Emergent Literacy within the Balanced Literacy Framework:. Definitions, Stages, Strategies. Definition of Emergent Literacy:. Marie Clay first used this term to describe literacy development during a stage in which children imitate and experiment with the forms and functions of print. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Emergent Literacy within the Balanced Literacy Framework:
Emergent Literacy within the Balanced Literacy Framework:Definitions, Stages, Strategies
Definition of Emergent Literacy:Marie Clay first used this term to describe literacy development during a stage in which children imitate and experiment with the forms and functions of print.
Words Their Way, p.86Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, JohnstonTeaching the Emergent Reader within the Balanced Literacy FrameworkA primary theory behind the Balanced Literacy Framework is that children can learn. If they are not learning, the teaching needs to be evaluated and adjusted. Children need to learn to be strategic thinkers who have a repertoire of problem solving skills when encountering new vocabulary, syntax or ideas.Balanced Literacy 1. Understanding the purpose of literacy 2. Hear written language 3. Become aware of the sounds of language 4. Have many experiences working with written symbols 5. Explore words and learn how words work 6. Learn the conventions of print and how books work 7. Read and write continuous text to expand their knowledge about letters, words, sounds, and language 8. Become a strategic readerAdapted from http://www.primaryteachers.org/balanced_literacy.htmSpelling StagesEmergent: Confuse words and drawings, use letter-like forms or random letters.
Letter-Name: Substitute the letter of the alphabet that sounds the most like the sound.
Within-Word: Confusing long vowel patterns but blends and diagraphs in place.Bear, D., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S. Johnston , F. (2006). Words Their Way, Upper Saddle River: Pearson, Prentice Hall, pp. 11, 14, 16.
Reading Characteristics in the Pre-alphabetic StagePre-alphabetic phaseRead books using picture cuesRecognize selective cues in words such as an initial consonant or OO in LookRecognize logos such as McDonaldsRecognize own nameSemantically appropriate but orthographically inappropriate errorsIncreasing knowledge of different kinds of texts
Adapted from Words Their Way, p. 17 and Brown, K. (2003). What do I say when they get stuck on a word? The Reading Teacher 56(8), 720-723. Reading and Writing Activities for the Emergent StageRead to students and encourage oral language activities. Model writing using dictations and chartsEncourage pretend reading and writingAlphabet activitiesFinger pointing to wordsEncourage invented spellingRhymes, dictations, simple pattern booksWord WallsCharts with schedules & names of kidsTeach high frequency words
Adapted from Bear, D., Invernezzi, M., Templeton, S. & Johnston, F. (2008). Words Their Way. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall, p.22.
Reading Characteristics in the Partial Alphabetic StageAlso called early Letter-Name AlphabeticUse context clues and context cluesUses names of letters for spellingNeed to vocalize when readingUnderstand idea of systematic matches between sound and lettersOvercame hurdle of matching stream of language to individual words and soundsOrthographically incorrect errorsAdapted from Words Their Way, p. 17 and Brown, K. (2003). What do I say when they get stuck on a word? The Reading Teacher 56(8), 720-723.
Reading and Writing Activities in the Letter Name StageReading of lots of predictable text.Simple rhymesRecord and re-read individuals dictationsWord sorts of word familiesPersonal readersPersonal word banksWord hunts in favorite booksLabel pictures and diagramsBear, D., Invernezzi, M., Templeton, S. & Johnston, F. (2008). Words Their Way. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall, p.22.List of Initial High Frequency Words for Kindergarten ReadersChilds nameI come me onTo like up weA see this andIs the look goIn my at hereAm can
Concepts of Print Advanced by Marie ClayChildren need to grasp:Top to bottom and left to rightOrientation of textThe correct formation of lettersClusters are called wordsFirst letters and last letters in a wordUppercase and lowercase lettersSpacing of wordsPunctuation marksAdapted from Joy Drzyzga, Aperil H. Sellers, Sam Simon fromhttp://www.coe.uga.edu/epltt/impaticas/concepts--print-script.pdfCategorization Activity1)Take the characteristics provided about three early stages of literacy of phonemic awareness and sort into three developmentally appropriate groups of emergent, beginning early and late early. Discuss.2)Take the characteristics provided about three early stages of literacy of phonological awareness and sort into three developmentally appropriate groups of emergent, beginning early and late early. Discuss.
McGill-Franzens Adaptation of Concepts of Print
Emergence of WritingThe following four slides from Anne McGill-Franzens Kindergarten Literacy (2006) illustrate progressive growth in a childs writing over the course of a year. It is important to document these efforts through samples for a portfolio. McGill-Franzen provide a rubric for scoring work: drawing, copied or random letters, name only, words, sentences, and text.Evolution of Emergent Writing
Evolution to Words
Evolution to Sentences
Evolution to Text
Activity: Discuss whether the writing sample in Slide 13 Evolution to Text demonstrates end of year proficiency. (From Dorn & Soffos)Generates topic for writing with or without teacher assistance.Uses ABC chart, letter book and name chart to support sound to letter match.Uses spaces between words consistently.Writes more letters with correct formation.Edits by crossing out letters.Hears and records most consonant letter sounds and some easy to hear vowels.Changes over Time in Writing Behaviors from Dorn and SoffosEmergent BehaviorsBeginning EarlyLate EarlyGenerates topic with teacher assistanceGenerates topics across genres w/o teacherDemonstrates an understanding of authors purposeOrganizes ideas prior to draftingDraws pictures of key ideas on writing paperOrganizes ideas and narrows focusPlans writing by drawing pictures or symbols in journal that represents an event or several loosely linked eventsPlans simple recount by drawing pictures to represent key ideasUses a writing guidePlans recount by using words or phrases
Plans informational writing by drawing pictures or symbolsPlans informational explanatory writing by drawing picturesPlans and sorts information into categories
Plans persuasive piece by drawing pictures or symbolsPlans persuasive piece by drawing and discussing opinion on an idea or topicPlans persuasive piece by taking a stance on an idea or topicRehearse message orally with teacherRehearses message orally with teacher or peerRehearses message orallyKey Components of Balanced LiteracyRunning records--evaluate, evaluate, evaluateIndependent readingGuided Reading GroupLeveled BooksWord SortsHolistic approach to the teaching of writingTeach strategic thinking about readingExample of a Running Record
Leveled TextsA key component of Balanced Literacy in the Anderson County elementary setting is the use of leveled texts. Students progress through the texts as they gain more and more strategies for reading independently. Kindergarten students begin at a Level A (few words inferred by pictures) and progress to Level B (phrases heavily repeated and strong support from the illustrations) usually by the end of the year. See following slide (McGill-Franzen, p. 106).Emergent to Fluent Reading Process Behaviors
Directions: Categorize the characteristics in the envelope into three groups: Level A-CLevel D-E Level F-G
Word SortsStudents categorize words with similar orthographic or conceptual features into groups.Advantages of active learning, synthetic approach, and increased exposure to the number of examples of words from the same family.Picture and concept sorts useful for the emergent stage.Bear, D., Invernezzi, M., Templeton, S. & Johnston, F. (2008). Words Their Way. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice HallMini-Lessons Barrentine describes successful mini-lessons as having the following characteristics: relevance and timeliness, time limited, child-centered materials, quality of teacher talk. The mini-lesson should be pertinent to what the students need to know now in order to become more effective readers. The mini-lesson should be a regular part of the classroom routine and should be short, no more than seven minutes. The discussion should be based on examples from a few books that the children appreciated. The teacher should use the mini-lesson to clearly describe the purpose of the lesson, demonstrate the procedure or strategy, and link the information to the students work.
Barrentine, S. (1995). Reading mini-lessons: An instructional practice for meaning centered reading programs. Insights into Open Education 27 (1), 1-12. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED386702.pdf
Guided ReadingChildren are grouped flexibly based on strengths. A running record is taken of one child every day to monitor progress. Groups change often in response to skill acquisition.
Other benefits of guided reading:
Reading strategies are strengthened as the students are engaged in a particular story.As the teacher introduces the story children learn about cueing, predicting, and monitoring.Younger students learn about tracking following the print word-by-word and left to right.Assessing prior knowledge strengthens comprehension.Students can practice recognizing sight words.Students learn the skill of predicting and inferring meaning.Capitalization and punctuation concepts are reinforced.Students learn about sequencing of the story the setting, characters, and beginning, middle and the end of the text.Students have the opportunity to practice self-correction.
Steps to Effective Guided ReadingWhat are the elements of a guided reading lesson?
You introduce the text to the students in a brief conversation about the meaning, language, and features of the text. During this conversation you clarify some of the language or provide other vital information students will need to process the text with understanding, explain a few difficult words or concepts, and help the children notice a few important words. You then turn the text over to the students to read for themselves.Each student reads the text (or a unified part of the text) softly or silently to himself or herself. You "listen in" to individuals and sometimes interact to support reading. After reading, you and the students discuss the meaning of the text and revisit the text as necessary. You may have explicit teaching points based on what you observed as students processed the text.(Optional) You may wish to extend students' understanding of the text through writing, drawing, diagrams (graphic organizers), extended discussion, partner discussion, readers theater, etc.(Optional) You may want to engage children in one or two minutes of preplanned "word work" using magnetic letters, individual whiteboards, writing paper, a chart, or other ways of displaying and illustrating principles. This work builds automaticity and flexibility in solving words and word parts.
http://www.fpblog.heinemann.com/category/balanced-literacy.aspxTeacher Prompts for Strategic ReadingPoint to first letter and ask Sound?.With blends, Say it fast! or Keep your motor running!Try another way.Finish the sentence and guess the word.Does that make sense? Break the word into parts and pronounce each one.Point to the parts of the word and ask the readers to decode each one.What key word do you see?Adapted from Brown, K. (2003)What do I say when they get stuck on a word? The Reading Teacher 56(8), 720-723.Reciprocal Reading and TeachingReciprocal teaching can be used to teach students how to use the strategies of predicting, clarifying, generating questions, and summarizing.
Phase 1: Introduce strategy.Phase 2: Fishbowl: some students engage in RTPG & teacher facilitatesPhase 3: all students participate in RTPG groups & report responses to the teacherPhase 4: Independent practicehttp://www.readingrockets.org/article/40008/
Repeated Reading for Fluency With this strategy, the student at the Letter Name Alphabetic stage or above reads a 100 word passage over until a certain level of pre-determined proficiency is reached while the teacher is taking a running record of the errors. The text should be at the high end of the students instructional level (95 to 97% word recognition).Other Fluency TechniquesChoral Reading: The class and teacher read together. (emergent)Echo Reading: The students read a sentence after the teacher. (L/N)Readers Theatre: Students take a role and practice it for rehearsal. (L/N)More Fluency TechniquesFluency Oriented Reading Instruction: Teacher reads and discusses.Echo readingAssign students to read at homeRead passage the next day with a partnerDirect Teaching:Similar except the teacher divides the passage into parts and assigns each student a part to practice to mastery.Stahl, S. (2003). No more madfaces: Motivation and fluency development with struggling readers. In N. Duke, V. Bennett-Armistead. & E. Roberts (Eds.), Literacy and Young Children (pp.195-209). New York: The Guildford Press.
Convincing Struggling ReadersMatthew Effect: The rich get richer and the poor get poorer.
When you ask struggling readers about why they are not succeeding, they are more likely to say they are dumb than that the task is difficult (Stahl, p. 196). Children who are struggling to learn to read can develop a sense of failure and learned helplessness by as early as the middle of first grade even though as many as 44% of tested fourth graders could not read fluently according to the National Association of Educational Progress (NAEP, 1995).Stahl, S. (2003). No more madfaces: Motivation and fluency development with struggling readers. In N. Duke, V. Bennett-Armistead. & E. Roberts (Eds.), Literacy and Young Children (pp.195-209). New York: The Guildford Press.
Convincing Struggling ReadersStruggling readers need practice with challenging texts and powerful concepts and grade level vocabulary instead of work in easy, simplified materials (Stahl, p. 202).Teachers need to work to provide scaffolding for these students, so they can be successful (Stahl, p. 197).
Convincing Struggling ReadersAnother important means of empowering the struggling reader is through thematic units where a variety of texts are provided at different reading levels on a certain topic. The struggling readers can become familiar with the vocabulary through access to the simpler texts and then move on to the more challenging. They are included as members of the reading community, not isolated according to a pecking order (Stahl, p. 198). This is also called an inquiry group.Convincing Struggling ReadersGraph on-going progress for students to see.Allow students to act as Buddy Readers for younger students (Stahl, p. 201...