be taking B) Been taking I __________ in Hawaii in 1990. A) Used to be B) Used to do __________ you ________ to eat spicy food? A) Do, used B) Did, used My brother used to _________ early for school. A) Getting up B) Get up Did you _________ to eat meat? A) Use B) Used

IRREGULAR VERB TEST1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Write the 2nd form of Write the 2nd form of Write the 2nd form of Write the 2nd form of Write the 2nd form of Write the 3rd form of Write the 3rd form of Write the 3rd form of : : : : : : : : Abide Beget Bite Blow Cost Creep Deal Draw _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 29. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. Write the 3rd form of Write the 2nd form of Write the 2nd form of Write the 2nd form of Write the 2nd form of Write the 2nd form of Write the 2nd form of Write the 3rd form of Write the 3rd form of Write the 3rd form of Write the 3rd form of Write the 2nd form of Write the 2nd form of Write the 2nd form of Write the 2nd form of Write the 2nd form of Write the 2nd form of Write the 3rd form of Write the 3rd form of Write the 3rd form of Write the 3rd form of Write the 2nd form of Write the 2nd form of Write the 2nd form of Write the 2nd form of Write the 2nd form of Write the 2nd form of Write the 3rd form of Write the 3rd form of Write the 3rd form of : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dwell Fight _________ Find Flee Forsake _________ Freeze Give Grind _________ Grow Hit Keep _________ Know Lay Lead _________ Lean Leave Lend _________ Make Rise See _________ Sew Shoot Sink _________ Sit Sting Strive _________ Thrive Throw Undertake_________ Wake _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________

PREPOSITIONIt shows the relation of a noun or pronoun with same thing else (action, noun or pronoun) in a sentence. Preposition means something that is placed before. It is always placed before a noun or pronoun.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2

INPLACEIn room In shop In Car In the water In Garden In a town, In the city centre, In Hyderabad In France In the beginning of In the middle of In cupboard In the river In the sea Directions (North South East West) In the bed TIME In the morning In the evening In the afternoon In the midnight Seasons (in summer) In August In 1999 In the Middle Ages In time (before time)

On the grass On the envelop On the horse, bike, bicycle On a bus, train, plane, ship: (He is sitting on the bus) On the ground floor, first floor On the way home or to work On the left On the right in the middle On holiday: Ali is on holiday today On TV, Radio: we watch news on the TV On phone: I spoke to Carol on phone On fire: The house is on fire. TIME On 1st August On my birthday On Monday On Christmas On time: (not late)

ATPLACEAt gate At the door At the bus station At traffic signal At my desk At village At the top of At the bottom of At the end of At home At work

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2At school, college, university At the station At the airport At Alis (house, place) At my sisters (place) At concert, party, football match At (the age of): Ali dies at the age of 20 At 50 miles per hour At 100 C

ONPLACEOn roof On shelf On the bank On sea shore On a plate On balcony On the floor On ceilings On walls On the trees TIME At night At noon At 1 Oclock At week ends

BYBy bus, are, train, plane: He travels by bus. Exceptional: On foot: he came home on foot. A book by: This is a book by Dickens After Passive: he was killed by her.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2 PREPOSITIONPrepositions of TimePrepositions can also be used to show when something happened.

The prepositions At, On, and InWe use at for specific times. For Example My birthday is on Monday. Were having a party on 7th September. We also use on for some special days. For Example On Christmas day. We use in for nonspecific times during a day, a month, a season, or a year. For Example In summer its too hot to work. I started his web site in 1999. She woke up in the night. More prepositions of time Point in Time at on by till/until/upto since Length of Time in July 6 OClock Midnight Saturday April 10th Christmas Day the end of July (indicates a deadline = at the latest) March (indicates an end point) April 10th March (indicates a beginning point in time)

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2the autumn the morning the middle of . . . . . at during for throughout night The weekend the meeting the lesson two days twelve months August the project

Prepositions of Place Prepositions can be used to show where something is located.

The prepositions at, on, and inWe use at to show a specific place or position. For example: Someone is at the door. They are waiting at the bus stop I used to live at 51 Portland Street. We use on to show position on a horizontal or vertical surface. For example: The cat sat on the mat. The satellite dish is on the roof. We also use on to show position on streets, roads, etc. For example: I used to live on Portland Street. We use in to show that something is enclosed or surrounded. For example: The dog is in the garden. She is in a taxi. Put it in the box. He also use in to show position within land-areas (town, countries, states, countries, and continents).

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2For example: Used to live in Nottingham.

More prepositions of place Prepositions of PlaceAfterShe slammed the door They ran Among I enjoy being I found my handbag At The secretary was sitting The man was standing Behind The car park is He never won a race, he was always Between The prisoner sat I held the pen In The pen was He lives In front of The teacher stands The car was parked Next to / beside / by In my English lesson I always sit The bank is On in front of in front of next to / beside / by next to / Beside / by the class the garage. my friend. the hotel. in in the drawer South Africa. between between the two policemen. my thumb and fingers. behind behind the building. other at at her desk. the taxi stand. among among my friends. my luggage. after after her. the thief.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2The painting was hanging The boy was sitting Over/above The sign hanging I put the tablecloth I enjoy watching the planes fly over/above over above the door read No smoking. the table. me. on on the wall. the chair.

Under / below The temperature outside was under/below 0. The woman was sheltering under a tree. When flying I enjoy watching the clouds below me.

Prepositions of MovementPrepositions can be used to show movement. For example:To, through, across We use to to show movement with the aim of a specific destination. For example:I moved to Germany in 1998. Hes gone to the shops. We use through to show movement from one side of an enclosed space to the other. For example:The train went through the tunnel. We use across to show movement from one side of a surface or line to another. For example:She swam across the river.

More prepositions of movementShe ran To Through the door. the tunnel. (from one side of an enclosed space to the other)

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2Across Along Down Over Off Round Into the road. (from one side of an open space to the other) the road. (the length of the road) the road. (the length of the road) the bridge. (from one side of an open space to the other) the stage. the track. the room

Fill in the blanks with suitable option.1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) My elder brother is ___________ LLB. A) a B) an C) the Honesty is ___________ best policy. A) a B) an C) the What __________ shot! A) a B) an C) the D) D) D) nothing X nothing X nothing X

Please give me _________ pen and __________ inkpot. A) a, X B) a, an C) a, a D) an, nothing X Ali is studying in ______ university which has _____ many students. A) a, X B) a, an C) a, a D) an, nothing X Haana is ______ intelligent and _____ diligent student of our school. A) an, X B) an, an C) an, a D) an, the ________ Sahara is _________ largest desert of _______ world. A) X, the, X B) the, X, X C) the, the, X D) the, the, the _______ Holy Quran is _______ most sacred book of _______ Allah. A) X, the, X B) the, the, a C) the, the, X D) the, the, the

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 29) After climbing ________ K2, he is planning to conquer _______ Mount Everest. A) an, X B) a, the C) the, a D) the, the I always buy ___________ Dawn. A) a B) an C) the D) nothing X

10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15)

He loves to speak __________ Truth and hates to tell _______ lie. A) an, X B) a, the C) the, a D) the, the _________ stars are in ___________ sky. A) an, X B) a, the C) the, a D) the, the

__________ trees look fresh and green in _________ spring. A) an, X B) a, the C) the, a D) the, the He is __________ one who beats me. A) a B) an C) the D) nothing X

My younger brother is __________ S.H.O of __________ Hala City. A) an, X B) an, an C) an, a D) an, the

PRACTICE TEST 2 Fill in the blanks with suitable option.1) 2) 3) I met ___________ person. He was _________ M.A in English. A) a, a B) an, a C) an, an D) a, an I went to _________ doctor who was my relative. A) the B) a C) an D) None of them

Please consult _______ calendar and find __________ date on which you were born. Fill in the blank A) a, the B) an, the C) the, the D) All of these ______________ dog is a faithful animal. A) The B) a C) an D) None of these None of these

4) 5)

There is ___________ university in that city. A) an B) a C) Both A&B D)

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 26) ___________ only way to get through the examination is hard working. A) a B) an C) the D) All of these Asma attained _________ first position and her friend attained ________ second position. A) a, an B) the, a C) a, a D) the, the Aslam is __________ tallest boy of the class. A) a B) the C) an D) N.O.T

7)

8) 9)

If oil supplies run out, ________ man may have to fall back on __________ horse. A) the, the B) No article, a C) No article, the D) All of these The students have arranged a program to visit ________ sea, especially __________ Arabian sea. A) a, the B) the, a C) a, a D) the, the We have recently visited __________ Thar Desert. A) the B) a C) Both A&B D) an

10)

11) 12)

__________ USA is the abbreviation of _________ united state of America. A) No article, the B) the, a C) the, the, D) N.O.T ___________ Indus river is ___________ largest river of Pakistan. A) No article, the B) the, the C) the, No article D) a, the We recite ___________ Holy Quran whereas Christian recites ____________ Holy Bible. A) a, a B) the, the C) a, the D) N.O.T Edmund Dantes is better known as __________ Count of Monte Cristo not as _____________ Duke of Strelsau. A) a, the B) an, the C) Both A&B D) the, the

13) 14)

15)

Find out the error:16) 17) The (a) An (a) teacher (b) earth taught a students. (c) (d) around (c) the (d) sun.

moves (b)

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 218) 19) 20) The (a) The sun Stars (a) has been (b) are (b) covered (c) with a clouds. (d)

sparking in sharing (b)

a sky. (c) (d) between (d) each other.

A two girls are (a)

confidence (c)

Example: Faheem writes a letter.

Kinds of Verb1. 2.

Transitive Verb Intransitive Verb

(1)

Transitive VerbThe transitive verb shows that the action does not stop with the subject but it passes on from subject to the object.

Example:1. 2.

The man killed a snake. He bought a house.

(2)

Intransitive VerbIf the action denoted by a verb stops with subject and does not pass over to the object, the verb is called Intransitive verb.

Example:1. 2. 3.

Sun rises in the east. They sweep She smiles.

(5)

The VerbAn adverb is a word which is used to show the time, manner and degree of verb and adjective or another adverb by modifying their meaning.

Example:1. 2. 3.

Ahmed speaks fluently. This is very sweet dish. Faheem writes quite clearly.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2Kinds of Adverb1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Adverbs of Manner Adverbs of place Adverbs of Time Adverbs of Frequency Adverb of Degree Interrogative Adverb Relative Adverb

(1)

Adverbs of MannerIt tells about the manner of some action how it took place.

Example: She danced beautifully. Here beautifully shows manners.

(2)

Adverbs of placeIt shows where something happened.

Example: He brought him here. Here is the adverb of place.

(3)

Adverbs of TimeIt shows when did something happen.

Example: He is coming tomorrow. Here tomorrow is adverb.

(4)

Adverbs of FrequencyIt shows that how often or how many times action takes place.

Example: He is always in time for meal. Here always is adverb of frequency.

(5)

Adverb of DegreeSuch adverb which shows the degree of a verb or an adjective by telling how much or at what degree an action takes place.

Example:

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2Almost, nearly, quite, too, extremely, absolutely, entirely etc.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2(6) Interrogative AdverbInterrogative Adverbs asks about an action. (Why, where, when, how) Example: Why is he late? How did you come?

(7)

Relative AdverbSuch words which show relationship between nouns and connect one sentence to another sentence are called Relative adverb.

Example:1. 2.

I visited the house where he lived. This is the reason why I left school.

(6)

PrepositionA preposition is a word that shows the relationship of a Noun or Pronoun to some other words in sentence.

Example:1. 2. 3. 4.

The goat grazes in the field. She is going to Bazar. The books are on the table. She is looking at the kid.

(7)

ConjunctionA Conjunction is a word used to join the two statements, words or phrases.

Example: Two and two make four.

Kinds of Conjunctions1. 2. 3.

Co-ordinating Conjunctions Co-relative Conjunctions Sub-ordinationg Conjunctions

(1)

Co-ordinating ConjunctionsCo-ordinating conjunctions connect words or word groups which are equally important. The most common co-ordinating conjunction are and, but, for, nor & or.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2Example: They had hoped to break up their group, but their fans forced then to stay.

(2)

Co-relative ConjunctionsSuch conjunctions which are used in pairs are called Co-relative conjunctions.

Example: He is not only a teacher but also a good poet.

(3)

Sub-ordinationg ConjunctionsSuch conjunctions which join one dependant clause to another independent clause for its full meaning are called sub-ordinating conjunctions. Such as after, if, unless, where, when, though, till, while, before, because, that, as, lost etc.

Example:1. 2.

We enjoy when its cloudy. I hope you if you want.

(8)

InterjectionSuch words or phrases which are used to express some sudden feelings, emotions, pleasure, sorrow, surprise, desire and exclamation are called Interjection.

Example:1. 2. 3.

Alas! His father died in accident. (Sorrow) Hurrah! We won the match. (Joy) Would that I were doctor! (Desire)

ARTICLES Articles are used to highlight the noun. There are two types of articles i.e. Definite & Indefinite article. Articles are used only before nouns. Indefinite articles always come before singular nouns. Indefinite Articles are A & An. A:- It is used before a noun which starts with Consonant Sound i.e. a boy, a table a city etc.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2An:-It is used before a noun which starts with Vowel Sound intelligent, an easy question etc. Definite Article is The It is used; 1. With names of Gulfs, Rivers, Seas, Oceans, Groups of Islands, and the Red Sea, The Indian Ocean, The Indus an

Mountains-ranges, deserts; as, The Persian Gulf, The Sahara 2. Before names of certain books, especially Holy Book; as, The Quran Ramayana 3. Before the name of Nations; examples The Americans Balochs 4. Before the titles examples The President, The The Pakistanis The Greeks The The Bible The Illiad The

P.M, The Admiral 5. West 6. Before Seasons: example: The Summer The spring 7. Post 8. Before musical instrument; example: He can play the flute Before Newspapers: example: The Pakistan Times The News The Frontier The Winter The Autumn Before Directions; examples: The East, The North, The

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 29. Before nouns of Natural objects, The earth moves around the sun, The Sky 10. With Ordinals; as, He was the first man to arrive. The ninth chapter of the book is very interesting 11. With superlatives; as, The best easiest question 12. When a singular noun is meant to represent a whole class; as, The cow is useful animal. The cat loves comfort. kind of a tree Note: Man & Woman used in general sense to denote the whole class never takes article 13. Before a proper noun only when it is qualified by an adjective or a The great Caesar 14. The immortal Shakespeare The banyan is The worst The most important The The Mars, The Jupiter

defining adjectival clause; as,

As an Adverb with Comparative; as, The more they get, the more they want.

15.

When we speak of a particular person or thing, or one already The book you want is out of print I dislike The fellow

referred to; as,

OMISSION OF THE ARTICLE The Article is omitted---

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 21. Egypt. 2. Usually before Proper noun; as, Dehli is the capital of India and scientist. 3. Before Abstract noun used in general sense; as, Wisdom is the gift of heaven Honesty is odious Note:- An Abstract noun when it is qualified by an Adjective, Adjectival pharase or clause, my have the article; as, The wisdom of Hazrat Ali is famous treated me 4. Before Languages, we are studying English. I like Spanish 5. as, I learnt French at school. We go to church on Sunday. in bed till nine every morning. Notes: The is used with these words when we refer to them as a definite place, building or object rather than to the normal activity that goes on there; as, The school is very near on my home broken 6. Before the name of relations Like Father, Mother, Aunt, etc I met him at the church The be is He stays Before School, College, Church, Bed, Table, Hospital, Market, I cant forget the kindness with which he Newton was a great philosopher Before the name of materials; as, Gold is the precious stone Cotton grows in India, America and

Prison, When these places are visited or used for their primary purpose;

A-CONFUSING WORD PAIRS

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2Q.1 1. Choose the correct word for each space and fill in the blank: Misused (badly, wrongly used) (a) (b) 2. They complained that the new law had been ___________ to individual liberties. The goods were stored in a ___________ cinema. suppress

Unreadable (too boring or too badly written to read) Illegible (physically impossible to read) (a) (b) After years of being exposed to the sun and rain, the sign I think her novels are __________. The style is awful and the ridiculous. over the shop had become completely _____________. plots are

3.

Dependent (depending) Dependant (person who depends on another for home, money, food) (a) (b) You are entitled to receive a government allowance for is living with you. The empire consisted of the kingdom and all its ________ each_________ who colonies.

4.

Story (tale, plot) Storey (floor or level in bilding) (a) (b) I live in a flat on the seventh __________. Ill tell you a ___________.

5.

Historic (important in history) Historical (concerning history) (a) She likes _____________ novels, especially romances set in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2(b) 6. In 1945 there was a _________ meeting of world leaders which changed the courses of world events. Immigration (coming into a country to settle) Emigration (leaving a country to settle elsewhere) (a) (b) If we dont restrict___________ into this country, the services will be intolerable. were hard in Britain, there was very and Canada. When times pressure on our social

large__________ Australia 7.

Draft (rough preliminary version, to make a rough preliminary version) Draught (i: current of cold air in a room bottles, straight from the barrel (a) (b) Dont sit there youll be in a ________. The window doesnt The prime Minister discussed with his secretary the _______ close properly. of the speech he was going to make the following day. ii: beer, not in

8.

Dissatisfied (discontented, displeased, not satisfied with quality) Unsatisfied (unsatisfied with quantity) (a) (b) down. (c) Demand for the new car is still ___________ in spite of an production. increase in He ate a meal large enough for three normal people but his still__________. Im very __________ with this computer. It keeps breaking appetite was

9.

Suit (be suitable for) Suite (group of things belonging together, set) (a) (b) For the living-room we can either buy a complete ________ Do you think a dark brown overcoat would ________ me? of matching furniture or get different items separately.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 210. License (document giving official permission to do something, noun) License (to give a license, verb) (a) (b) 11. The annual ___________ for a colour television set in Britain over 60. The authorities refused to ________ him to export arms. now costs

Prophecy (prediction, noun) Prophesy (predict, verb) (a) job. (b) I will make a _____________. There will be a new government in less than a year. I ______________ that he will pas his exam and get a good

12.

Device (new invention, means of doing something, noun) Devise (invent, verb) (a) (b) A __________ can be attached to a private telephone which He managed to _________ a system of bonus payments to working staff. ii. Aim, ambition) keeps a record of al calls made and their cost. encourage har-

13.

Goal (i. point won in football etc. Goal (prison, send to prison) (a) (b) (c) (d)

He scored the winning __________ of the match. He spent eight years in __________ for armed robbery. She finally achieved her _________ of becoming directress of The judge said that he had no option but to _______ her.

the firm.

14.

Enquiries (request for information) Inquiries (formal investigation) (a) (b) You should make _________ at the office. Official _________ are always held after plane crashes.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 215. Exhausting (very tiring) Exhaustive(very thorough, complete) (a) (b) (c) The older member of the group found the long journey He never stops talking. Hes an________ person to be with. The police carried out an_____ investigation, but the missing quite________.

woman was never found.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 216. Disinterested (impartial) Uninterested (not interested, bored, apathetic) (a) (b) (c) Only 22% of the people voted. The rest were totally The management and the union asked a completely _______. _________party to was too busy or 17. mediate between them. just ______________.

I dont know why he didnt go to the exhibition. Perhaps he

Council (district government) Counsel (i. kind of lawyer in court (a) (b) people on their condition of the careers. pavements. ii. To advise) The job of Vocational Guidance Officer is to _______ young I have complained to the local _______ about the poor

18.

Councilor (member of council) Counselor (advisor) (a) (b) She and her husband often argued, so they went to marriage for help. ____________. Hes always been interested in local government. Now hes _____________ been elected

19.

Dairy (i. place where mild I kept, butter, cheese etc. made; shop selling milk products ii. Related to milk products) Diary (daily record of events) (a) (b) He kept a _________ from the age of 15 to 21. Were still waiting fro mild deliveries from

the______________.

Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 220. Compliment (to praise, piece of praise) Complement (go together or combine well, add to) (a) (b) (c) (d) He lacks confidence and she is a strong person. They He paid her a nice _________ no her new dress. Id like to ___________ you on your performance. It was Weight-lifting gives strength. Running increases stamina. The _________ each other. ___________ each other very well.

excellent. two exercises