Engaging learners through questioning and feedback. The study in context. This study looked at how interactive classrooms operate and the strategies teachers employ to support pupils shared and individual learning e.g. through the use of reasoning skills, exploration and discussion. . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Effective Classroom Interaction: use of questions and feedback to generate discussion
Engaging learners through questioning and feedback
1The study in context This study looked at how interactive classrooms operate and the strategies teachers employ to support pupils shared and individual learning e.g. through the use of reasoning skills, exploration and discussion.
2Feedback strategies teachers used to create interactive classroomsIn literacy and numeracy lessons teachersbuilt on and extended pupils responsesencouraged pupils to feedback to each otherused pupils input to shape lessons
3Techniques for building on pupils responses to establish dialogueTeachers used prompts such as oh, ooh, ah, gave opinions and drew on personal experiences, e.g.Pupil: Ehm, its a guitar with laser stringsits for teenagers that actually know how to play the guitarTeacher: Ah, now I have to say I think thats going to appeal to people who play guitar. I know my sister plays the guitar, it drives her mad every time the strings break
4Encouraging pupils to feedback to each other
Teachers invited pupils to respond to each others answers for example:- Teacher: Ok ready three, two, one, show me, brilliant, [pupils name] read it out for me please.- pupil: Fourfour hundred and twenty thousand.- Teacher: [pupil] thinks shes got four hundred and twenty thousand, anybody want to disagree?
5Drawing on pupils input to shape lessons Teachers actively engaged pupils in developing the lesson for example- pupil: You could rotate it [a shape] and then that would fit.- Teacher: Ooh rotate it then- pupil: Ok, ehm right [laughs]... pause as pupil tries to draw rotated shape- Teacher: It is a bit tricky isnt it? Can you on the whiteboards in front of you try and rotate the shape? [teacher opens the task to the whole class]
6How did teachers use open questions to stimulate discussion?Teachers used open questions which invited multiple answers and encouraged pupils to discuss and negotiate a final answer for exampleTeacher: Ok what things are important in instructions? If we were going to write a checklist for when I do this with my class next year, what things would you say to them? What would have to be in your instructions?
7How did teachers use closed questions to stimulate interaction?Effective teachers used closed questions to extend pupils analysis and draw in others responses, -e.g. the teacher is explaining that multiplying by 100 is the same as multiplying by 10 and then 10 again, a pupil asked the following commented:- pupil: You know when you times it by 20, you do two 10s.Teacher: No, think carefully its not two 10s is it, its 1 times 10 and then you?- pupil: Double it.Teacher: Do you see where you went wrong there?
8Who were the pupils in the study?The researchers observed and analysed teacher-pupil interaction in 213 primary literacy and numeracy lessons (114 Year 5 literacy and numeracy lessons in 2003, and 99 Year 5 and 6 lessons in 2004)
9How was the information gathered?The researchers observed and analysed classroom interactions over a two year periodThey used handheld computers and video to record lessons They selected five literacy and five numeracy lessons that showed the most interaction to investigate teacher behaviours in more detail
10How can teachers use this evidence?The study found that teachers played a key part in creating and maintaining discussion that makes learning visible. How do you use dialogue in your lessons to promote explicit discussion about learning? Can you think of a lesson where your pupils had a good discussion about the learning taking place?What role did you play in helping those discussions?Are there any particular effective strategies you used that you would use again?
11How can school leaders use this evidence?The study found that some teachers were effective in stimulating discussion in their classrooms and others less so. How effective are staff in your school in exploiting the potential of interactive teaching and learning? Do you have staff members who are effective promoters of classroom dialogue? Could you engage them in coaching other staff who are trying to develop in this area?
Follow-up readingStudy reference: Smith, H. & Higgins, S. Opening classroom interaction: the importance of feedback (2006) Cambridge Journal of Education Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 485-502 The TLAs Research for Teachers (RfT) website presents a number of research summaries that cover relevant fields of interest such as dialogue and AfL. The RfTs can be found at: http://www.tla.ac.uk/site/Pages/RfT.aspx