Emergent Literacy Reading and writing behaviors that precede and develop into conventional literacy
Emergent literacy learners Can be any age! Refers not just to reading print also refers to beginning understandings about writing
Reading, writing, speaking, and listening abilities develop concurrently and interrelatedly, rather than sequentially. The functions of literacy are as integral to literacy learning as the forms. Children learn written language through active engagement with their world. Koppenhaver, Coleman, Kalman, &Yoder, 1991 Key points to remember:
Literacy development is best fostered when reading and writing are functional, purposeful, and goal-directed (p. 40, Koppenhaver et al., 1991).
A Framework to Develop Early Literacy: Instructional activities & approaches to use in your classroom Create a literacy/oral language rich environment Read aloud SharedShared reading (re-readings) guidedUtilize guided reading activities independentProvide opportunities for independent reading sharedUse shared writing with your students interactiveEngage in interactive writing Utilize Writers Workshop independentProvide opportunities for independent writing Teach letters, words, and How they work
Print AwarenessPhonological AwarenessOral Language Print Book conventions Awareness of graphic symbols Letter identification Writing Letter-sound correspondence Single sounds/ letters Words Perception & memory for sounds Environmental sounds Words Phrases Phonemes Word awareness Words Phonological skills Rhyming Alliteration Blending Segmentation Vocabulary Words & sentences Narrative skills Narrations of real events Books Narrations of fictional story Literate discourse Conversations Categorical organization Decontextualization Interpretive/analytic discourse Early Literacy & Language Behaviors and Concepts (OConnor, Notari-Syverson, & Vadasy, 2001)
Predictable Books Use rhyme, repetition of words, phrases, sentences and refrains, and such patterns as cumulative structure, repeated scenes, familiar cultural sequences, interlocking structure and turn-around plots.
Kinds of Predictable Books Chain or Circular Story (e.g., If You Give a Mouse) Plot is interlinked so that the ending leads back to the beginning. Cumulative Story (e.g., This is the House that Jack Built) Each time a new event occurs, all previous events in the story are repeated. Familiar Sequence (e.g., Today is Monday) Organized by recognizable theme, such as: Days of Week, etc. and Numbers Pattern Stories (e.g, Three Billy Goats Gruff) Scenes are repeated with some variation. Question and Answer (e.g., Brown Bear, Brown Bear) The same or similar questions are repeated throughout the story. Repetition of Phrase (Goodnight Moon) Word order in a phrase or sentence is repeated. Rhyme Rhyming words, refrains, or patterns are used throughout the story. Songbooks Familiar songs with predictable elements, such as repetitive phrase.
Picture Books interplay of narrative and illustration is fundamental to the book as a whole 32 pages is standard (though titles can be 24-48 pages) Illustrations dominate text Illustrations integrate with the narrative to bring story to a satisfying conclusion. Word count is generally less than 500 words. Although picture books can have over 2000 words or have none at all, as is the case with wordless picture books. Overall design serves to build a relationship between the text and the illustrations, this includes the front matter, back matter, and the book jacket
Picture BooksPicture Books: not just for young children!
Wordless Books "stories without words, wordless picture books convey meaning through the illustrations
Middle Passage: White Ships, Black Cargo Chronological still portrait of the slave trade. Tom Feelings' images are graphic yet beautiful, cruel and realistic, uplifting but heartbreaking. The absence of words intensified the images on the pages by letting them speak for themselves. Amazon.com
Some Ways to use Wordless Books To develop knowledge about print (early literacy skills) To develop language skills For readers in later stages, to develop understanding of story details, carefully consider all story elements, and more clearly understand how text is organized so that a story develops. To facilitate and enhance development of content knowledge To teach concepts and vocabulary; enrich understanding about a concept To facilitate creative writing
Guided Story Telling (Adapted from Katims, 2000) The purpose of Guided Story Telling using wordless books is to: Develop background knowledge Facilitate listening and oral language skills Develop vocabulary Teach use of pictures cues Enhance creativity and have fun!
Guided Story Telling Select a wordless picture book Encourage students to develop a narrative about the pictures start by modeling this for the first few pictures... Students can write the story line they are developing on post-its and place on each page Use prompts such as and then...; when suddenly..., finally... Look for teachable moments to stop and discuss new concepts and vocabulary
Follow-up Activities Let the students read their favorite wordless books to a partner or to younger children. Plan an activity in which small groups of students use a camera to take pictures and create their own picture books. Publish these and put them in the classroom library for children to read during SSR. After students have practiced, let them dictate or write down the narratives they have constructed for the picture books. Mysteries of Harris Burdick http://www.lafsd.k12.ca.us/people/smoe/ http://www.lafsd.k12.ca.us/people/smoe/ Work with the SL/P to develop topics for books and to develop other related activities.
Small Group Work Get into groups of no more than 3 students. Each group will create a story line for a wordless picture book. Every group member must have an active role in this activity. Read through the book together first. Discuss ideas, and then develop a story line to go along with the illustrations. Write the text for each page on post-its and attach to the pages. yourDiscuss within your group how you would use/modify this activity in your classroom.
Next Week (9/26) Examine Word Recognition Instruction: Automatic word recognition Read Chapter 4: pp. 54-62 in your text (Copeland & Keefe) Heller (2001) Chapter 10 Consider What is your earliest memory of learning to read????